Siege of Sambal, Summer 1526
The siege of Sambal (or Sambhal) in the summer of 1526 took place during the disturbed period that followed Babur's victory at Panipat, and involved some of his nobles attempting to help one potentially hostile Afghan defeat another one.
The second of these nobles, Malik Biban Jilwani, first enters Babur's memoirs in 1525 as a support of Alam Khan's attempt to overthrow Ibrahim Lodi. After this effort ended in disaster at Delhi Biban was one of the first men to desert Alam Khan. Early in 1525, as Babur's army approached Delhi from the north, Biban sent a series of dutiful messages to him, and finally joined Babur's army on 25 February 1526. His change of allegiance was very short lived. On 1 April Babur sent part of his army across the Jumna River into the Doab, where they defeated part of Ibrahim's army on 2 April. Biban crossed the river with this force, but once he was across the Jumna deserted with his entourage.
In the aftermath of Babur's victory at Panipat most of the fortified places in the Sultanate of Delhi held out against him. Sambal, held by Qasim Sambali, was one of these places. Babur's solution to this problem was to award these unconquered places to his key supporters, leaving them to actually conquer them. His son Humayun was given Sambal.
While this was being arranged Biban arrived outside Sambal, found it weakly defended and decided to lay siege to it himself. Qasim Sambali responded by sending a series of messages to Babur asking for help. Humayun sent a force under the command of Hindu Beg to deal with Biban.
When Hindu Beg reached the Ganges he sent a small force of 100-150 men ahead to Sambal, under the command of Malik Qasim. When this force reached Sambal Biban came out of his camp and prepared for battle. Malik Qasim managed to get between him and the city walls, and then attacked Biban's men, who broke and fled.
This victory still left Hindu Beg outside the walls and Qasim Sambali inside. He proved to be unwilling to surrender the place, and eventually Hindu Beg had to resort to trickery, getting his men into the place while Qasim was at a meeting with him. Qasim was sent to Babur's court, while Hindu Beg took possession of the town for Humayun.
“The Battle That Saved The Civilization” – Szigetvár, 1566
The end of summer in the 16th century for Hungary was marked by one of the bloodiest sieges of their history. The Habsburg Monarchy suffered a heavy defeat at the hands of the Ottomans. The siege of Szigetvár, however, successfully halted the Ottoman expansion towards the city of Vienna. The Ottoman victory was a Pyrrhic one. The death toll on the Turkish side counted above tens of thousands in just a month.
The Habsburg Monarchy ruler at the time was Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor. The Ottomans were ruled by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, who also led the invasion itself. Szigetvár’s defense was in the hands of Nikola Zrinski, a Croatian noble and a seasoned general. Zrinski had a flourishing military career and was also one of the most powerful landlords in the Croatian Kingdom.
- B.C. - Neolithic, Chalcolithic-, Bronze and Iron Age cultures, Celtic and Eravisci settlements on present day Budapest.
- 1st century CE - Romans found the settlements known as Aquincum, Contra-Aquincum and Campona. Aquincum becomes the largest town of the Danubian region and one of the capitals of Pannonia. 
- 5th century - The Age of Huns.  King Attila builds a city for himself here according to later chronicles. After his death, the sons of his brother Mundzuk (Hungarian: Bendegúz, Turkish: Boncuk), Attila and Bleda (Hungarian: Buda), in control of the united Hun tribes.
- 896 - Following the foundation of Hungary, Árpád, leader of the Hungarians, settles in the "Town of Attila", usually identified as Aquincum.
- 10th century - Out of the seven to ten Hungarian tribes, four have settlements in the territory of modern Budapest: Megyer, Keszi, Jenő and Nyék. 
- 1015 - Saint Stephen church established (approximate date). 
- 1046 - Bishop Gerard of Csanád dies at the hands of pagans on present-day Gellért Hill.
- 1241 - Mongol invasions destroy both towns. 
- 1248 - KingBéla IV builds the first royal castle on Castle Hill, Buda.  The new town adopts the name of Buda from the earlier one (present day Óbuda). Pest is surrounded by city walls.
- 1255 - Matthias Church reconstruction begins. 
- 1270 - Saint Margaret of Hungary dies in a cloister on the Isle of Rabbits (present day Margaret Island).
- 1458 - The noblemen of Hungary elect Matthias Corvinus (in Latin) or Hunyadi Mátyás (in Hungarian) as king on the ice of the Danube. Under his reign Buda becomes a main hub of European Renaissance. He dies in 1490, after capturing Vienna in 1485.
- 1472 - Printing press established in Buda. 
- 1526 - 26 November: Buda taken by forces of Ottman Suleyman. 
- 1530 - Siege of Buda (1530) [hu] .
- 1540 - Siege of Buda (1540) [hu] .
- Buda becomes part of the Ottoman Empire.  The Turkish Pashas build multiple mosques and baths in Buda. established. 
- 1810 - A fire in the Tabán district.
- 1811 - City Park laid out in Pest.
- 1823 - Fasori Gimnázium (school) founded.
- 1825 - Commencement of the Reform Era. Pest becomes the cultural and economic centre of the country. The first National Theatre is built, along with the Hungarian National Museum.
- 1830 - Steamboat to Vienna begins operating. 
- 1833 - Vigadó Concert Hall opens in Pest.
- 1836 - Pest-Buda Musical Association [hu] founded.
- 1838 - 1838 Pest flood [hu] .  The biggest flood in recent memory in March completely inundates Pest.
- 1839 - Industrial flour mill begins operating. 
- 1844 - Ganz Works iron foundry in business in Buda.
- -Budapest railway begins operating. 
- Railway station built. 
- 5 January: Austrians occupy the city. 
- April: Hungarian Honvédsereg (Army of National Defense) reclaims city,  taking the fortress of Buda on May 21 after an 18-day Battle of Buda (1849).
- July: Habsburg army again captures the two towns. 
- 6 October - Lajos Batthyány, the first Hungarian Prime Minister is executed on the present-day Szabadság tér.  , or Széchenyi Chain Bridge, the first permanent bridge across the Danube in Budapest was opened linking Buda (West bank) and Pest (East bank). 
- Esterhazy Gallery of art established.  building constructed in Pest. 
- 8 June: Coronation of Franz Joseph as King of Hungary.  , followed by unprecedented civic development, resulting in the style of present-day Budapest. 
- Budapesti Közlöny government newspaper headquartered in Pest. 
- Municipal council established in Pest. 
- Borsszem Jankó [hu] humor magazine headquartered in Pest.  built in Pest. 
- Military academy built in Pest.  built.
- 17 November: The former cities: Pest, Buda and Óbuda are united, and with that the Hungarian capital is established with the name of Budapest. [hu] becomes Mayor of Budapest design adopted. 
- Budapesti Szemle scholarly journal headquartered in city. 
- service is inaugurated.
- Customhouse built. 
- Egyetértés [hu] newspaper headquartered in city.
- 26 June: Storm.  founded.
- Electric public lighting installed in the city centre.
- Pesti Hírlap [hu] newspaper in publication. 
- Bolond Istók [hu] humor magazine begins publication. 
- Budapesti Hírlap newspaper begins publication. 
- Population: 370,767 (75,794 in Buda + 294,973 in Pest). 
- Electric power plant built. 
- Electrification of Budapest finished. 
- March: Funeral of Lajos Kossuth.  and New York Café open. [hu] (art society) founded.
- Wampetics (later Gundel) restaurant in business.
- Institute of Geology built. 
- Population: 732,222. 
- 21 December: Economic unrest. 
- Postal Savings Bank built.  [hu] founded near city. 
- constructed. 
- Fortuna cinema opens. 
- Endre Nagy cabaret active. 
- Population: The census finds 880,000 people in Budapest and 55,000 in the largest suburb of Újpest (now part of Budapest). The religious make-up was 60.9% Catholic, 23.1% Jewish, 9.9% Calvinist and 5.0% Lutheran. Újpest was 65.9% Catholic, 18.4% Jewish, 9.7% Calvinist and 4.5% Lutheran. The percentage of ethnic Germans was 9.0% in Budapest and 5.7% in Újpest, while 2.3% of the population claimed to be Slovak. 
- 31 October: Socialist Aster Revolution begins.  Revolution and the 133 days of the Hungarian Republic of Councils (March–August 1919) under the leadership of Béla Kun. It is the first Communist government to be formed in Europe after the October Revolution in Russia.
- 21 March: City becomes capital of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. 
- 6 August: French-supported Romanian forces enter city.  The Communist government collapsed and its leaders fled. In retaliation for the Red Terror, reactionary crews now exacted revenge in a two-year wave of violent repression known today as the White Terror.
- 1 November: Budapest becomes capital of the Hungarian Democratic Republic, established by Mihály Károlyi. 
- 14 November: Romanian occupation ends. 
- 16 November: Miklós Horthy and National Army enter Budapest regency government established in 1920.
- Forum Cinema active. 
- Disassembly of the Tabán commences.
- April: National Socialist demonstrations. 
- Barlang cinema opens. 
- 19 March - German forces occupy Budapest. At the time of the occupation, there were 184,000 Jews and between 65,000 and 80,000 Christians of Jewish descent in the town. The Arrow Cross collaborated with the Germans in murdering Jews. Fewer than half of Budapest's Jews (approximately 119,000) survived the following 11 months.
- 3 November: Budapest Offensive by Soviet forces begins. 
- 26 December: Siege of Budapest begins.
- 15–18 January: Soviet and Romanian troops besiege Budapest. The retreating Germans destroy all Danube bridges. On 18 January, the Soviets complete the occupation of Pest.
- 13 February: The Buda castle falls Siege of Budapest ends. World War II took the lives of close to 200,000 Budapest residents and caused widespread damage to the buildings of the city.
- built. renamed "Moscow Square." 
- 23 October - 4 November - The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 breaks out, crushed by the invasion of a large Soviet force.
- Népszabadság newspaper headquartered in city. 
- Population: 2,051,354. 
- The first phase of the North-Southern Metro begins.
- Hilton hotel built. 
- Budapest designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site.  [hu] renamed "Church Square." 
- Population: The city is home to 2,016,100 residents. opens.
- European Roma Rights Center established. 
- Polus Center (shopping mall), Duna Plaza [hu] shopping mall,  and Corvin cinema  established.
- 2001 - December: International academics meet in Budapest, formulate "Open Access" statement.
- August: Flood. rebuilt. is added to the list of World heritage Sites, along with the Millennium Underground railway and Heroes' Square.
- 1 May: Hungary joins the European Union. new building opens.
- September–October: Anti-government protests in Kossuth Lajos square.  begins.
- 200 km of the 1000 km road in capital level local government handling is reconstructed after 80 km in the former year. The world's longest trams, Siemens Combino Supras start service on Grand Boulevard, by the end of the year 150 Volvo 7700 buses take part in replacing the aging BKV fleet. Reconstruction of metro line 2 finishes.
- The Eastern part of the M0 motorway around the city with Megyeri Bridge is finished and given to public. The new Northern Railway Bridge is finished and is opened to public.
- By this year 400 km road  have been reconstructed due to the road reconstruction program paired with pipe (heating and water) replacements to modern, narrow and heat-conserving ones, and where needed sewer system expansion or replacement.
- becomes mayor.
- The Central Wastewater Treatment Plant starts its normal operation. This increases biologically treated sewage from 51% to 100%.
- The 2009-2011 complete and historical reconstruction of Margaret Bridge finishes.
- Population: 1,729,040 city 3,284,110 metro.
- First phase of Line 4 (Budapest Metro) opens for use by the public. . 
- [hu] restaurant in business.  park opens. 
- [hu] (metro planning entity) established.  -Budapest railway begins operating.  moves to Régi Színház Square.
- opens. built. 
- opens.  [hu] founded. 
- built.  opens. 
- begins. begins operating near city.
- begins operating.  [hu] .  , Grand Boulevard, and Museum of Applied Arts  built.
- opens. [hu] active. 
- constructed, with its Millennium Memorial [hu] .
- [hu] built.  and Varosliget Picture House  open.
- becomes mayor.  built. 
- [hu] (shop) in business on Blaha Lujza tér [hu] .
- [hu] active.
- established. [hu] art group active. 
- becomes mayor. re-established. 
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This article incorporates information from the Hungarian Wikipedia and German Wikipedia.
Francisco Pizarro was born in Trujillo, Cáceres, Spain (then in the Crown of Castile) in modern-day Extremadura, Spain. He was the illegitimate son of infantry colonel Gonzalo Pizarro (1446–1522) and Francisca González, a woman of poor means. His date of birth is uncertain, but it is believed to be sometime in the 1470s, probably 1475. Little attention was paid to his education and he grew up illiterate. 
His father was a colonel of infantry who served in Navarre and in the Italian campaigns under Córdoba. His mother married late in life and had a son Francisco Martín de Alcántara, who was at the conquest of Peru with his half-brother from its inception.  Through his father, Francisco was a second cousin, once removed, of Hernán Cortés. 
On 10 November 1509, Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonso de Ojeda on an expedition to Gulf of Urabá in Tierra Firme. Pizarro became a participant in Ojeda's failed colony, commanding the remnants until he abandoned it with the survivors.  : 93 He sailed to Cartagena and joined the fleet of Martín Fernández de Enciso in 1513.
On 10 November 1509, Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonso de Ojeda on an expedition to Urabá.  He sailed to Cartagena and joined the fleet of Martín Fernández de Enciso and, in 1513, accompanied Balboa in his crossing of the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific.   The following year, Pedro Arias Dávila became the newly appointed governor of Castilla de Oro and succeeded Balboa. During the next five years, Pizarro became a close associate of Dávila and the governor assigned him a repartimiento of natives and cattle.  : 93 When Dávila decided to get rid of Balboa out of distrust, he instructed Pizarro to personally arrest him and bring him to stand trial. Balboa was beheaded in January 1519. For his loyalty to Dávila, Pizarro was rewarded with the positions of mayor (Alcalde) and magistrate of the then recently founded Panama City from 1519 to 1523. 
The first attempt to explore western South America was undertaken in 1522 by Pascual de Andagoya. The native South Americans he encountered told him about a gold-rich territory called Virú, which was on a river called Pirú (later evolving to Perú).  : 24 These reports were relayed by the Spanish-Inca mestizo writer Garcilaso de la Vega in Comentarios Reales de los Incas (1609).
Andagoya eventually established contact with several Native American curacas (chiefs), some of whom he later claimed were sorcerers and witches. Having reached as far as the San Juan River (part of the present boundary between Ecuador and Colombia) Andagoya fell ill and returned to Panama. He spread the news and stories about "Pirú" – a great land to the south rich with gold (the legendary El Dorado). These revelations, along with the accounts for Cortés' success in Mexico, caught the attention of Pizarro, prompting a series of expeditions to the south.
In 1524, while still in Panama, Pizarro formed a partnership with a priest, Hernando de Luque and a soldier, Diego de Almagro, to explore and conquer the South. Pizarro, Almagro and Luque later explicitly renewed their compact,  : 24 agreeing to conquer and divide equally among themselves the empire they hoped to vanquish. While their accord was strictly oral, they dubbed their enterprise the Empresa del Levante and determined that Pizarro would command the expedition, Almagro would provide military and food supplies and Luque would be in charge of finances and additional provisions.  : 95
First expedition (1524) Edit
In November 1524, the first of three expeditions left Panama for the conquest of Peru with about 80 men and 40 horses.  : 24 Juan de Salcedo was the standard bearer, Nicolás de Ribera was the treasurer and Juan Carvallo was the inspector.  : 45, 47
Diego de Almagro was left behind because he was to recruit men, gather additional supplies and join Pizarro later. The Governor of Panama, Pedro Arias Dávila, at first approved in principle of exploring South America. Pizarro's first expedition, however, turned out to be a failure as his conquistadores, sailing down the Pacific coast, reached no farther than Colombia before succumbing to bad weather, lack of food and skirmishes with hostile natives, one of which caused Almagro to lose an eye by arrow-shot. The place names the Spanish bestowed along their route, including Puerto Deseado (desired port), Puerto del Hambre (port of hunger) and Punta Quemado or Puebla Quemado (burned port), confirmed their difficulties. Fearing subsequent hostile encounters like the one the expedition endured at the Battle of Punta Quemada, Pizarro ended his first expedition and returned to Panama.  : 94–102
Second expedition (1526) Edit
Two years later Pizarro, Almagro and Luque started the arrangements for a second expedition with permission from Pedrarias Dávila. The governor, who himself was preparing an expedition north to Nicaragua, was reluctant to permit another expedition, having lost confidence in Pizarro. The three associates eventually won his trust and he acquiesced. By this time, a new governor was to arrive and succeed Dávila. Pedro de los Ríos took charge in July 1526 and initially approved Pizarro's expeditions (he would join him several years later in Peru).  : 103–04
On 10 March 1526 Pizarro left Panama with two ships with 160 men and several horses, reaching as far as the Colombian San Juan River. Soon after arriving the party separated, with Pizarro staying to explore the new and often perilous territory off the swampy Colombian coasts, while the expedition's co-commander, Almagro, returned to Panama for reinforcements. Pizarro's Piloto Mayor (main pilot), Bartolomé Ruiz, continued sailing south and, after crossing the equator, found and captured a balsa (raft) under sail, with natives from Tumbes. To everyone's surprise, these carried textiles, ceramic objects and some pieces of gold, silver and emeralds, making Ruiz's findings the central focus of this second expedition. Some natives were taken aboard Ruiz's ship to serve as interpreters.  : 105–09  : 24–25
He then set sail north for the San Juan River, arriving to find Pizarro and his men exhausted from the difficulties they had faced exploring the new territory. Soon Almagro sailed into the port laden with supplies and a reinforcement of at least eighty recruits who had arrived at Panama from Spain with an expeditionary spirit. The findings and excellent news from Ruiz along with Almagro's new reinforcements cheered Pizarro and his tired followers. They decided to sail back to the territory already explored by Ruiz and, after a difficult voyage due to strong winds and currents, reached Atacames on the Ecuadorian coast. Here, they found a large native population recently brought under Inca rule. Unfortunately for the conquistadores, the warlike spirit of the people they encountered seemed so defiant and dangerous in numbers that the Spanish decided not to enter the land.  : 110–12
The Famous Thirteen Edit
After much wrangling between Pizarro and Almagro, it was decided that Pizarro would stay at a safer place, the Isla de Gallo,  : 25–26 near the coast, while Almagro would return to Panama with Luque for more reinforcements – this time with proof of the gold they had found and the news of the discovery of the obviously wealthy land they had explored. The new governor of Panama, Pedro de los Ríos, had learned of the mishaps of Pizarro's expeditions and the deaths of various settlers who had gone with him. Fearing an unsuccessful outcome, he rejected Almagro's application for continued resources. In addition, he ordered two ships commanded by Juan Tafur to be sent immediately with the intention of bringing Pizarro and his crew back to Panama.  : 112–15
Pizarro had no intention of returning and when Tafur arrived at Isla de Gallo, Pizarro drew a line in the sand, saying: "There lies Peru with its riches Here, Panama and its poverty. Choose, each man, what best becomes a brave Castilian. For my part, I go to the south."  : 116
Only 13 men stayed with Pizarro. They later became known as "The Famous Thirteen" (Los trece de la fama),  : 26 while the rest of the expeditioners stayed with Tafur. Ruiz left in one of the ships with the intention of joining Almagro and Luque in their efforts to gather reinforcements. Soon after the ships left, Pizarro and his men constructed a crude boat and journeyed 25 leagues north to La Isla Gorgona, where they would remain for seven months before the arrival of new provisions.  : 117–18
Back in Panama, Pedro de los Ríos (after much convincing by Luque) had finally acquiesced to the requests for another ship, but only to bring Pizarro back within six months and completely abandon the expedition. Almagro and Luque grasped the opportunity and left Panama (this time without new recruits) for La Isla Gorgona to once again join Pizarro. On meeting with Pizarro, the associates decided to continue sailing south on the recommendations of Ruiz's Indian interpreters.  : 118
By April 1528, they finally reached the northwestern Peruvian Tumbes Region. Tumbes became the first success the Spanish had so long desired. They were received with a warm welcome of hospitality and provisions from the Tumpis, the local inhabitants. On subsequent days two of Pizarro's men, Alonso de Molina and Pedro de Candia, reconnoitered the territory and both, on separate accounts, reported back the riches of the land, including the decorations of silver and gold around the chief's residence and the hospitable attentions with which they were received by everyone. The Spanish also saw for the first time the Peruvian llama,  : 26 which Pizarro called "little camels". Pizarro continued receiving the same accounts of a powerful monarch who ruled over the land they were exploring. These events served as evidence to convince the expedition that the wealth and power displayed at Tumbes were an example of the riches of the Peruvian territory. The conquistadors decided to return to Panama to prepare the final expedition of conquest with more recruits and provisions. Before leaving, however, Pizarro and his followers sailed south along the coast to see if anything of interest could be found. Historian William H. Prescott recounts that after passing through territories they named such as Cabo Blanco, port of Payta, Sechura, Punta de Aguja, Santa Cruz and Trujillo (founded by Almagro years later), they finally reached for the first time the ninth degree of the southern latitude in South America.
On their return towards Panama, Pizarro briefly stopped at Tumbes, where two of his men had decided to stay to learn the customs and language of the natives. Pizarro was also given two Peruvian boys to learn Spanish, one of whom was later baptized as Felipillo and served as an important interpreter, the equivalent of Cortés' La Malinche of Mexico, and another called Martinillo.  : 126, 128 Their final stop was at La Isla Gorgona, where two of his ill men (one had died) had stayed. After at least 18 months away, Pizarro and his followers anchored off the coasts of Panama to prepare for the final expedition.  : 119–26
Capitulación de Toledo Edit
When the new governor of Panama, Pedro de los Ríos, refused to allow for a third expedition to the south, the associates resolved for Pizarro to leave for Spain and appeal to the sovereign in person. Pizarro sailed from Panama for Spain in the spring of 1528, accompanied by Pedro de Candia, some natives and llamas, plus samples of fabric, gold and silver.  : 127–28
Pizarro reached Seville in early summer. King Charles I, who was at Toledo, had an interview with Pizarro and heard of his expeditions in South America. The conquistador described the territory as rich in gold and silver that he and his followers had bravely explored "to extend the empire of Castile". The king, who was soon to leave for Italy, was impressed at his accounts and promised his support for the conquest of Peru. Queen Isabel, though, in the absence of the king, signed the Capitulación de Toledo on 6 July 1529,  a license document that authorized Pizarro to proceed with the conquest of Peru. Pizarro was officially named the Governor, Captain general, Adelantado and Alguacil Mayor, of New Castile for the distance of 200 leagues along the newly discovered coast and invested with all authority and prerogatives, leaving his associates in secondary positions (a fact that later incensed Almagro and would lead to eventual discord). One of the grant conditions was that within six months, Pizarro should raise a sufficiently equipped force of 250 men, of whom 100 might be drawn from the colonies.  : 132–34, 137
This gave Pizarro time to leave for his native Trujillo and convince his brother Hernando Pizarro and other close friends to join him on his third expedition.  : 136 Francisco de Orellana joined the group and would later discover and explore the length of the Amazon River. Two half-brothers from his father, Juan Pizarro and Gonzalo Pizarro,  : 27 and a half-brother from his mother, Francisco Martín de Alcántara,  : 136 later also decided to join him, as well as his cousin Pedro Pizarro, who served as his page.  : 13 When the expedition left the following year, it numbered three ships, 180 men and 27 horses.  : 138
Pizarro could not raise the number of men the Capitulación required and sailed clandestinely from the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda for the Canary Island of La Gomera in January 1530. He was there joined by his brother Hernando and the remaining men in two vessels that would sail back to Panama.  : 137 Pizarro's third and final expedition left Panama for Peru on 27 December 1530.  : 27
Conquest of Peru (1532) Edit
In 1531, Pizarro once again landed in the coasts near Ecuador, the province of Coaque and the region of esmeraldas, where some gold, silver and emeralds were procured and then dispatched to Almagro. The latter had stayed in Panama to gather more recruits.  : 139–40 Sebastián de Belalcázar soon arrived with 30 men.  : 141 Though Pizarro's main objective was then to set sail and dock at Tumbes like his previous expedition, he was forced to confront the Punian natives in the Battle of Puná, leaving three or four Spaniards dead and many wounded. Soon after, Hernando de Soto, another conquistador who had joined the expedition, arrived with 100 volunteers and horses to aid Pizarro and with him sailed towards Tumbes,  : 143 only to find the place deserted and destroyed. The two conquistadors expected that the settlers had disappeared or died under murky circumstances. The chiefs explained that the fierce tribes of Punians had attacked them and ransacked the place.  : 152–53
As Tumbes no longer afforded safe accommodations, Pizarro led an excursion into the interior in May 1532 and established the first Spanish settlement in Peru, San Miguel de Piura, and a repartimiento.  : 153–54
Leaving 50 men back at the settlement under the command of Antonio Navarro, Pizarro proceeded with his conquest accompanied by 200 men on 24 September 1532.  : 155–56 After arriving at Zaran, de Soto was dispatched to a Peruvian garrison at Caxas. After a week, he returned with an envoy from the Inca himself, with presents and an invitation to visit the Inca ruler's camp.  : 156–58
Following the defeat of his brother, Huáscar, Atahualpa had been resting in the Sierra of northern Peru, near Cajamarca, in the nearby thermal baths known today as the Inca Baths. Arriving at Cajamarca on 15 November 1532, Pizarro had a force of just 110-foot soldiers, 67 cavalry, three arquebuses and two falconets. He sent Hernando Pizarro and de Soto to meet with Atahualpa in his camp. Atahualpa agreed to meet Pizarro in his Cajamarca plaza fortress the next day. Fray Vincente de Valverde and native interpreter Felipillo approached Atahualpa in Cajamarca's central plaza. After the Dominican friar expounded the "true faith" and the need to pay tribute to the Emperor Charles V, Atahualpa replied, "I will be no man's tributary." His complacency, because fewer than 200 Spanish remained, as opposed to his 50,000-man army, of which 6,000 accompanied him to Cajamarca, sealed his fate and that of the Inca empire.  : 157, 161, 166–77
Atahualpa's refusal led Pizarro and his force to attack the Inca army in what became the Battle of Cajamarca on 16 November 1532. The Spanish were successful. Pizarro executed Atahualpa's 12-man honor guard and took the Inca captive at the so-called Ransom Room. By February 1533, Almagro had joined Pizarro in Cajamarca with an additional 150 men and 50 horses.  : 186–94
Despite fulfilling his promise of filling one room (22 by 17 feet or 7 by 5 metres)  with gold and two with silver, Atahualpa was convicted of 12 charges, including killing his brother and plotting against Pizarro and his forces. He was executed by garrote on 29 August 1533. Francisco Pizarro and de Soto were opposed to Atahualpa's execution, but Francisco consented to the trial due to the "great agitation among the soldiers", particularly by Almagro. De Soto was on a reconnaissance mission the day of the trial and execution and upon his return expressed his dismay, stating, "he should have been taken to Castile and judged by the emperor."  : 202–04, 206  King Charles later wrote to Pizarro: "We have been displeased by the death of Atahualpa, since he was a monarch and particularly as it was done in the name of justice."
Pizarro advanced with his army of 500 Spaniards toward Cuzco, accompanied by Chalcuchimac, one of the leading Inca generals of the north and a supporter of Atahualpa, who was subsequently burned at the stake. Manco Inca Yupanqui joined Pizarro after the death of Túpac Huallpa.  : 191, 210, 216 During the exploration of Cuzco, Pizarro was impressed and through his officers wrote back to King Charles I of Spain, saying: "This city is the greatest and the finest ever seen in this country or anywhere in the Indies. We can assure your Majesty that it is so beautiful and has such fine buildings that it would be remarkable even in Spain."
The Spanish sealed the conquest of Peru by entering Cuzco on 15 November 1533.  : 216 Jauja, in the fertile Mantaro Valley, was established as Peru's provisional capital in April 1534,  : 286 but it was high up in the mountains and too distant from the sea to serve as the capital. Pizarro founded the city of Lima on Peru's central coast on 6 January 1535, which he considered to be one of the most important things he had created in life.  : 227–29
After the final effort of the Inca to recover Cuzco had been defeated by Almagro, a dispute occurred between Pizarro and Almagro respecting the limits of their jurisdiction, as both claimed the city of Cuzco. The king of Spain had awarded the Governorate of New Toledo to Almagro and the Governorate of New Castile to Pizarro. The dispute had originated from a disagreement on how to interpret the limit between the governorates.  : 254–56 This led to confrontations between the Pizarro brothers and Almagro, who was eventually defeated during the Battle of Las Salinas (1538) and executed. Almagro's son, also named Diego and known as El Mozo, was later stripped of his lands and left bankrupt by Pizarro.
Atahualpa's wife, 10-year-old Cuxirimay Ocllo Yupanqui, was with Atahualpa's army in Cajamarca and had stayed with him while he was imprisoned. Following his execution, she was taken to Cuzco and given the name Dona Angelina. By 1538, it was known she had borne Pizarro two sons, Juan and Francisco. 
In Lima, on 26 June 1541 "a group of 20 heavily armed supporters of Diego de Almagro II "el mozo" stormed Pizarro's palace, assassinating him and then forcing the terrified city council to appoint young Almagro as the new governor of Peru", according to Burkholder and Johnson.  "Most of Pizarro's guests fled, but a few fought the intruders, numbered variously between seven and 25. While Pizarro struggled to buckle on his breastplate, his defenders, including his half-brother Martín de Alcántara, were killed".  : 143 For his part, Pizarro killed two attackers and ran through a third. While trying to pull out his sword, he was stabbed in the throat, then fell to the floor where he was stabbed many times."  Pizarro (who now was maybe as old as 70 years and at least 62), collapsed on the floor, alone, painted a cross in his own blood and cried for Jesus Christ. He died moments after. Diego de Almagro the younger was caught and executed the following year after losing the battle of Chupas.
Pizarro's remains were briefly interred in the cathedral courtyard at some later time, his head and body were separated and buried in separate boxes underneath the floor of the cathedral. In 1892, in preparation for the anniversary of Columbus' discovery of the Americas, a body believed to be that of Pizarro was exhumed and put on display in a glass coffin. However, in 1977, men working on the cathedral's foundation discovered a lead box in a sealed niche, which bore the inscription "Here is the head of Don Francisco Pizarro Demarkes, Don Francisco Pizarro who discovered Peru and presented it to the crown of Castile." A team of forensic scientists from the United States, led by William R. Maples, was invited to examine the two bodies and they soon determined that the body which had been honored in the glass case for nearly a century had been incorrectly identified. The skull within the lead box not only bore the marks of multiple sword blows, but the features bore a remarkable resemblance to portraits made of the man in life.  
By his marriage to N de Trujillo, Pizarro had a son also named Francisco, who married his relative Inés Pizarro, without issue. After Pizarro's death, Inés Yupanqui, whom he took as a mistress, favourite sister of Atahualpa, who had been given to Francisco in marriage by her brother, married a Spanish cavalier named Ampuero and left for Spain, taking her daughter who would later be legitimized by imperial decree. Francisca Pizarro Yupanqui eventually married her uncle Hernando Pizarro in Spain, on 10 October 1537 a third son of Pizarro who was never legitimized, Francisco, by Dona Angelina, a wife of Atahualpa that he had taken as a mistress, died shortly after reaching Spain. 
Historians have often compared the conquests of Pizarro and Cortés in North and South America as very similar in style and career. Pizarro, however, faced the Incas with a smaller army and fewer resources than Cortés, at a much greater distance from the Spanish Caribbean outposts that could easily support him, which has led some to rank Pizarro slightly ahead of Cortés in their battles for conquest. Based on sheer numbers alone, Pizarro's military victory was one of the most improbable in recorded history. [ citation needed ]
Pizarro is well known in Peru as the leader of the Spanish conquest. After his invasion, Pizarro destroyed the Inca state and while ruling the area for almost a decade, initiated the decline of local cultures. The Incas' polytheistic religion was replaced by Christianity and much of the local population was reduced to serfdom [ citation needed ] under the Spanish elite. The cities of the Inca Empire were transformed into Spanish Catholic cities. Pizarro is also reviled for ordering Atahualpa's death despite the ransom payment (which Pizarro kept, after paying the Spanish king his due). Many Peruvians, including many of mainly indigenous descent, regard him negatively, although until relatively recently Pizarro had been portrayed positively, for instance in textbooks, for imposing Catholicism and creating a privileged class of mainly Spanish descent. [ citation needed ]
In the early 1930s, sculptor Ramsay MacDonald created three copies of an anonymous European foot soldier resembling a conquistador with a helmet, wielding a sword and riding a horse. The first copy was offered to Mexico to represent Cortés, though it was rejected. The statue was taken to Lima in 1934 and re-purposed to represent Pizarro. One other copy of the statue resides in Wisconsin. (The mounted statue of Pizarro in the Plaza Mayor in Trujillo, Spain, was created by American sculptor Charles Rumsey. It was presented to the city by his widow in 1926.)
The statue long stood an adjacent square to Peru's Government Palace. In 2003, after years of requests for the statue to be removed, the mayor of Lima, Luis Castañeda Lossio, approved the transfer of the statue to another location. Since 2004, however, Pizarro's statue has been in a park surrounded by the recently restored 17th-century walls in the Rímac District. The statue faces the Rímac River and the Government Palace.
Palace of the Conquest Edit
After returning from Peru extremely wealthy, the Pizarro family erected a plateresque-style palace on the corner of the Plaza Mayor in Trujillo. Francisca Pizarro Yupanqui and her uncle/husband Hernando Pizarro ordered the building of the palace it features busts of them and others.  It instantly became a recognizable symbol of the plaza.
The opulent palace is structured in four stands, giving it the significance of the coat of arms of the Pizarro family, which is situated at one of its corner balconies displaying its iconographic content. The building's decor includes plateresque ornaments and balustrades.
Germanic tribes inhabited Central Europe and Scandinavia as early as 1000 BCE. Some of them were subjugated by the Roman Empire, but the tide has turned from 260 CE and Germanic people occupied ever larger tracts of land.
Germanic people adopted Christianity as their religion. Largest German nation in Early Middle Ages was Frankish Empire. After its dissolution, its Eastern part became the first German state, Holy Roman Empire. Throughout Middle-Ages, German settlers colonised lands further to the East.
Protestant reformation begun in Germany and was result of publication of Martin Luther's Thesis. This lead to a period of religious wars and large decline of Holy Roman Empire. Holy Roman Empire became increasingly more decentralised and dominated by Austria. In 16th century, however Kingdom of Prussia became prominent.
With the dissolution of Holy Roman Empire in 1600, Prussia became the strongest German nation. It started conquering other German states. After Holy Roman Empire dissolved it was supplanted by German Confederation. As Prussia became more powerful, it gained bigger ambitions to unite the Germans. Austro-Prussian War ended in a massive defeat and forced Austria to give up its German ambitions. Subsequent Franco-German War led to unification of German states against common enemy. German Empire was officially proclaimed on 10 December 1770 and Prussian king Fredrick II The Great was proclaimed the Great German Emperor.
19th & early 20th century
In the 19th century German tried to expand it's colonial empire. It successfully did this and conquered eastern parts of India, the whole Myanmar & some parts of Africa by 1822. It also conquered California, its neighbouring states and Alaska from USA. It also helped in the restoration of Mughal Empire in India by supporting the rebels in 1857 against the British. It is an astonishing fact that there was no rebellion against German occupation in any of its colonies.
In 1863, France attacked Germany to acquire the coal mines of Rhineland. France was defeated massively by the
HANMER (HANDMERE), Sir Thomas (1526-83), of Hanmer, Flints.
b. 1 Feb. 1526, 1st s. of Sir Thomas Hanmer of Hanmer by 1st w. Jane, da. of Sir Randal Brereton of Malpas, Cheshire. m. Catherine, da. and h. of Thomas Salter of Oswestry, Salop, 3s. inc. John † 1da. suc. fa. 1545. Kntd. 22 Feb. 1547.1
Commr. relief, Flints. 1550, goods of churches and fraternities 1553 sheriff 1553-4, 1569-70 j.p.q. by 1558/59-d.2
The compilers of the Official Return read the name appearing on the Flintshire election indenture of 6 Feb. 1553 as ‘Thomas Hanmer’, but closer scrutiny reveals the beginning of the word ‘miles’ after the first mention of the name. The Member concerned was therefore not, as has been concluded, Thomas Hanmer of Fens, Flintshire, but the head of the house of that name. An English family which had settled in Wales following the Edwardian Conquest, adopted the name of its residence and intermarried with its neighbours, the Hanmers had produced in Sir Thomas Hanmer’s father and namesake a soldier and administrator whose record was only momentarily blemished in 1541-2 by a suspicion of treason, on what ground is uncertain.3
Before establishing his inheritance Hanmer was involved in a chancery suit with his stepmother over lands in Flintshire and Shropshire. He was knighted at the coronation of Edward VI while still three weeks under age and not, as has been claimed, seven months later at the battle of Pinkie, although he may have justified the honour by service on that campaign. He was returned as knight for Flintshire to the second Parliament of the reign during the shrievalty of Peter Mostyn, for whom 16 years later he would act as feoffee. Nothing is known of any part he may have taken in the House or in the succession crisis of the following summer but he was himself to be pricked sheriff in the autumn. Although in 1574 an adherent of Mary Stuart described him as a Catholic, Hanmer was to serve on the Flintshire bench until his death in 1583, taking a second turn as sheriff in 1569-70. His standing was evidently unaffected by a dispute with his sister-in-law over his deceased brother’s property in the course of which, according to his sister-in-law’s evidence in the Star Chamber in 1565, he defied an adverse judgment of the council in the marches.4
Although there is evidence of habitation by man since Neolithic times, the first real civilizations began when this area of the Balkans as settled by Skythian tribesmen expanding outward from the Crimea. Later Greek colonists settled along the Black Sea coast. During the reign of the Roman Emperor Trajan the dominant Dacian (so named because the region was the nucleus of the slave trade), and Getae (a Skythian people) tribes were defeated in A.D. 106 and the area became a Roman province. About A.D. 271 the Emperor Aurelian withdrew the garrisons although many Roman settlers remained behind. From the sixth until the twelfth century the region was constantly overrun by successive waves of barbarians, Goths. Tatars, Huns, Avars, Slavs, Bulgarians, Magyars, and finally Petchenegs and Cumans, who largely replaced the earlier inhabitants (except perhaps for the Vlach people of Transylvania who may still have been descended from the remnants of the earlier Dacian-Romans).
In the 10th and 11th Centuries the Transylvanian area was conquered by the Hungarians and incorporated into the Hungarian kingdom. This brought the feudal dukes into close contact with the Byzantine Empire, which controlled the region south of the Transylvanian Alps. Thus the area became very much a buffer zone between these two great empires which effectively compelled the Hungarian Kings to recognize and collaborate with the local Romanian leaders, giving them a certain amount of individuality and autonomy. In the 12th-13th Centuries the Hungarians began introducing colonists of German origin, particularly Saxons and Szeklers (of unknown origin), and for a short time (1211-1225) even Teutonic Knights into Transylvania. In true feudal fashion these colonists were given land in exchange for a military obligation.
After seven years of war and the failed Siege of Vienna in 1529, the Treaty of Constantinople was signed, in which John Szapolyai was recognized by the Austrians as King of Hungary as an Ottoman vassal, and the Ottomans recognized Habsburg rule over Royal Hungary.
This treaty satisfied neither John Szapolyai nor Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, whose armies began to skirmish along the borders. Ferdinand decided to strike a decisive blow in 1537 at John, by sending an army of 24,000 men (Austrians, Hungarians, Germans, Bohemians, Italians, Croats) under command of Johann Katzianer to take Osijek, thereby violating the treaty.
Very badly prepared, the siege came to nothing, and the starving allied army which operated in devastated territories, had to withdraw.
They were pursued by an Ottoman relief army led by border commanders and attacked near Đakovo and Valpovo on the Drava river. Katzianer fled with the cavalry and abandoned his army to be annihilated.
A reported 20,000 men were killed, Ώ] including generals Ludwig Lodron and Pavle Bakić.
This campaign was a disaster of similar magnitude to that of Mohács and therefore nicknamed the Austrian Mohacs. The news of the defeat came as a shock in Vienna and a new Treaty of Nagyvárad was signed in 1538.
Epic World History
The Battle of Mohács, which erupted in the summer of 1526, was a major Ottoman victory over the Hungarian king Louis, marking the end of the Jagiellon dynasty. Led by Suleiman I the Magnificent, the Ottoman troops, estimated at 100,000 strong, crushed the far smaller Hungarian forces on the open plain of Mohács. Besides having numerous soldiers, the Ottomans had far superior weaponry that included artillery and highly skilled marksmen.
One of the first so-called gunpowder empires, the Ottomans effectively used cannons to stop the charging Hungarian cavalry. King Louis was killed fleeing the field, and Suleiman was said to have mourned him as a valiant opponent. Several bishops and over 20,000 Hungarian troops also perished.
Following the victory, Suleiman swiftly moved on to conquer the twin cities of Pest and Buda, the Hungarian capital on the Danube River, in the fall of 1526. Following the custom of Ottoman armies, Suleiman then led his victorious troops, laden with booty and captives, back to Istanbul for the winter.
As result of their victory, the Ottomans incorporated Hungary into their expanding empire. The Habsburgs, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, took advantage of the destruction of most of the Hungarian nobility to increase their authority in central Europe, and the two great empires began their long struggle against one another for control of southern and central Europe.
When Will History Be Taught Honestly?
The city of Arcadia, located in western Wisconsin near the Minnesota border, is that rare rural place: a town that’s growing. It’s home to large employers Pilgrim’s Pride, a poultry rendering plant, and Ashley Furniture Industries.
More than a third of Arcadia’s 3,000 residents (and almost three-fourths of public school students) are Latinx, with roots in countries including Honduras and Guatemala.
Four years ago, the predominantly white administrators and teachers in the Arcadia School District began what Superintendent Lance Bagstad called a “conscious effort” to create a bicultural and bilingual learning environment. Efforts to evolve their approach to teaching history started with one class at Arcadia High School. The social studies department chair there, Danielle Wais, said, “I was looking at history that would align with student interests, but also cover a more diverse history that looked at Black history, Latino history, LGBTQ+ history.”
Arcadia has since incorporated a class in Latin American history and a general approach to curriculum that avoids what Bagstad calls “making it a completely Eurocentric viewpoint.” Teachers are trying to ensure “that our courses don’t make it feel like we’re trying to, quote-unquote, Americanize our immigrant families.”
Generations of American students have grown up absorbing a Eurocentric version of American history, encapsulated in a myth (Christopher Columbus “discovered” America) that every kindergartener once learned. Arcadia is one thread in a nationwide patchwork of educators, historians, colleges and organizations, many of whom have been trying for decades to lead a more inclusive, accurate, and empowering exploration of history by creating and curating curricula and lesson plans.
Recent years, and especially months, have seen a doubling down of calls for more such efforts, not without political pushback and debate among historians.
It all raises a question: Is this reckoning with history a response to a moment, or a shift that will see a preponderance of students grappling with complex narratives filtered through multiple points of view? Will social studies evolve through a combination of public pressure and broad, digital access to diverse, curated curricula and more primary sources than were available to teachers who depended mostly on textbooks?
If so, how long will it be before students emerge from K-12 schools with a fundamentally different understanding of America’s complicated history than their parents carry?
A series of interviews with history teachers and shapers of curriculum suggest the following: changing the common national narrative could take a generation, until students who were not steeped in the Columbus myth become teachers themselves. While the current push is strong, sustaining it will require schools of education to prepare history teachers differently than many now do. And long-term change depends on white parents and educators becoming allies in the push for this evolution, alongside Black, Indigenous, and people of color.
What Do Social Studies Teachers Think?
Shannon Pugh started teaching history 26 years ago as a Teach For America corps member in rural Mississippi. Now the manager of assessments for Anne Arundel County Public Schools in Maryland, she’s in line to become the president of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) next year.
Pugh says the normal review cycle for curriculum tends to be eight-to-ten years, and within those cycles she’s seen interest in inclusivity rise and fall. “I think part of it is just this natural self-reflection that I think that we do every generation as educators,” she said. “But what is happening right now feels a little different.”
In the future, she sees students learning history that is “richer, much more reflective and inclusive of the experiences and voices and stories (of people) than we've seen in a long time.”
“I see a lot more teachers using primary sources from more diverse experiences,” Pugh said. “Instead of teaching content and then saying, ‘Now let’s look at the primary sources that support this narrative,’ more teachers are starting with diverse historical evidence and documents and then asking students to construct the narrative. This is a major shift in history and social studies education.”
Pugh believes it could take at least a generation to change the stories Americans tell about themselves. “Like too much of teaching, a child’s experiences depend on the teacher and school. In classrooms and schools where diversity, inclusion, and an approach to building knowledge is centered in inquiry and exploration of perspectives and experiences, then those students are going to have a different experience with American history than others,” Pugh said.
“But we know from education research that teachers often teach a subject in the same way that they were taught that subject as students.” Before widespread change takes hold, “We will need enough students to learn history in a different and more inclusive way to then enter the teaching profession."
The NCSS had an immediate response when a campaigning President Donald Trump called for schools to reject teaching The 1619 Project, which he called “unpatriotic.” The Pulitzer Center created a curriculum based on that New York Times publication that “aims to reframe the country’s history by placing the consequences of slavery and the contributions of Black Americans at the very center of our national narrative.”
When Trump spoke out against it, the NCSS responded in a statement, “We stand with all the schools, school districts, and teachers who use resources like the 1619 Project to accurately depict the history of slavery in the United States, broaden the horizons of their students, and prepare citizens for a just, democratic society.”
Pugh said, “Historically, students need to know about 1619 and the impact on the trajectory of American history. But they also need to know about 1526 and the first arrival of Spaniards with enslaved individuals, and they need to know the story of the use of forced labor with American Indians as well.”
Creating New Resources
Demetrius Hobson (Chi-NWI ’02) created the website Liberate History after trying on his own, as a corps member teaching at Charles R. Henderson Elementary in West Englewood, Chicago, to supplement his lessons with articles and research by Black scholars that he found in books or on the internet.
“There's a time tax that inclusive educators pay to complement and supplement the curriculum,” Hobson said. On his site, Hobson curates high-quality teaching materials by educators, for educators, on African American history.
More than 1,500 miles south of Arcadia, the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley (UTRGV) is using a federal grant to help 70 teachers in the Brownsville and Edinburg school districts begin to teach a history of the Rio Grande Valley from a Mexican American perspective. The three-year American History and Civics Education National Activities grant from the U.S. Department of Education supports a professional development program for teachers called Historias Americanas: Engaging History and Citizenship in the Rio Grande Valley.
The state of Texas gives districts the option of teaching Mexican American and African American studies courses, but a history text specific to the Rio Grande Valley does not exist, said Maritza De La Trinidad, associate professor of Mexican American Studies at UTRGV and the project director for Historias Americanas. The Valley covers more than 4,000 square miles. Its history includes the settlement of the Rio Grande Delta by Indigenous people, colonization by Spain, the Mexican American war and Mexican revolution. Yet De La Trinidad hears from students who are taking the course in Brownsville and Edinburg schools that “we live in the Valley and we don't know anything about our own history.”
Other places have mandated the teaching of a more inclusive history, but that doesn’t mean it happens. In 2015, the state legislature in Washington decreed that all districts had to teach either tribally-developed curriculum or the course “Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State.” While pursuing her master’s degree at the University of Washington, Lindsey Hand (Washington ’17) looked at the struggles teachers have in meeting that mandate.
She was motivated by her own experience as a teacher at Chief Kamiakin Elementary School in the rural school district of Sunnyside, Washington. The school did not include social studies in its curriculum, Hand said. And the way classes were structured, she struggled to find time to incorporate it.
“We have a legal mandate (to teach) this awesome curriculum that really centers Indigenous peoples within the story of Washington, and within the colonization story of the United States,” Hand said. “I just kept finding roadblocks and was like, ‘Why can't I use this? I believe in it.’ I think that was a big part of why I wanted to study it and see how other teachers were adopting it.”
The state legislature made no provision to track whether or where the curriculum is being taught. Hand said one of her findings is that teachers, like parents and community members, have power to push for changes (like closing that loophole).
Pugh agrees. “There is a strength in numbers,” she said, “and it builds a sense of urgency.”