History Podcasts

Dominant-AM-431 - History

Dominant-AM-431 - History


Ruling or controlling.

The first Dominant (AMC-76) served in a noncommissioned status during 1941-1946, attached to the 3d Naval District and the Potomac River Naval Command.

Dominant II

(AM-431: dp. 620; 1. 172'; b. 36'; dr. 10'; s. 16 k.; cpl.
74; a. 1 40 mm.; cl. Agile)

The second Dominant (AM-431) was launched 5 November 1953 by C Hiltebrant Dry dock co Kingston, N.Y., sponsored by Mrs. B. S. Hiltebrant, and commissioned 8 November 1954, Lieutenant S. F. McMurray in command.

After extensive training at Key West, Fla., Dominant reported to her home port, Charleston, S.C., 16 April 1956 for duty with Mine Force, Atlantic. She alternated operations from her home port with services for the Mine Defense Laboratory in Panama City, Fla. In 1956 and 1957 she cruised to the Mediterranean for duty with the 6th Fleet, joining in minesweeping exercises with ships of other NATO navies, and in 1958 she carried Commander, Mine Division 43 to the Baltic Sea for similar exercises. From March 1959 her home port was Little Creek, VA., and the next month Dominant sailed for duty in the Mediterranean once more. She returned in August for test operations and amphibious exercises through 1962.


Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest religion, with about 2.4 billion followers. [1] Its adherents, known as Christians, make up a majority of the population in 157 countries and territories, [2] and believe that Jesus is the Christ, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, called the Old Testament in Christianity, and chronicled in the New Testament. [3]

Christianity remains culturally diverse in its Western and Eastern branches, as well as in its doctrines concerning justification and the nature of salvation, ecclesiology, ordination, and Christology. The creeds promulgated during the first seven ecumenical councils (which are considered the baseline of orthodoxy by the vast majority of the world's Christians), state that Jesus is the Son of God—the Logos incarnated—who ministered, suffered, and died on a cross, but rose from the dead for the salvation of mankind and referred to as the gospel, meaning the "good news". Describing Jesus' life and teachings are the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, with the Old Testament as the gospel's respected background.

Christianity began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the 1st century in the Roman province of Judea. Jesus' apostles and their followers spread around the Levant, Europe, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Transcaucasia, Egypt, and Ethiopia, despite initial persecution. It soon attracted gentile God-fearers, which led to a departure from Jewish customs, and, after the Fall of Jerusalem, AD 70 which ended the Temple-based Judaism, Christianity slowly separated from Judaism. Emperor Constantine the Great decriminalized Christianity in the Roman Empire by the Edict of Milan (313), later convening the Council of Nicaea (325) where Early Christianity was consolidated into what would become the State church of the Roman Empire (380). The early history of Christianity's united church before major schisms is sometimes referred to as the "Great Church" (though divergent sects existed at the same time, including Gnostics and Jewish Christians). The Church of the East split after the Council of Ephesus (431) and Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon (451) over differences in Christology, [4] while the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism (1054), especially over the authority of the bishop of Rome. Protestantism split in numerous denominations from the Catholic Church in the Reformation era (16th century) over theological and ecclesiological disputes, most predominantly on the issue of justification and the primacy of the bishop of Rome. Christianity played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization, particularly in Europe from late antiquity and the Middle Ages. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Following the Age of Discovery (15th–17th century), Christianity was spread into the Americas, Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world via missionary work. [10] [11] [12]

The four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church (1.3 billion/50.1%), Protestantism (920 million/36.7%), the Eastern Orthodox Church (230 million), and the Oriental Orthodox churches (62 million) (Orthodox churches combined at 11.9%), [13] [14] though thousands of smaller church communities exist despite efforts toward unity (ecumenism). [15] Despite a decline in adherence in the West, Christianity remains the dominant religion in the region, with about 70% of the population identifying as Christian. [16] Christianity is growing in Africa and Asia, the world's most populous continents. [17] Christians remain persecuted in some regions of the world, especially in the Middle East, North Africa, East Asia, and South Asia. [18] [19]

یواس‌اس دامیننت (ای‌ام-۴۳۱)

یواس‌اس دامیننت (ای‌ام-۴۳۱) (به انگلیسی: USS Dominant (AM-431) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۱۷۲ فوت (۵۲ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۵۳ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس دامیننت (ای‌ام-۴۳۱)
آب‌اندازی: ۲۳ آوریل ۱۹۵۲
آغاز کار: ۵ نوامبر ۱۹۵۳
اعزام: ۸ نوامبر ۱۹۵۴
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: 620 tons
درازا: ۱۷۲ فوت (۵۲ متر)
پهنا: ۳۶ فوت (۱۱ متر)
آبخور: ۱۰ فوت (۳٫۰ متر)
سرعت: 15 knots

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


Warship - Wikipedia
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The Mining Of Wonsan Harbor, North Korea In 1950: Lessons For .
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USS Dominant (MSO-431) was an Agile-class minesweeper built for the United States Navy. The second ship to be named Dominant by the Navy, was launched as AM-431 on 5 November 1953 by C. Hiltebrant Dry Dock Co., Kingston, New York sponsored by Mrs. Belle S. Hiltebrant and commissioned 8 . Read Article

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This is every position's all-time RBI leader

After previously looking at each position’s top all-time home run hitter and overall hits leader, we’ll now turn our focus to the RBI leader at each spot on the diamond.

Note that RBI totals differ depending on the source. The Elias Sports Bureau, Major League Baseball’s official record keeper, recognizes RBIs starting in 1920, when the stat first became official. But Baseball-Reference retroactively compiled RBI numbers prior to 1920. The RBI figures below are from 1920 and later.

For the purposes of this story, a player must have played at least two-thirds of his games at a position in order to qualify as its leader. Any player who played at least two-thirds of his career in the outfield (regardless of the specific outfield position) qualified in the outfield spot at which he played the most.

Catcher: Yogi Berra, 1,430
Berra, who won three MVP Awards and enough World Series rings to fill all 10 fingers, is the leader among catchers with 1,430 RBIs, edging Ted Simmons (1,389), Johnny Bench (1,376), Mike Piazza (1,335) and Ivan Rodriguez (1,332). Berra ranks fourth at the position in home runs (358) and fifth in hits (2,150).
Active leader: Yadier Molina, 916

First base: Albert Pujols, 2,075
According to Elias, Pujols is one of just three MLB players with at least 2,000 RBIs, along with Hank Aaron and Alex Rodriguez. Pujols has tallied 100 or more RBIs in a season 14 times, tying him with A-Rod for the most ever. Pujols also holds the home run lead at first base with 656, the sixth most in history, and is closing in on Eddie Murray (3,255) for the Modern Era (since 1900) hits lead at the position.
Active leader: Pujols

Second base: Jeff Kent, 1,518
The all-time home run leader at second base is also the position’s RBI king, as Kent drove in 1,518 runs to go with his 377 long balls. Kent had a personal-best 128 RBIs in 1998, and he chipped in another 125 RBIs in 2000, when he won the National League MVP Award. All told, Kent eclipsed the 100-RBI mark in eight seasons.
Active leader: Robinson Cano, 1,272

Third base: Adrián Beltré, 1,707
Though Beltré only reached 100 RBIs in five of his 21 seasons, his longevity allowed him to collect 1,707 RBIs in his career, more than any other third baseman. Beltré is also the hot corner’s leader in hits (3,166), and he ranks third in home runs (477). His career high in RBIs (121) came in 2004 with the Dodgers, a year in which he hit .334 with 48 homers.
Active leader: Evan Longoria, 1,015

Shortstop: Cal Ripken Jr., 1,695
While playing in a record 2,632 consecutive games from May 30, 1982, through Sept. 19, 1998, Ripken amassed 1,494 RBIs. That total alone would have been enough to lead all shortstops, but Ripken tallied an additional 201 RBIs the rest of his career, giving him a significant advantage over Joe Cronin (1,424). Ripken also holds the positional lead in home runs (431).
Active leader: Elvis Andrus, 629

Left field: Barry Bonds, 1,996
Bonds holds a slight edge over Stan Musial (1,951 RBIs) for the left-field lead in RBIs. MLB’s all-time home run king came within four RBIs of 2,000, recording 1,996 RBIs along with his record 762 homers and 2,558 walks. The slugger had a career-high 137 RBIs in 2001, the same year he set the single-season MLB record with 73 homers.
Active leader: Ryan Braun, 1,128

Center field: Willie Mays, 1,903
Arguably the greatest player ever, Mays racked up numerous accolades during his career, including two MVP Awards, 12 Gold Gloves and 24 All-Star selections. The Hall of Fame center fielder is also one of six players to record both 500 home runs and 3,000 hits, and he finished with 1,903 RBIs, edging out Ken Griffey Jr. (1,836) for the lead at the position.
Active leader: Matt Kemp, 1,010

Right field: Hank Aaron, 2,297
Bonds may have surpassed him for the all-time home run lead, but Aaron still has more RBIs than any other MLB player. Aaron drove in 100 or more runs in 11 seasons and had an additional seven years with at least 86 RBIs. His 18 seasons with 80-plus RBIs are the most in big league history.
Active leader: Nick Markakis, 1,031

Designated hitter: David Ortiz, 1,768
Ortiz leads all designated hitters in homers and hits, and no other DH even comes close to him in RBIs. After topping out at 75 RBIs over his first six years with the Twins, Big Papi signed with the Red Sox and posted 100-plus RBIs in 10 of his final 14 seasons. He went out on a high note, leading the AL with 127 RBIs while hitting .315 with 38 homers in 2016.
Active leader: Shohei Ohtani, 123

Pitcher: Red Ruffing, 273
While Wes Ferrell holds the home run lead (38) and Walter Johnson is the Modern Era hit king (547) among pitchers, it’s Ruffing who has the positional RBI crown. A lifetime .269 hitter, Ruffing slugged 36 homers and drove in 273 runs, while also winning 273 games with a 3.80 ERA on the mound. He was elected to the Hall of Fame in 1967, his final year on the ballot.
Active leader: Adam Wainwright, 71

Approved Policies not Yet Effective

Policies with Changes that include revisions due to CMDP Integration of Behavioral Health Services

Pursuant to Laws 2019, 1st Regular Session, Chapter 305, behavioral health services for children in DCS custody were anticipated to transition from the RBHA Contractors to DCS/ CMDP effective October 1, 2020. However, this implementation has been delayed. Revisions that have already been completed for ACOM and AMPM Policies and Attachment(s), related to this anticipated integration [listed in document provided below], will remain in the impacted policies but will not be applicable until such time that CMDP behavioral health service integration is implemented. Revisions unrelated to the integration of behavioral health services for CMDP members will continue to be effective October 1, 2020.



Once a tentative diagnosis of abdominal wall pain has been made, it is important to explain the diagnosis to the patient. The patient may be worried about the implications of the pain. Furthermore, having to undergo a long series of diagnostic tests may reinforce the patient's anxiety. In this setting, pain can take on a life of its own.

If there is evidence of a benign source of abdominal wall pain rather than a serious internal disease, reassurance should be provided. The physician can demonstrate how gentle palpation of the pain trigger point can reproduce the pain and its radiation over a wide area of the abdomen. The physician should explain that idiopathic abdominal wall pain is similar to idiopathic back or shoulder pain, in that the involved structure cannot be precisely described and the cause of the pain cannot be exactly identified.


Much has been written about the treatment of idiopathic myofascial pain.20 , 21 The trigger point for abdominal wall pain can be treated with injection of a small volume of local anesthetic. Once the patient identifies the trigger point with one finger, the physician “marches” his or her fingers around the area to identify the center of the tender spot, which is usually 1 to 2 cm in diameter.

A tuberculin syringe with a 5/8-inch needle is then used to inject a few tenths of a milliliter of 1 percent lidocaine (Xylocaine) into the most tender spot. A longer needle may be needed in an obese patient. The trigger point is identified when the tip of the needle causes marked tenderness.

The injection of local anesthetic serves as a therapeutic trial and may not provide permanent relief. However, a significant number of patients experience pain relief after one or two injections.5 A major goal of trigger-point injection is to confirm the abdominal wall as the pain source. In addition, this simple maneuver can help persuade a skeptical patient that the abdominal wall is, indeed, the source of the pain.


For more permanent relief of pain, it is often useful to inject a mixture of local anesthetic and corticosteroid. Steroids presumably reduce inflammation or result in the thinning of connective tissue around painful nerve roots.

Only a few tenths of a milliliter of a 1:1 mixture of 1 or 2 percent lidocaine and triamcinolone (Aristocort, in a concentration of 40 mg per mL) is required (in any case, less than 1 mL), so less than 20 mg of triamcinolone is used. If the correct spot is injected, the pain should be relieved immediately, but it may return in a few hours when the effects of the lidocaine wear off. Triamcinolone may take effect slowly over a day or two and then provide long-term relief.

More than one injection may be required, given the hit-or-miss nature of this treatment. Such injections can be used to treat a tender trigger point in a surgical scar (a presumed neuroma). If reasonable care is taken, the risks associated with the injections should be minimal. Repeated injections or larger doses of the corticosteroid can cause thinning of the fascia and result in a hernia. For this reason, depottype steroids should not be used in the fascia.


Permanent pain relief with anesthesia can be achieved with injections of phenol into the pain trigger point.22 These injections should be given by an anesthesiologist or a pain treatment subspecialist. Referral to a subspecialist also may be considered for patients who have more generalized pain related to irritation of a thoracic or intercostal nerve root.


In addition to injection of medications, 𠇍ry” needling of pain trigger points without medication has been used with some success.23 A trial of acupuncture or other alternative treatment might be considered.

Myofascial pain in the abdomen and elsewhere has also been treated using various combinations of massage, physical therapy with stretching, and cooling topical anesthetic sprays.20 Warm soaks and other local methods can be useful.


If the distress caused by a patient's pain seems out of proportion to other findings, the presence of depression or other psychologic dysfunction should be considered. Pain that would normally be a minor nuisance can become the focus of somatization and be greatly magnified by depression.

A tricyclic antidepressant, given in a low dosage that minimizes sedation and anticholinergic side effects, can be helpful in providing pain relief.24 Selective serotonin reuptake antagonists may be less effective than tricyclic antidepressants for the relief of chronic pain.

At 4:31 AM, an unauthorized photo taken of Stalin inside of the Kremlin shows the very moment he was informed that Germany had began their invasion of the Soviet Union. It was taken by Komsomolskaya Pravda, editor in chief. He was ordered to destroy it, but instead saved it. June 22, 1941.[720x1003]

We need a while to clean this mess up. Yes the title might be inaccurate but looks legit (potentially more info for Russian speakers here, it says the picture is from August ❁ when the Germans were taking Kiev).
And yes Stalin was a dickhead, everybody is sure about that. Don't be a rude to each other please.

Hold on while we go through a couple hundreds of reports.

Update: I've seen phrases "f-ing tankie" or "Looks like Trump" more times than I can count, and it probably won't stop if we unlock this thread again. Sorry folks, see you next time. This one is staying closed.

Improvements and fixes in the update

April 2021 updates

April 02 release

The following updates are available for Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Intel Corporation - Display – 20.100.8682

Intel(R) UHD Graphics 620 (15") – Display adapters

Improves graphics and system stability.

Intel Corporation - Display –

Intel(R) HD Graphics 620 (13") – Display adapters

Improves graphics and system stability.

Surface ACPI Notify Driver – System devices

Improves the graphics driver update experience.

Intel - Extension - 1952.14.0.1470

Intel(R) ICLS Client - Extension

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Intel – SoftwareComponent - 1.62.321.1

Intel(R) ICLS Client - Software devices

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Intel - System - 2040.100.0.1029

Intel(R) Management Engine Interface - System devices

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface – System –

Surface Integration Service Device – System devices

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface - Firmware -

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface – Firmware – 390.3681.768.0

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

The following updates are available for all Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Realtek Semiconductor Corp. - SoftwareComponent - 11.0.6000.92

Realtek Hardware Support Application - Software components

Improves audio performance while streaming content.

Realtek Semiconductor Corp. - Media - 6.0.8936.1

Realtek High Definition Audio (SST) - Sound, video, and game controllers

Improves audio performance and resolves associated system bugcheck.

Realtek Semiconductor Corp. - Extension -

Realtek High Definition Audio (SST) Extension - no Device Manager notes

Improves integration between system services.

Surface Integration – System devices

Improves integration between system services.

The following updates are available for all Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

NVIDIA – Display -

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 – Display adapters

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 – Display adapters

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

The following updates are available for all Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 October 2018 Update, version 1809, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® AVStream Camera 2500

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® CSI2 Host Controller

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® Imaging Signal Processor 2500

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® Microsoft Camera Front

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® Microsoft Camera IR

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® Microsoft Camera Rear

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Surface - Firmware - 390.3279.768.0

Resolves an issue where the CPU will throttle down to .4GHz, and *improves the Battery Smart Charging reliability.

To learn more about Smart Charging, see Caring for your Surface battery.

The following updates are available for all Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 October 2018 Update, version 1809, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Surface Base 2 Firmware Update

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during Wake On LAN scenarios and improves the overall stability.

Surface - Firmware -

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during Wake On LAN scenarios and improves the overall stability.

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during Wake On LAN scenarios and improves the overall stability.

Surface Integration Service Device - System

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during authentication scenarios.

Surface - Firmware - 182.2107.139.0

Surface System Aggregator - Firmware

* Improves Battery Smart Charging reliability.

Note: To learn more about Smart Charging, see Caring for your Surface battery.

Dominant-AM-431 - History

During the reigns of Nero, Galerius, Domitian, and Diocletian there were specific empire-wide persecutions of the Christian Church. Throughout the period from Nero to Diocletian (c. 64 - 312 A.D.) there were frequent regional and local persecutions. The common complaint was that the Christians were not loyal citizens of the empire because they refused to participate in emperor worship, signified by sacrifices made in the pagan temples. Locally there was anger against the Christians because they refused to participate in the local pagan religions and rituals, thus bringing, it was feared, the wrath of the gods on the local community.

Persecution was off-set by times of relative peace and freedom of worship. And the Christian faith spread rapidly throughout the empire, displacing local and empire-supported paganism.

With the assumption of power by Constantine in 312 A.D., a total transformation in the relationship between the Empire and the Christian Church had taken place. When Constantine was converted to faith in Christ in 312 A.D. a Christian now sat on the throne and the Church had conquered the Empire.

Part One: Persecution of Early Christians

6.1 Nero and the Burning of Rome in 64 A.D.

Rome was the capitol of the Empire, but it lacked the grandeur of a world-dominating capitol with its narrow streets and wooden buildings. Or so thought emperor Nero.

Emperor Nero, the last in the Julian line of emperor, had better plans in mind. True to his visions of immense self-worth, he envisioned himself as the world’s greatest architect -- in addition to being the self-proclaimed best charioteer, artist, musician, and dramatist. He submitted plans to the Senate for a totally restructured Rome. When the Senate estimated the cost of the project they rejected it totally.

Not to be thwarted by the Senate, Nero had another plan.

On July 19 in the year 64 A.D. a fire mysteriously broke out in Rome. The fire spread from neighborhood to neighborhood among the wooden structures. Groups of street thugs were caught spreading the fire, who claimed that they were operating under orders from a civil authority. The Senate and general public soon surmised that the culprit was Nero.

Legend has it that Nero “played his fiddle while Rome burned.” History does confirm that during the fire Nero appeared on stage and lamented the fire as another major drama, much like the defeat of the ancient Troy.

Nero attempted to deflect the focus from himself through acts of civil charity, opening his palace to house the homeless, and supervising food lines for the hungry. However, the rumors persisted that Nero was at fault.

To deflect attention from himself he placed the blame on the Christians in Rome, announcing that the fire was part of a greater plot to overthrow the empire.

He instigated a persecution of Christians and systematically, under torture, gained the names of Christians and their leaders from those initially interrogated. Perhaps the clearest example of the madness of Nero and the evil that consumed him was his evening garden parties which he lit by tying Christians to poles, soaking them with oil, and using them as human torches.

Some of the Christians were fed to wild beasts in the colosseum, with Nero, himself presiding as the grand master of the games. Others were submitted to all kinds of degrading acts in front of the spectators. So intense was the persecution that soon public sentiment swung behind the Christians and the city realized that Nero was merely attempting to cover up his own guilt.

The persecution spread beyond Rome into other regions of the empire. A countless number of Christians, young and old, perished.

The people realized that Christians were being put to death not for starting the fire but to cover Nero's crimes and to sate his appetite for cruelty. Compassion for the meek followers of Jesus, whose blameless conduct was apparent to many, led to a new wave of conversions.

The hostility lasted through 67 A.D. when it resulted in the arrest and murder of the Apostles Peter and Paul and Peter’s wife. Peter was forced to watch as his wife was murdered. He then was condemned to be crucified in the same manner as Jesus. Peter request was granted to be crucified upside-down, because he was not worth, he said, to die in the same manner as Jesus. Paul, a Roman citizen was beheaded rather than crucified.

The activities of Nero during the years 64-67 A.D. disgusted the Roman legions. At one point Nero disappeared from Rome for a full year, having traveled to Greece to participate as “the world’s greatest athlete” in the Olympic games. He also organized chariot races in Rome and required the public and the Senate to attend, while he raced as “the world’s greatest charioteer.” There were command performances also featuring Nero as a singer, a harpist, and actor.

Finally, in 68 A.D., upon learning that the legions from Spain had enough of his insanity and were marching towards Rome to remove him as emperor, Nero committed suicide.

6.2 Charges Brought Against Christians in the Empire

Persecution was intermittent for the early Christians in the empire. It would occur periodically in one region, then another, and often not empire-wide. There were empire-wide periods of persecution, however, under the emperors Nero, Domitian in the late first century, and Diocletian in the late second century.

Local persecution usually resulted from false charges brought against Christians. They were accused of a number of crimes.

As with Paul in Philippi (see Acts 19:21 ff.), Christians were accused of disrupting business and commerce . Why? Because in some areas they had become so numerous that no one shopped at the local meat market where meat was sold for sacrifice to the pagan idols. Trinkets used to ward off the evil spirits went unsold. Animals bred to be slaughtered for sacrifice in pagan temples went unsold. In other words, the stock market for items related to pagan worship crashed!

The celebration of the Lord’s Supper led to accusations of cannibalism . Stories about how the Christians “ate and drank the body and blood of Jesus” were usually the basis for this misunderstanding.

They were accused of being atheists , because the God they worshipped could not be seen, there were no statues erected to him by the Christians, and, hence, he probably did not exist. Further, they refused to join in the worship of the gods that could be easily seen in the local temples.

Famines, fires, earthquakes and other natural disasters were blamed on the Christians. Why? Because of the Christians’ refusal to worship the local gods and the emperor, the gods poured out their wrath on the community.

They were viewed as just being very weird and nonconformists ! The Roman Empire valued tradition. Even the Roman legions refused to go into battle without first having participated in traditional rituals. Taboos, totems, wearing talismans, honoring the gods were all part of tradition. Anything contrary simply rocked the boat and disrupted business as usual and threatened peace and security.

Addressing each other as “brother” and “sister” and “mother” and “father” when there were no apparent natural blood ties, and referring to themselves as “a family” started rumors of incest and crazy relationships. The Roman culture was sex-crazed as it was. Male and female prostitutes were everywhere, extra-marital affairs were the norm, unwanted pregnancies ended in either abortion or infant exposure easily presumed incestual relationships were being practiced by the Christians.

An example of how a civil magistrate responded to Christians is found in a letter by Pliny the Younger (c. 112 A.D.), who served under the emperor Trajan, and whose responsibilities included hunting down Christians in the Province of Bithynia (located in present-day Turkey just to the east of Constantinople). When reporting to Trajan how he handled the interrogation of Christians, he responded:

“Meanwhile, this is the course that I have adopted in the case of those brought before me as Christians. I ask them if they are Christians. If they admit it I repeat the question a second and a third time, threatening capital punishment if they persist I sentence them to death. For I do not doubt that, whatever kind of crime it may be to which they have confessed, their pertinacity and inflexible obstinacy should certainly go punished. There were others who displayed a like madness and whom I reserved to be sent to Rome, since they were Roman citizens.” (Plin. Epp. X [ad Traj.], xcvi. Cited in Documents of the Christian Church, Henry Bettenson, Oxford University Press, 1963, p. 3).

The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer (1883). Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904) Painting currently maintained by the Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore, Maryland. Image online, courtesy Wikimedia Commons)

For specific stories of early Christian martyrs, go see the following web sites:

6.3 Examples of Bishops Ignatius, Polycarp, and Christians in Vienna

Ignatius , Bishop of Antioch , Syria was eighty years old when he was put to death in December 107 A.D. His crime? He was a bishop or leader in the Christian Church and one way to attack to whole group is to eliminate their leaders.

As he made his way from Antioch to Smyrna in present-day northern Turkey, Ignatius was greeted by Christians at each stopping point. Some urged him to go into hiding. In his letter to the church at Rome he wrote:

“I write to all the Churches, and impress on them all, that I shall willingly die for God, unless ye hinder me. I beseech of you not to show an unreasonable goodwill towards me. Suffer me to become food for the wild beasts, through whose instrumentality it will be granted me to attain to God. I am the wheat of God, and am ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of God. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my tomb, and may have nothing of my body. . . . Then shall I be a true disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not see so much as my body. Entrust the Lord for me, that by these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God.” (Ep. to the Romans, iv, 1v., p. 75. Cited in A Guide to the Teachings of the Early Church Fathers, Robert R.Williams, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1960, p. 19).

Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna (155 A.D.) is a frequently cited example of Christian courage.

At the festival of Caesar in Smyrna (near Ephesus in present-day western Turkey) a number of Christians were forced to fight against wild beasts at the local games. Their bravery was such that the crowd of spectators shouted, “Away with the atheists let search be made for Polycarp.”

Hearing this, Polycarp decided to remain in the city, but the other Christians urged him to leave and hide at a series of local farms. His whereabouts were discovered by the authorities by torturing two young Christian men. When the men sent by the the local sheriff, named Herod, arrived at his hiding place, he talked with them and asked for them to be served food and drink, because it was late in the day. He then asked that he might be given one hour alone for prayer.

As he entered the stadium, a voice from heaven said to Polycarp, “Be strong, Polycarp, and play the man.” The voice was heard by other Christians who were present. He was then questioned by the Proconsul (Governor) if he was indeed Polycarp. He then said to Polycarp, “Swear by the genius of Caesar. Repent. Say, ‘Away with the atheists! Swear, and I will release thee curse the Christ.’” Polycarp responded, “Eighty and six years have I served him, and he hath done me no wrong how then can I blaspheme my king who saved me?” He then said to the Governor, “If thou dost imagine that I would sear by the genius of Caesar, as thou sayest, pretending to not know what I am, hear plainly that I am a Christian. And if thou are willing to learn the doctrine of Christianity, grant me a day and hearken to me.”

When threatened that he would be fed to wild beasts, Polycarp responded, “Send for them. For repentance from better to worse is not a change permitted to us but to change from cruelty to righteousness is a noble thing.” Then he was threatened with fire, to which he replied, “Thou threatenest the fire that burns for an hour and in a little while is quenched for thou knowest not of the fire of the judgement to come, and the fire of the eternal punishment, reserved for the ungodly. But why delayest thou? Bring what thou wilt.” The crowd, reportedly made up of both Gentiles and Jews then roared, “This is the teacher of Asia, the father of the Christians, the destroyer of our gods, that teacheth many to not sacrifice nor worship.”

He was then prepared for the stake. When they began to nail him to the stake he requested, “Let me be as I am. He that granted me to endure the fire will grant me also to remain at the pyre unmoved, without being secured with nails.” After he prayed, the fire was then lit. What happened next is to extraordinary that the literal report must be cited here.

“And a great flame flashed forth: and we, to whom it was given to see, we held a marvel. . . . The fire took the shape of a vault, like a ship’s sail bellying in the wind, and it made a wall round the martyr’s body and there was the a body in the midst, like a loaf being baked or like gold and silver being tried in the furnace. . . . So at length the lawless ones, seeing that his body could not be consumed by the fire, bade an executioner approach him to drive in a dagger. And when he had done this there came out [a dove and] abundance of blood so that it quenched the fire, and all the multitude marveled at the great difference between the unbelievers and the elect. . . “

(From A letter from the Church of Smyrna. The first Martyrology . Cited in Documents of the Christian Church , Henry Bettenson, Oxford University Press, 1963, pp. 9-12).

Persecution in Vienna and Lyons (present-day Austria and France)

“The servants of Christ who sojourn in Vienna and Lugdunum of Gaul to the brethren throughout Asia and Phrygia who hold the same faith and hope as we do of redemption peace, grace and glory from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. We are not competent to describe the magnitude of the tribulations here, the extent of the rage of the Gentiles against the saints and the sufferings of the blessed martyrs. . . Not only were we excluded from public buildings, baths and markets, but even the mere appearance of any one of us was forbidden,in any place whatsoever. . . Now the blessed Pothinus, who had been entrusted with the ministry of the bishopric of Lugdunum, and was more than ninety years of age and quite feeble in body . . . was brought to the judgement seat, scorned by the city magistrates and all the rabble, with all kinds of hooting. And being asked by the governor who was the God of the Christians, he said, ‘If thou be worthy, thou shalt know.’ Whereupon he was pulled about without pity, those nearest maltreating him in every way with hands and feet, while those at a distance hurled at hime whatever came to hand, every one thinking it a great neglect and impiety if any wantonnness were left untried fo so they thought to avenge their gods. . . .” (The Epistle of the Gallican Churches: ap. Eusebius, H.E.V.i.Cited in Documents of the Christian Church, Henry Bettenson, Oxford University Press, 1963, pp. 12-13)

What’s Worth Knowing in Section One?

The Julian line and their successors attempted at every turn to eliminate the new, radical religion erupting from Jerusalem, with this self-styled “King of the Jews” as their fabled leader. They even claimed that he had risen from the dead!

Now with the ascension to the throne of Constantine, the Christian faith had become through the Edict of Milan in AD 313 a legal religion in the empire and by AD 380 was THE religion of Rome.

1. The Christian Faith spread rapidly throughout the Empire after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

2. By 100 A.D. missionaries had traveled to Africa, Egypt, England, Spain, France, India, and China.

3. Setting the example for the missionary enterprise were the Apostles themselves, each having traveled widely for the remainder of their lives.

4. Although the Arian doctrine was rejected at the Council of Nicea in 325 AD, it was the version of the Christian Faith that was carried to the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths and to which they were originally converted from heathenism.

5. Constantine was the first Christian emperor and issued the Edict of Milan in 313 A.D.

6. Constantine struggled with the issue of how the State and Church would relate and interact.

7. At the death of Constantine, the Empire was divided among his three sons.

8. At the early death of Constantine II, the Empire was speedily divided between Constantius and Constans, who rigorously attacked the remnants of pagan worship in the empire and in 346 AD issued a joint edict ordering all pagan temples to be closed, and forbade sacrifices on the pain of death.

9. After Constans and Constantius died, Julian came to power in 361 A.D. He hated everything Constantine and his sons stood for and did much to restore paganism in the empire. He died in 363 in a war with Persia, and was the empire’s last pagan emperor.

10. Valens and Valentius became emperors of the East and West respectively, Theodocius succeeded them. He was committed to the faith of the West, the anti-Arian postion of Nicea, and with co-emperor Gratian, in 380 A.D. issued the edict declaring (1) the Christian faith to be the official and only recognized religion of the empire, and (2) that the viewpoint of Nicea was the only acceptable form of Christian doctrine.

11. Leading Christian centers of power and scholarship in the empire were Alexandria, Jerusalem, Damascus, Constantinople, and Rome.

12. Theodocius, to assure orthodoxy, urged all Christians, to especially revere the leadership of the bishops in Alexandria and Constantinople. This shows the heavy influence of the bishop Ambrose on Theodocius.

13. At the death Theodocius in 395 AD the East and West Empires split permanently.

What you will know and be able to do . . .

• Describe and identify where each of the original Apostles went in their missionary travels and what impact they made. [WHS 3.3B.6]

• List at least five reasons for the strength and growth of the Christian faith enabling it not only to survive, but also to dominate the empire. [WHS 3.3B.7]

• List the five leading Christian centers in the empire in the 4th century AD.

• Recite from memory John 1:1-3, 14 and use in a brief written statement John 1:1-3 to refute the Arian doctrine. [WHS 5.1A.9 ]

• Analyze how the Council of Nicaea stabilized and unified Christianity in the 4 th century A.D. [WHS 5.1A.6 ]

• Identify the descendants of Arius in the 21st century. [WHS 5.1A.9 ]

• Analyze various causes that historians have proposed to

account for the decline of the Western Roman empire.

• Analyze the perspectives offered by Gibbon. [WHS 5.1A.1]

• Analyze comparatively the collapse of the western part of the

classical Roman Empire and the survival of the eastern empire

• Describe the consolidation of the Byzantine state after the

breakup of the Roman Empire and assess how Byzantium

preserved ancient traditions and created a new Christian

• Analyze the contributions of Constantine to the growth of

Christianity from a banned to a legally acceptable religion in the

• Explain the contributions of Constantine and Theodocius on the emerging growth of Christianity in the Roman Empire. [WHS 5.1A.11]

• Analyze the rejection by the four other Patriarchies of the Church of the claims of superiority issued by the patriarchy of Rome. [WHS 5.1A.12]

Watch the video: ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ ΑΠΟ ΤΙΣ ΠΗΓΕΣ ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ (November 2021).