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U.S. Coast Guard - History

U.S. Coast Guard - History

U.S. Coast Guard - part of the Department of Transportation. The Coast Guard enforces federal laws related to smuggling, ship safety, port security, spillage, pollution, and other marine environmental protection issues. The Coast Guard also maintains ships and other vessels, aircraft, and communications facilities for search and rescue mission. In addition, it operates the U.S. Coast Guard Academy at New London, Connecticut. It maintains a network of aids to navigation; including lighthouses, buoys, icebreakers, and radio devices.

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A Brief — But Impressive — History of the US Coast Guard

Before the U.S. Coast Guard was hunting down narco-drug traffickers in submersible submarines and using advanced Search And Rescue (SAR) technology like high-frequency coastal radar and Sikorsky helicopters, the early heroes of the U.S. Life-Saving Service (USLSS) had to do it the old-school way.

When rough seas and vicious winds tore apart vessels and transformed them into relics of the sea off the coast of Massachusetts — then later from Maine to Florida, the Pacific West Coast, Texas, and the Great Lakes — the survivors found themselves stranded ashore with little hope for survival. An urgent humanitarian crisis developed, and as people continued to die, life-savers were thrust into action to prevent loss of life.

The early beginnings of the USLSS were fraught with maritime heroism and ingenious transformations of which all Americans should be proud. From the surfmen and keepers that patrolled the shoreline to the creation of signal flares, zip-line buoy systems, and line-throwing rockets — these tools and methods provided the necessary means to extract victims from the grasp of Mother Nature.


The U.S. Coast Guard's History in the Arctic

&ldquo. . . to stand for 40 hours on the bridge of the [cutter] Bear, wet, cold and hungry, hemmed in by impenetrable masses of fog, tortured by uncertainty, and the good ship plunging and contending with ice seas in an unknown ocean.&rdquo &ndash Capt. Michael Healy, Revenue Cutter Bear

Healy&rsquos quote indicates the skill and daring required of cuttermen who have navigated the waters of Alaska, Bering Sea and the Arctic. For over 150 years, the U.S. Coast Guard and its ancestor agencies have played a major role in Alaska and Arctic operations.

In 1867, there were no roads or railroads available for transportation to or within Alaska. That year, the Revenue Cutter Service became the federal government&rsquos representative in the territory. Revenue cutters did a little of everything including the annual &ldquoCourt Cruise.&rdquo Cutters transported judges, public defenders, court clerks, and deputy U.S. Marshals to hear criminal cases throughout the isolated region. Revenue cutters were also responsible for protecting the native seal herds.

Between 1874 and 1913, two different cutters named Rush served on the Bering Sea Patrol enforcing fish and game laws, including sealing regulations. Due to these cruises, seal poachers tried to conduct their illegal hunts before the cutters arrived for their seasonal patrols. This practice resulted in the phrase, &ldquoGet there early to avoid the Rush!&rdquo The Bering Sea cutters proved so successful at law enforcement that by the end of the 1800s, the Treasury Department charged them with enforcing virtually all Alaskan game laws.

The most famous cutter in the history of Alaska, the Bear, was transferred to the Revenue Cutter Service in 1885. After that, Bear patrolled the Bering Sea for 34 cruises and more than four decades. The cutter&rsquos first captain, &ldquoHell Roarin&rsquo&rdquo Mike Healy, was the first African-American commanding officer in any federal maritime service. In a series of deliveries in the early 1890s, Healy transported numerous reindeer to Alaska to supplement the diminishing whale and seal populations that had served as native Alaskans&rsquo primary food source. He commanded several West Coast cutters before retiring in 1903 as the third-most senior officer in the Revenue Cutter Service.

In 1897, eight whaling ships became trapped in Arctic ice near Point Barrow, Alaska. Concerned that their 265 crewmen would starve to death, the whaling companies appealed to President William McKinley to send a relief expedition. In late November 1897, Bear set sail northward from Port Townsend, Washington, under the command of Capt. Francis Tuttle. With no chance to push through the ice to Point Barrow, Tuttle put a rescue party ashore farther south to drive a herd of reindeer to the whaling ships. Tuttle placed Lt. David Jarvis in charge of the party accompanied by Lt. Ellsworth Bertholf (later commandant of the Coast Guard), Ship&rsquos Surgeon Samuel Call and three enlisted men. Using sleds pulled by dogs and reindeer, the men set out on snowshoes and skis on Dec. 16. Three months and 1,500 miles later, they arrived at Point Barrow. The expedition managed to deliver 382 reindeer to the whalers with only 66 animals lost. At the insistence of McKinley, Bertholf, Call, and Jarvis received the Congressional Gold Medal.

From left to right, Lt. Ellsworth Bertholf, Dr. Samuel Call and Lt. David Jarvis pose for a commemorative photograph. U.S. Coast Guard photo.

In the 20th century, the Coast Guard&rsquos responsibilities in Alaska grew. With formation of the modern Coast Guard in 1915, the service took responsibility for the U.S. Life-Saving Service station at Nome. With Prohibition, the interdiction of illegal liquor in Alaskan waters became more important than ever. When the U.S. Lighthouse Service joined the Coast Guard in 1939, more Alaskan shore installations came under Coast Guard authority. In the 1940s, Coast Guard-manned vessels served in World War II&rsquos North Pacific theater of operations, including weather patrols, convoy escort duty and the re-supply of U.S. military bases. In the 1950s, Coast Guard vessels also supported the construction of the Cold War&rsquos Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line of radar installations in Northern Alaska.

Finding the Northwest Passage across the Arctic had been an ambition of mariners since the 1500s. The establishment of the DEW Line made it desirable to find alternative re-supply routes to these remote outposts. So, in July 1957, the Coast Guard&rsquos 230-foot icebreaking cutter Storis and 180-foot buoy tenders Spar and Bramble sailed through the Bering Sea to attempt a crossing over the North American continent. Early on, it became apparent that ice navigation would not be practical for merchant ships, but the three cutters continued their 4,500-mile odyssey. To pass through the heavy ice floes, Storis ran its bow up onto the ice and used its weight to break the ice creating a channel for the others. The ice floes became heavier about halfway through the trip forcing the ships off course to the south. Storis became lodged in the ice and when explosives failed to free it, the crews made plans to winterize the cutters and abandon them until spring. Storis finally broke free and the small flotilla forged ahead and emerged in the Atlantic after 64 days. These cutters were the first American ships to make the passage from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic and Spar later became the first ship to circumnavigate the continent.

The Coast Guard has been the sole U.S. operator of icebreakers since 1965. That year, the U.S. Navy transferred its icebreakers to the Coast Guard, making it the federal government&rsquos only provider of that mission. Since the 1960s, the Coast Guard has been assigned the responsibility for developing and maintaining a fleet of icebreaking vessels capable of operating effectively in the heaviest ice regions of the Arctic. With sea ice diminishing around the North Pole in recent years, arctic operations have increased in importance. In August 2017, Coast Guard Cutter Maple retraced the route of the 1957 Northwest Passage cutters 60 years after that historic feat.

For 150 years, the Coast Guard and its ancestor agencies have played a vital role in Alaska and the Arctic. The service&rsquos ice operations provide the U.S. with the capability to support national interests in ice-bound waters, including the movement of maritime transportation, search and rescue, law enforcement, environmental protection and the pursuit of marine science. The service continues to make an impact in Alaska and Arctic waters and the Coast Guard&rsquos ice operations mission remains as important as ever.

This article appears courtesy of Coast Guard Compass and may be found in its original form here.

The opinions expressed herein are the author's and not necessarily those of The Maritime Executive.


Contents

Role Edit

The Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions. The three roles are:

With a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on even the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is frequently lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to [a military effort when catastrophe hits] may be as a model of flexibility, and most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." [17]

Missions Edit

The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: [18]

Non-homeland security missions Edit

Homeland security missions Edit

Search and rescue Edit

The U.S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue (CG-SAR) is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations. [19] The National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, and the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. [20] Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, and have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue. [21] The two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Previously located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. [22]

National Response Center Edit

Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center (NRC) is the sole U.S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, chemical, radiological, biological, and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories. [23] In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC also takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. [24] The Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. [25] [26] [27]

National Maritime Center Edit

The National Maritime Center (NMC) is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe, secure, and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to fully qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction. [28]

Authority as an armed service Edit

The six uniformed services that make up the U.S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U.S. Code:

The term "armed forces" means the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Space Force, and Coast Guard. [29] [30]

The Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code:

The Coast Guard as established January 28, 1915, shall be a military service and a branch of the armed forces of the United States at all times. The Coast Guard shall be a service in the Department of Homeland Security, except when operating as a service in the Navy. [31]

Coast Guard organization and operation is as set forth in Title 33 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

On 25 November 2002, the Homeland Security Act was signed into law by U.S. President George W. Bush, designating the Coast Guard to be placed under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The transfer of administrative control from the U.S. Department of Transportation to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security was completed the following year, on 1 March 2003. [32] [33] [34]

The U.S. Coast Guard reports directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security. However, under 14 U.S.C. § 3 as amended by section 211 of the Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2006, upon the declaration of war and when Congress so directs in the declaration, or when the President directs, the Coast Guard operates under the Department of Defense as a service in the Department of the Navy. [35]

As members of the military, Coast Guardsmen on active and reserve service are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice and receive the same pay and allowances as members of the same pay grades in the other uniformed services. [36]

The service has participated in every major U.S. conflict from 1790 through today, including landing troops on D-Day and on the Pacific Islands in World War II, in extensive patrols and shore bombardment during the Vietnam War, and multiple roles in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Maritime interception operations, coastal security, transportation security, and law enforcement detachments have been its major roles in recent conflicts in Iraq. [37]

On 17 October 2007, the Coast Guard joined with the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raised the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war. [38] This new strategy charted a course for the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent regional crises, man-made or natural, from occurring, or reacting quickly should one occur to avoid negative impacts to the United States. During the launch of the new U.S. maritime strategy at the International Seapower Symposium at the U.S. Naval War College in 2007, Coast Guard Commandant Admiral Thad Allen said the new maritime strategy reinforced the time-honored missions the service has carried out in the United States since 1790. "It reinforces the Coast Guard maritime strategy of safety, security and stewardship, and it reflects not only the global reach of our maritime services but the need to integrate and synchronize and act with our coalition and international partners to not only win wars . but to prevent wars," Allen said. [38]

Authority as a law enforcement agency Edit

Title 14 USC, section 2 authorizes the Coast Guard to enforce U.S. federal laws. [39] This authority is further defined in 14 U.S.C. § 522, which gives law enforcement powers to all Coast Guard commissioned officers, warrant officers, and petty officers. [40] Unlike the other branches of the United States Armed Forces, which are prevented from acting in a law enforcement capacity by 18 U.S.C. § 1385, the Posse Comitatus Act, and Department of Defense policy, the Coast Guard is exempt from and not subject to the restrictions of the Posse Comitatus Act. [41]

Further law enforcement authority is given by 14 U.S.C. § 703 and 19 U.S.C. § 1401, which empower U.S. Coast Guard active and reserve commissioned officers, warrant officers, and petty officers as federal customs officers. [42] [43] This places them under 19 U.S.C. § 1589a, which grants customs officers general federal law enforcement authority, including the authority to:

(1) carry a firearm
(2) execute and serve any order, warrant, subpoena, summons, or other process issued under the authority of the United States
(3) make an arrest without a warrant for any offense against the United States committed in the officer's presence or for a felony, cognizable under the laws of the United States committed outside the officer's presence if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony and
(4) perform any other law enforcement duty that the Secretary of Homeland Security may designate.

The U.S. Government Accountability Office Report to the House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary on its 2006 Survey of Federal Civilian Law Enforcement Functions and Authorities, identified the Coast Guard as one of 104 federal components that employed law enforcement officers. [45] The report also included a summary table of the authorities of the Coast Guard's 192 special agents and 3,780 maritime law enforcement boarding officers. [46]

Coast Guardsmen have the legal authority to carry their service-issued firearms on and off base. This is rarely done in practice, however at many Coast Guard stations, commanders prefer to have all service-issued weapons in armories when not in use. Still, one court has held in the case of People v. Booth that Coast Guard boarding officers are qualified law enforcement officers authorized to carry personal firearms off-duty for self-defense. [47]

The Coast Guard traced its roots to the small fleet of vessels maintained by the United States Department of the Treasury beginning in the 1790s to enforce tariffs (an important source of revenue for the new nation). Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton lobbied Congress to fund the construction of ten cutters, which it did on 4 August 1790 (now celebrated as the Coast Guard's official birthday). Until the re-establishment of the Navy in 1798, these "revenue cutters" were the only naval force of the early United States. As such, the cutters and their crews frequently took on additional duties, including combating piracy, rescuing mariners in distress, ferrying government officials, and even carrying mail. [49] Initially not an organized federal agency at all, merely a "system of cutters," each ship operated under the direction of the customs officials in the port to which it was assigned. Several names, including "Revenue-Marine," were used as the service gradually becoming more organized. Eventually it was officially organized as the United States Revenue Cutter Service. In addition to its regular law enforcement and customs duties, revenue cutters served in combat alongside the Navy in various armed conflicts including the American Civil War. [50]

The modern Coast Guard was created in 1915, when the Revenue Cutter Service merged with the U.S. Life-Saving Service. The Lighthouse Service and the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation were absorbed by the Coast Guard 1939 and 1942 respectively. [51] [52] In 1967, the Coast Guard moved from the U.S. Department of the Treasury to the newly formed U.S. Department of Transportation, an arrangement that lasted until it was placed under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security in 2003 as part of legislation designed to more efficiently protect American interests following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. [53]

In times of war, the Coast Guard or individual components of it can operate as a service of the Department of the Navy. This arrangement has a broad historical basis, as the Coast Guard has been involved in wars as diverse as the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War, and the American Civil War, in which the cutter Harriet Lane fired the first naval shots attempting to relieve besieged Fort Sumter. The last time the Coast Guard operated as a whole within the Navy was in World War II, in all some 250,000 served in the Coast Guard during World War II. [54]

Coast Guard Squadron One, was a combat unit formed by the United States Coast Guard in 1965 for service during the Vietnam War. Placed under the operational control of the United States Navy, it was assigned duties in Operation Market Time. Its formation marked the first time since World War II that Coast Guard personnel were used extensively in a combat environment. The squadron operated divisions in three separate areas during the period of 1965 to 1970. Twenty-six Point-class cutters with their crews and a squadron support staff were assigned to the U.S. Navy with the mission of interdicting the movement of arms and supplies from the South China Sea into South Vietnam by Viet Cong and North Vietnam junk and trawler operators. The squadron also provided 81mm mortar naval gunfire support to nearby friendly units operating along the South Vietnamese coastline and assisted the U.S. Navy during Operation Sealords. [55]

Coast Guard Squadron Three, was a combat unit formed by the United States Coast Guard in 1967 for service during the Vietnam War. [56] Placed under the operational control of the United States Navy and based in Pearl Harbor. It consisted of five USCG High Endurance Cutters operating on revolving six-month deployments. A total of 35 High Endurance Cutters took part in operations from May 1967 to December 1971, most notably using their 5-inch guns to provide naval gunfire support missions. [57]

Often units within the Coast Guard operate under Department of the Navy operational control while other Coast Guard units remain under the Department of Homeland Security. [58]

The new Department of Homeland Security headquarters complex is on the grounds of the former St. Elizabeths Hospital in the Anacostia section of Southeast Washington, across the Anacostia River from former Coast Guard headquarters. [59]

The fiscal year 2016 budget request for the U.S. Coast Guard was $9.96 billion. [60]

Districts and units Edit

The Coast Guard's current district organization is divided into 9 districts. Their designations, district office and area of responsibility are as follows:

U.S. Coast Guard Districts
District Area District Office Area of Responsibility Note
First District Atlantic Boston, Massachusetts New England states, eastern New York and northern New Jersey 1
Fifth District Atlantic Portsmouth, Virginia Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina 5
Seventh District Atlantic Miami, Florida South Carolina, Georgia, eastern Florida, Puerto Rico,
and the U.S. Virgin Islands
7
Eighth District Atlantic New Orleans, Louisiana Western Rivers of the U.S. and the Gulf of Mexico 8
Ninth District Atlantic Cleveland, Ohio Great Lakes 9
Eleventh District Pacific Alameda, California California, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah 11
Thirteenth District Pacific Seattle, Washington Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana 13
Fourteenth District Pacific Honolulu, Hawaii Hawaii and Pacific territories 14
Seventeenth District Pacific Juneau, Alaska Alaska 17

Shore establishments Edit

Shore establishment commands exist to support and facilitate the mission of the sea and air assets and Coastal Defense. U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters is located in Southeast Washington, DC. Examples of other shore establishment types are Coast Guard Sectors (which may include Coast Guard Bases), Surface Forces Logistics Center (SFLC), [61] Coast Guard Stations, Coast Guard Air Stations, and the United States Coast Guard Yard. Training centers are included in the shore establishment commands. The military college for the USCG is called the United States Coast Guard Academy [62] which trains both new officers through a four year program and enlisted personnel joining the ranks of officers through a 17 week program called Officer Candidate School (OCS). Abbreviated TRACEN, the other Training Centers include Training Center Cape May for enlisted bootcamp [63] ,Training Center Petaluma [64] and Training Center Yorktown [65] for enlisted "A" schools and "C" schools, and Coast Guard Aviation Technical Training Center [66] and Coast Guard Aviation Training Center Mobile [67] for aviation enlisted "A" school, "C" schools, and pilot officer training.

The Coast Guard has a total workforce of 87,569. [2] The formal name for a uniformed member of the Coast Guard is "Coast Guardsman", irrespective of gender. "Coastie" is an informal term commonly used to refer to current or former Coast Guard personnel. In 2008, the term "Guardian" was introduced as an alternative but was later dropped. Admiral Robert J. Papp Jr. stated that it was his belief that no Commandant had the authority to change what members of the Coast Guard are called as the term Coast Guardsman is found in Title 14 USC which established the Coast Guard in 1915. [68] [Note 3] "Team Coast Guard" refers to the four components of the Coast Guard as a whole: Regular, Reserve, Auxiliary, and Coast Guard civilian employees. [ citation needed ]

Commissioned officers Edit

Commissioned officers in the Coast Guard hold pay grades ranging from O-1 to O-10 and have the same rank structure as the Navy. [70] [71] Officers holding the rank of ensign (O-1) through lieutenant commander (O-4) are considered junior officers, commanders (O-5) and captains (O-6) are considered senior officers, and rear admirals (O-7) through admirals (O-10) are considered flag officers. The Commandant of the Coast Guard and the Vice Commandant of the Coast Guard are the only members of the Coast Guard authorized to hold the rank of admiral. [72]

The Coast Guard does not have medical officers or chaplains of its own. Instead, chaplains from the U.S. Navy, as well as officers from the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps are assigned to the Coast Guard to perform chaplain-related functions and medical-related functions, respectively. These officers wear Coast Guard uniforms but replace the Coast Guard insignia with that of their own service. [73]

The Navy and Coast Guard share identical officer rank insignia except that Coast Guard officers wear a gold Coast Guard Shield in lieu of a line star or staff corps officer insignia.

Commissioned officer grade structure of the United States Coast Guard
US DoD Pay Grade O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10
NATO Code OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9
Insignia
Title Ensign Lieutenant
(junior grade)
Lieutenant Lieutenant
commander
Commander Captain Rear admiral
(lower half)
Rear admiral Vice admiral Admiral
Abbreviation ENS LTJG LT LCDR CDR CAPT RDML RADM VADM ADM

Warrant officers Edit

Highly qualified enlisted personnel in pay grades E-6 through E-9 with a minimum of eight years' experience can compete each year for appointment as warrant officers (WO). Successful candidates are chosen by a board and then commissioned as chief warrant officer two (CWO2) in one of twenty-one specialties. Over time, chief warrant officers may be promoted to chief warrant officer three (CWO3) and chief warrant officer four (CWO4). The ranks of warrant officer (WO1) and chief warrant officer five (CWO5) are not currently used in the Coast Guard. Chief warrant officers may also compete for the Chief Warrant Officer to Lieutenant Program. If selected, the warrant officer will be promoted to lieutenant (O-3E). The "E" designates over four years' active duty service as a warrant officer or enlisted member and entitles the member to a higher rate of pay than other lieutenants. [ citation needed ]

Enlisted personnel Edit

Enlisted members of the Coast Guard have pay grades from E-1 to E-9 and also follow the same rank structure as the Navy. Enlisted members in pay grades of E-4 and higher are considered petty officers and follow career development paths very similar to those of Navy petty officers. [ citation needed ]

Petty officers in pay grade E-7 and higher are chief petty officers and must attend the Coast Guard Chief Petty Officer Academy, or an equivalent Department of Defense school, in order to be advanced to pay grade E-8. The basic themes of the school are:

  • Professionalism
  • Leadership
  • Communications
  • Systems thinking and lifelong learning

Enlisted rank insignia is also nearly identical to Navy enlisted insignia. The Coast Guard shield replacing the petty officer's eagle on collar and cap devices for petty officers or enlisted rating insignia for seamen qualified as a "designated striker". Group Rate marks (stripes) for junior enlisted members (E-3 and below) also follow Navy convention with white for seaman, red for fireman, and green for airman. In a departure from the Navy conventions, all petty officers E-6 and below wear red chevrons and all chief petty officers wear gold. [ citation needed ]

Training Edit

Officer training Edit

The U.S. Coast Guard Academy is a four-year service academy located in New London, Connecticut. Approximately 200 cadets graduate each year, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree and a commission as an ensign in the Coast Guard. Graduates are obligated to serve a minimum of five years on active duty. Most graduates are assigned to duty aboard Coast Guard cutters immediately after graduation, either as Deck Watch Officers (DWOs) or as Engineer Officers in Training (EOITs). Smaller numbers are assigned directly to flight training at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida or to shore duty at Coast Guard Sector, District, or Area headquarters units. [ citation needed ]

In addition to the Academy, prospective officers, who already hold a college degree, may enter the Coast Guard through Officer Candidate School (OCS), also located at the Coast Guard Academy. OCS is a 17-week course of instruction that prepares candidates to serve effectively as officers in the Coast Guard. In addition to indoctrinating students into a military lifestyle, OCS provides a wide range of highly technical information necessary to perform the duties of a Coast Guard officer. [ citation needed ]

Graduates of OCS are usually commissioned as ensigns, but some with advanced graduate degrees may enter as lieutenants (junior grade) or lieutenants. Graduating OCS officers entering active duty are required to serve a minimum of three years, while graduating reserve officers are required to serve four years. Graduates may be assigned to a cutter, flight training, a staff job, or an operations ashore billet. OCS is the primary channel through which the Coast Guard enlisted grades ascend to the commissioned officer corps. Unlike the other military services, the Coast Guard does not have a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program. [ citation needed ]

Lawyers, engineers, intelligence officers, military aviators holding commissions in other branches of the U.S. Armed Forces requesting interservice transfers to the Coast Guard, graduates of maritime academies, and certain other individuals may also receive an officer's commission in the Coast Guard through the Direct Commission Officer (DCO) program. Depending on the specific program and the background of the individual, the course is three, four or five weeks long. The first week of the five-week course is an indoctrination week. The DCO program is designed to commission officers with highly specialized professional training or certain kinds of previous military experience. [ citation needed ]

Recruit training Edit

Newly enlisted personnel are sent to eight weeks of recruit training at Coast Guard Training Center Cape May in Cape May, New Jersey. New recruits arrive at Sexton Hall and remain there for three days of initial processing which includes haircuts, vaccinations, uniform issue, and other necessary entrance procedures. During this initial processing period, the new recruits are led by temporary company commanders. These temporary company commanders are tasked with teaching the new recruits how to march and preparing them to enter into their designated company. The temporary company commanders typically do not enforce any physical activity such as push ups or crunches. When the initial processing is complete, the new seaman recruits are introduced to their permanent company commanders who will remain with them until the end of training. There is typically a designated lead company commander and two support company commanders. The balance of the eight-week boot camp is spent in learning teamwork and developing physical skills. An introduction of how the Coast Guard operates with special emphasis on the Coast Guard's core values is an important part of the training.

The current nine Recruit Training Objectives are:

Service schools Edit

Following graduation from recruit training, most members are sent to their first unit while they await orders to attend advanced training in Class "A" Schools. At "A" schools, Coast Guard enlisted personnel are trained in their chosen rating rating is a Coast Guard and Navy term for enlisted skills synonymous with the Army's and Marine Corps' military occupation codes (MOS) and Air Force's Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC). Members who earned high ASVAB scores or who were otherwise guaranteed an "A" School of choice while enlisting may go directly to their "A" School upon graduation from Boot Camp. [ citation needed ]

Civilian personnel Edit

The Coast Guard employs over 8,577 civilians in over two hundred different job types including Coast Guard Investigative Service special agents, lawyers, engineers, technicians, administrative personnel, tradesmen, and federal firefighters. [2] [75] Civilian employees work at various levels in the Coast Guard to support its various missions. [ citation needed ]

Cutters Edit

The Coast Guard operates 243 Cutters, [14] defined as any vessel more than 65 feet (20 m) long, that has a permanently assigned crew and accommodations for the extended support of that crew. [76]

    (WMSL): Also known as the "Legend"-class, these are the Coast Guard's latest class of 418-foot (127 m) military defense maritime ship. At 418 ft. these are the largest USCG military cutters in active service. One-for-one Legend-class ships are replacing individually decommissioned 1960s Hamilton-class high endurance cutters. A total of eight were authorized and budgeted as of 2015 three are in service, and three are under construction. In 2016 a ninth National Security Cutter was authorized by Congress. (WHEC): The 378-foot (115 m) Hamilton-class cutters were commissioned in the late 1960s. Missions include law enforcement, search and rescue, and military defense. This aged class of 12 are being individually decommissioned and replaced on a one-for one basis by the new Legend-class National Security Cutters.
    (WMEC): These are mostly the 210-foot (64 m) Reliance-class, and the 270-foot (82 m) Famous-class cutters, although the 283-foot (86 m) Alex Haley also falls into this category. Primary missions are law enforcement, search and rescue, and military defense. icebreaker (WAGB): There are three WAGB's used for icebreaking and research though only two, the heavy 399-foot (122 m) Polar Star and the newer medium class 420-foot (130 m) USCGC Healy (2) , are active. [77][78][79][80]Polar Sea is located in Seattle, Washington but is not currently in active service. The icebreakers are being replaced with new heavy icebreakers under the Polar icebreaker program. : A 240-foot (73 m) heavy icebreaker built for operations on the Great Lakes. : A 295-foot (90 m) sailing barque used as a training ship for Coast Guard Academy cadets and Coast Guard officer candidates. She was originally built in Germany as Horst Wessel, and was seized by the United States as a prize of war in 1945. [81][82] (WLB): These 225-foot (69 m) ships are used to maintain aids to navigation and also assist with law enforcement and search and rescue. (WLM): The 175-foot (53 m) Keeper-class coastal buoy tenders are used to maintain coastal aids to navigation.
    cutter (WPC): The 154-foot (47 m) Sentinel-class, also known by its program name, the "Fast Response Cutter"-class and is used for search and rescue work and law enforcement. icebreaking tug (WTGB): 140-foot (43 m) icebreakers used primarily for domestic icebreaking missions. Other missions include search and rescue, law enforcement, and aids to navigation maintenance. [83]

Boats Edit

The Coast Guard operates about 1,650 boats, [14] defined as any vessel less than 65 feet (20 m) long, which generally operate near shore and on inland waterways.

The Coast Guard boat fleet includes:

    : The Coast Guard's 47-foot (14 m) primary heavy-weather boat used for search and rescue as well as law enforcement and homeland security. : A new multi-mission 45-foot (14 m) vessel intended to replace the 41-foot (12 m) utility boat. 170 planned
  • Special Purpose Craft – Near Shore Lifeboat: Only 2 built. Shallow draft, 42-foot (13 m) lifeboat substituted for the 47-foot (14 m) Motor Life Boat, based at Chatham, Massachusetts [86] : A 38-foot (12 m) launch capable of pursuing fast cocaine smuggling craft. : A 36-foot (11 m) high-speed launch that can be launched from the stern ramps of the larger Deepwater cutters. : Various designs ranging from 26 to 55 feet (7.9 to 16.8 m) used to maintain aids to navigation.
  • Special Purpose Craft – Law Enforcement (SPC-LE): Intended to operate in support of specialized law enforcement missions, utilizing three 300 horsepower (220 kW) Mercury Marine engines. The SPC-LE is 33 feet (10 m) long and capable of speeds in excess of 50 knots (93 km/h 58 mph) and operations more than 30 miles (48 km) from shore. : A 25-foot (7.6 m) high-speed boat, for a variety of missions, including search and rescue, port security and law enforcement duties. : A 25-foot (7.6 m) well-armed boat used by Port Security Units for force protection.
  • SPC-SW Special Purpose Craft, Shallow-water: 24 feet (7.3 m) [clarification needed] : A 23-foot (7.0 m) rigid hull inflatable boat used by medium and high endurance cutters and specialized units. : A 23-foot (7.0 m) rigid hull inflatable boat that can be launched from a stern launching ramp on the National Security Cutters.

Aircraft Edit

The Coast Guard operates approximately 201 fixed and rotary wing aircraft [14] from 24 Coast Guard Air Stations throughout the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Most of these air stations are tenant activities at civilian airports, several of which are former Air Force Bases and Naval Air Stations, although several are also independent military facilities. Coast Guard Air Stations are also located on active Naval Air Stations, Air National Guard bases, and Army Air Fields. [ citation needed ]

Coast Guard aviators receive Primary (fixed-wing) and Advanced (fixed or rotary-wing) flight training with their Navy and Marine Corps counterparts at NAS Whiting Field, Florida, and NAS Corpus Christi, Texas, and are considered Naval Aviators. After receiving Naval Aviator Wings, Coast Guard pilots, with the exception of those slated to fly the HC-130, report to U.S. Coast Guard Aviation Training Center, Mobile, Alabama to receive 6–12 weeks of specialized training in the Coast Guard fleet aircraft they will operate. HC-130 pilots report to Little Rock AFB, Arkansas, for joint C-130 training under the auspices of the 314th Airlift Wing of the U.S. Air Force. [ citation needed ]

Fixed-wing aircraft operate from Air Stations on long-duration missions. Helicopters operate from Air Stations and can deploy on a number of different cutters. Helicopters can rescue people or intercept vessels smuggling migrants or narcotics. Since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, the Coast Guard has developed a more prominent role in national security and now has armed helicopters operating in high-risk areas for the purpose of maritime law enforcement and anti-terrorism. [ citation needed ]

The Coast Guard is now developing an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program that will utilize the MQ-9 Reaper platform for homeland security and search/rescue operations. To support this endeavor, the Coast Guard has partnered with the Navy and U.S. Customs and Border Protection to study existing/emerging unmanned aerial system (UAS) capabilities within their respective organizations. As these systems mature, research and operational experience gleaned from this joint effort will enable the Coast Guard to develop its own cutter and land-based UAS capabilities. [ citation needed ]

Type Manufacturer Origin Class Role Introduced In service [87] Notes
C-27J Spartan Alenia Aeronautica U.S.
Italy
Turboprop Search and rescue 2014 14 Former Air Force aircraft, acquired in return for the release of seven HC-130H aircraft to the United States Forest Service for use as aerial tankers.
C-37A Gulfstream U.S. Jet Priority Airlift 1998 1 Priority Airlift for high-ranking members of the Department of Homeland Security and U.S. Coast Guard.
C-37B Gulfstream U.S. Jet Priority Airlift 2017 1 Priority Airlift for high-ranking members of the Department of Homeland Security and U.S. Coast Guard.
HC-130H Hercules Lockheed Martin U.S. Turboprop Search and rescue 1974 14 Most have been removed from service and are being replaced by HC-130J aircraft. Seven were turned over to the United States Forest Service to be converted to aerial firefighting tankers.
HC-130J Hercules Lockheed Martin U.S. Turboprop Search and rescue 2003 12 More on order, currently being manufactured to replace HC-130H.
HC-144A Ocean Sentry Airbus U.S.
Spain
Turboprop Search and rescue 2009 15
HC-144B Minotaur Airbus U.S.
Spain
Turboprop Search and rescue 2016 3 Minotaur upgrade of HC-144A aircraft includes advance navigation and search and rescue equipment.
MH-60T Jayhawk Sikorsky U.S. Helicopter Medium Range Recovery (MRR) 1990 42 will remain in service until 2027
MH-65D Dolphin Eurocopter U.S.
France
Helicopter Short Range Recovery (SRR) 1984 95
MH-65E Dolphin Eurocopter U.S.
France
Helicopter Short Range Recovery (SRR) 1984 3 Upgraded version of MH-65D with advanced avionics and search and rescue equipment

Weapons Edit

Naval guns Edit

Most Coast Guard Cutters have one or more naval gun systems installed, including:

  • The Oto Melara 76 mm, a radar-guided computer controlled gun system that is used on both Medium and High Endurance Cutters. The 3-inch gun's high rate of fire and availability of specialized ammunition make it a multi-purpose gun capable of anti-shipping, anti-aircraft, ground support, and short-range anti-missile defense.
  • The MK 110 57mm gun, a radar-guided computer controlled variant of the Bofors 57 mm gun. It is used on the Legend-class cutter, also known as the National Security Cutter (NSC). It is a multi-purpose gun capable of anti-shipping, anti-aircraft, and short-range anti-missile defense. The stealth mount has a reduced radar profile. Also, the gun has a small radar mounted on the gun barrel to measure muzzle velocity for fire control purposes and can change ammunition types instantly due to a dual-feed system. It can also be operated/fired manually using a joystick and video camera (mounted on gun).
  • The Mk 38 Mod 0 weapons system consists of an M242 Bushmaster 25mm chain gun and the Mk 88 Mod 0 machine gun mount. A manned system, its gyro-stabilization compensates for the pitching deck. It provides ships with defensive and offensive gunfire capability for the engagement of a variety of surface targets. Designed primarily as a close-range defensive measure, it provides protection against patrol boats, floating mines, and various shore-based targets.
  • The Mk 38 Mod 2 weapons system is a remotely operated Mk 38 with an electronic optical sight, laser range-finder, FLIR, a more reliable feeding system, all of which enhance the weapon systems capabilities and accuracy.
  • The Phalanx CIWS (pronounced "sea-wiz") is a close-in weapon system for defense against aircraft and anti-ship missiles. it can also be used against a variety of surface targets. Consisting of a radar-guided 20 mm 6-barreled M61 Vulcan cannon mounted on a swiveling base, it is used on the Coast Guard's High Endurance Cutters. This system can operate autonomously against airborne threats or may be manually operated with the use of electronic optical sight, laser range-finder and FLIR systems against surface targets.
  • The Sea PROTECTOR MK50 is a remotely controlled gyro-stabilized M2 .50 caliber heavy machine gun. The sight package includes a daylight video camera, a thermal camera and an eye-safe laser rangefinder operated by a joystick. It is also furnished with a fully integrated fire control system that provides ballistic correction. The Mk50s are used on only four Marine Protector-class Cutters, the USCGC Sea Fox (WPB-87374) , USCGC Sea Devil (WPB-87368) , USCGC Sea Dragon (WPB-87367) and USCGC Sea Dog (WPB-87373)

Small arms and light weapons Edit

The U.S. Coast Guard uses a wide variety of small arms and light weapons. Handguns, shotguns, and rifles are used to arm boat crew and boarding team members and machine guns are mounted aboard cutters, boats, and helicopters.

Small arms and light weapons arms include:

    9mm pistol DAK .40 S&W pistol 12 gauge shotgun M240 machine gun[88] , used by marksmen from the Helicopter Interdiction Tactical Squadron and Law Enforcement Detachments to disable the engines on fleeing boats.

Core values Edit

The Coast Guard, like the other armed services of the United States, has a set of core values that serve as basic ethical guidelines for all Coast Guard active duty, reservists, auxiliarists, and civilians. The Coast Guard Core Values are:

Honor: Integrity is our standard. We demonstrate uncompromising ethical conduct and moral behavior in all of our personal actions. We are loyal and accountable to the public trust.
Respect: We value our diverse workforce. We treat each other with fairness, dignity, and compassion. We encourage individual opportunity and growth. We encourage creativity through empowerment. We work as a team.
Devotion to Duty: We are professionals, military and civilian, who seek responsibility, accept accountability, and are committed to the successful achievement of our organizational goals. We exist to serve. We serve with pride.

The Guardian Ethos Edit

In 2008, the Coast Guard introduced the Guardian Ethos. As the Commandant, Admiral Allen noted in a message to all members of the Coast Guard: [The Ethos] "defines the essence of the Coast Guard," and is the "contract the Coast Guard and its members make with the nation and its citizens." [90]

The Coast Guard Ethos Edit

In an ALCOAST message effective 1 December 2011 the Commandant, Admiral Papp, directed that the language of Guardian Ethos be superseded by the Coast Guard Ethos in an effort to use terminology that would help with the identity of personnel serving in the Coast Guard. [91] The term Coast Guardsman is the correct form of address used in Title 14 USC and is the form that has been used historically. This changed the line in the Guardian Ethos "I am a Guardian." to become "I am a Coast Guardsman." [92]

I am a Coast Guardsman.
I serve the people of the United States.
I will protect them.
I will defend them.
I will save them.
I am their shield.
For them I am Semper Paratus.
I live the Coast Guard core values.
I am proud to be a Coast Guardsman.
We are the United States Coast Guard.

Creed of the United States Coast Guardsman Edit

The "Creed of the United States Coast Guardsman" was written by Vice Admiral Harry G. Hamlet, who served as Commandant of the Coast Guard from 1932 to 1936. [93]

I am proud to be a United States Coast Guardsman.
I revere that long line of expert seamen who by their devotion to duty and sacrifice of self have made it possible for me to be a member of a service honored and respected, in peace and in war, throughout the world.
I never, by word or deed, will bring reproach upon the fair name of my service, nor permit others to do so unchallenged.
I will cheerfully and willingly obey all lawful orders.
I will always be on time to relieve, and shall endeavor to do more, rather than less, than my share.
I will always be at my station, alert and attending to my duties.
I shall, so far as I am able, bring to my seniors solutions, not problems.
I shall live joyously, but always with due regard for the rights and privileges of others.
I shall endeavor to be a model citizen in the community in which I live.
I shall sell life dearly to an enemy of my country, but give it freely to rescue those in peril.
With God's help, I shall endeavor to be one of His noblest Works.
A UNITED STATES COAST GUARDSMAN.

"You have to go out, but you don't have to come back!" Edit

This unofficial motto of the Coast Guard dates to an 1899 United States Lifesaving Service regulation, which states in part: "In attempting a rescue, . he will not desist from his efforts until by actual trial, the impossibility of effecting a rescue is demonstrated. The statement of the keeper that he did not try to use the boat because the sea or surf was too heavy will not be accepted, unless attempts to launch it were actually made and failed." [95]

Coast Guard Ensign Edit

The Coast Guard Ensign (flag) was first flown by the Revenue Cutter Service in 1799 to distinguish revenue cutters from merchant ships. A 1 August 1799 order issued by Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott Jr. specified that the Ensign would be "sixteen perpendicular stripes (for the number of states in the United States at the time), alternate red and white, the union of the ensign to be the arms of the United States in a dark blue on a white field." [96]

This ensign became familiar in American waters and served as the sign of authority for the Revenue Cutter Service until the early 20th century. The ensign was originally intended to be flown only on revenue cutters and boats connected with the Customs Service but over the years it was found flying atop custom houses as well, and the practice became a requirement in 1874. On 7 June 1910, President William Howard Taft issued an Executive Order adding an emblem to (or "defacing") the ensign flown by the Revenue cutters to distinguish it from what is now called the Customs Ensign flown from the custom houses. The emblem was changed to the official seal of the Coast Guard in 1927. [97] [98]

The purpose of the ensign is to allow ship captains to easily recognize those vessels having legal authority to stop and board them. It is flown only as a symbol of law enforcement authority and is never carried as a parade standard. [99]

Coast Guard Standard Edit

The Coast Guard Standard is used in parades and carries the battle honors of the Coast Guard. It was derived from the jack of the Coast Guard ensign which was flown by revenue cutters. The emblem is a blue eagle from the coat of arms of the United States on a white field. Above the eagle are the words "UNITED STATES COAST GUARD" below the eagle is the motto, "SEMPER PARATUS" and the inscription "1790."

Service Mark ("Racing Stripe") Edit

The Racing Stripe, officially known as the Service Mark, was designed in 1964 by the industrial design office of Raymond Loewy Associates to give the Coast Guard a distinctive, modern image. Loewy had designed the colors for the Air Force One fleet for Jackie Kennedy. President Kennedy was so impressed with his work, he suggested that the entire Federal Government needed his make-over and suggested that he start with the Coast Guard. [100] [101] The stripes are canted at a 64 degree angle, coincidentally the year the Racing Stripe was designed. [102]

The racing stripe is borne by Coast Guard cutters, aircraft, and many boats. First used and placed into official usage as of 6 April 1967, it consists of a narrow blue stripe, a narrow white stripe between, and a broad CG red bar with the Coast Guard shield centered. [4] [103] Red-hulled icebreaker cutters and most HH-65/MH-65 helicopters (i.e., those with a red fuselage) bear a narrow blue stripe, a narrow empty stripe the color of the fuselage (an implied red stripe), and broad white bar, with the Coast Guard shield centered. Conversely, black-hulled cutters (such as buoy tenders and inland construction tenders) use the standard racing stripe. Auxiliary vessels maintained by the Coast Guard also carry the Racing Stripe, but in inverted colors (i.e., broad blue stripe with narrow white and CG red stripes) and the Auxiliary shield. Similar racing stripe designs have been adopted for the use of other coast guards and maritime authorities and many other law enforcement and rescue agencies. [Note 4]

History Edit

For most of the Coast Guard's history its uniforms largely mirrored the style of U.S. Navy uniforms, distinguishable only by their insignia. In 1974, under the leadership of Admiral Chester R. Bender, the initial versions of the current Coast Guard Service Dress Blue and Tropical uniforms were introduced. This represented a major departure from many common conventions in naval and maritime uniforms. Notably, "Bender's Blues" were a common service dress uniform for all ranks, dispensing with the sailor suit and sailor cap formerly worn by enlisted members. [104] Rank insignia remained consistent with the naval pattern and some distinctly-nautical items such as the pea coat, officer's sword, and dress white uniforms remained. [ citation needed ]

Today, the Coast Guard's uniforms remain among the simplest of any branch of the armed forces, with fewer total uniforms and uniform variants than the other armed services. There are only three uniforms that typically serve as standard uniforms of the day—the Operational Dress Uniform, Tropical Blue, and Service Dress Blue (Bravo). Like U.S. Marine Corps uniforms, comparatively few distinctions exist between officer and enlisted uniforms. [ citation needed ]

Service uniforms Edit

The Service Dress Blue is the standard uniform of the day for office environments and is considered equivalent to civilian business attire. The uniform consists of a blue four-pocket single breasted jacket, matching trousers, and a tie of the same shade as the jacket. There are two variants. The less common, more formal "Alpha" variant includes the combination cap and a white shirt. The more common, less formal "Bravo" variant includes either the combination cap or garrison cap and a light blue shirt. Officer and enlisted rank insignia are sewn onto the jacket sleeve in the same manner as Navy uniforms. Rank insignia must also be worn on the blue shirt as part of the "Bravo" variant by officers (shoulder boards) and enlisted members (collar devices). [105]

The Service Dress White "choker" uniforms for officers are identical to those worn by U.S. Navy officers (aside from service-specific buttons, insignia and sword design). These are typically used for formal parades and change-of-command ceremonies in warmer seasons and climates. Unlike the Navy, these uniforms are authorized only for officers and warrant officers. For similar occasions the enlisted members wear Tropical Blue, Service Dress Blue or Full Dress Blue, depending on the climate. [105]

The Tropical Blue uniform is the standard uniform for office wear in warmer seasons and climates in lieu of Service Dress Blue (but not to functions where civilian dress is coat and tie, in which case Service Dress Blue should be worn). The Tropical Blue uniform omits the dress coat and instead features a short sleeve light blue shirt on which ribbons and devices are worn in the same manner as on the SDB coat, and rank is indicated on shoulder boards (officers and warrant officers) or collar devices (enlisted members). A "Tropical Blue Long Sleeve" uniform was approved in 2019, which includes a long sleeved shirt, necktie, and tie bar, and omits ribbons. While presented as a variant of Tropical Blue, the uniform is essentially Service Dress Blue Bravo with the coat removed and the added requirement of a nametag above the right shirt pocket. [105] [106]

The Winter Dress Blue uniform is another seasonal variant. Generally, this uniform may be worn during winter months in lieu of Service Dress Blue, at the wearer's option. It consists of a long-sleeve dark blue shirt of the same color as the service dress trousers, without shoulder loops. It is worn with the blue necktie and rank insignia pins on the collar (unless a sweater is also worn, in which case the rank is worn on the sweater instead). [105]

All blue service and dress uniforms are worn with a black, plain-toe oxford shoes or, optionally, black pumps or flats for females. Patent leather versions are authorized. White shoes are worn with the dress white uniforms. [105]

Several optional forms of outerwear may be worn with some or all of these uniforms, all in dark blue, including: a windbreaker a "wooly pully" commando-style sweater a cardigan sweater (the same worn by the U.S. Air Force) a trench coat a waterproof parka and, for officers, a double-breasted bridge coat (similar to a pea coat but knee-length). [105]

Dress uniforms Edit

The Full Dress Blue uniform is essentially the same as Service Dress Blue Alpha, except that it is worn with a full-size medals instead of ribbons, white gloves, and (for officers) a sword. Similarly, the Full Dress White uniform consists of the Service Dress White with the same accouterments as the Full Dress Blue uniform. [105] For both uniforms, ribbons without a corresponding medal are worn above the right breast pocket in lieu of the name tag normally worn in that position on service uniforms. [105]

There are two sets of dinner dress uniforms worn for formal (black tie) evening ceremonies. The first set, Dinner Dress Blue and Dinner Dress White are essentially the same as Full Dress Blue and Full Dress White but miniature medals and badges are worn, neither ribbons nor a name tag is worn above the right breast pocket, and (for Dinner Dress Blue) a black bow tie is worn rather than the blue necktie. [105]

The second set of dinner dress uniforms, dubbed Dinner Dress Blue Jacket and Dinner Dress White Jacket are identical to the corresponding U.S. Navy uniforms but with Coast Guard buttons and insignia. These uniforms are required for officers O-3 and above but optional for other members. Due to the expense of these uniforms and the fact that they are rarely called-for, few junior enlisted members purchase them and wear the above-described Dinner Dress Blue uniform instead. [105]

A Formal Dress Blue uniform is authorized for senior officers (O-6 and above) as the equivalent of civilian white tie. It is essentially the Dinner Dress Blue Jacket uniform but with a white bow tie and white formal waistcoat replacing the black bow tie and gold cummerbund. It is exceptionally rarely worn, with the only likely occasions for wear being a White House state dinner or similar event. [105]

Working uniforms Edit

The current working uniform of the Coast Guard is the Operational Dress Uniform (ODU). The ODU may be worn year-round primarily as a field utility and watchstanding uniform, but may also be worn in an office environment where appropriate. The ODU is similar, both in function and style, to the Battle Dress Uniform previously worn by all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces. However, the ODU is in a solid dark blue with no camouflage pattern and does not have lower pockets on the blouse. [105]

The ODU was introduced in the early 2000s as a replacement for two working uniforms—Working Blue and Undress Blue. The Working Blue was an all-dark-blue uniform in the style of Dickies workwear with sew-on name tapes and collar devices. The Undress Blue uniform resembled Tropical blue but featured cotton twill work trousers, black boots, and a baseball cap, omitted the nametag and ribbons from the shirt (but allowed one qualification badge) and all ranks (officer and enlisted) wore collar devices. [ citation needed ]

The first generation ODU, in service from 2004 to 2012, was worn with the blouse tucked into the trousers. The current, second generation ("untucked") ODU is worn with the blouse untucked and has black Coast Guard insignia embroidered on the right breast pocket as well as the side pockets of the trousers. [105]

The standard footwear is a black composite-toe boot. Brown boat shoes may be allowed for daily wear aboard ship unless boots are required for safety reasons. [105]

The standard headgear is a baseball-style cap with "U.S. Coast Guard," in gold lettering embroidered in an arch at the top front. Units may also authorize unit-specific ball caps. [105] Formerly these varied in style but regulations now specify that the ball cap must be the standard style with the unit name (usually abbreviated) embroidered in a single straight line just above the visor. For E-4 and above, pin-on rank insignia is worn centered on the front of the cap. [ citation needed ]

For cold weather, the standard outerwear worn with ODU is a "Foul Weather Parka," which comes with a removable fleece liner that may be worn as a stand-alone lightweight jacket. A rank insignia tab is included on the center front of the parka and liner. The Foul Weather Parka replaced several more traditional styles of outerwear (notably the reefer jacket) as the only authorized outerwear for the ODU, and is also permitted with several service uniform styles. A "Cold Weather Cap" in the style of an ushanka is also authorized for extreme cold environments. [105]

The ODU's simple style and practicality as a working uniform has led the U.S. Public Health Service and the NOAA Corps to adopt ODU variants as standard working uniforms. Some Navy personnel also advocated adoption of the ODU as a standard shipboard uniform for the Navy, rather than the unpopular Navy Working Uniform Type I. [ citation needed ]

In 2019, Coast Guard Uniform Board No. 48 announced that a new working uniform to replace the ODU was in development. Dubbed the "Coast Guard Utility" uniform, initial test designs are based on the Navy Working Uniform Type III but in Coast Guard blue. It was also announced that an alternative top similar to the Army Combat Shirt would be developed. [ citation needed ]

When engaged in flight operations, Coast Guardsmen wear the standard CWU-27/p flight suit worn by the other branches of the U.S. Armed Forces, in sage green. A leather name tag is worn above the left breast pocket. Above the right breast pocket, where other branches typically wear a unit/command patch, Coast Guardsmen wear a rectangular white patch with a blue border, the Coast Guard racing stripe, and the words "UNITED STATES COAST GUARD" in black. A unit patch is worn on the right sleeve and an American flag patch is worn on the left sleeve. For officers, rank insignia may be sewn onto the shoulders. Flight suits are considered "organizational clothing," not standard uniforms, and are not supposed to be worn outside of flight activities. [ citation needed ]

Coast Guard personnel serving in expeditionary combat units such as Port Security Units or Law Enforcement Detachments, and Coast Guard personnel deployed overseas (e.g. as part of PATFORSWA) may wear the Navy Working Uniform Type III with distinctive Coast Guard insignia. [105]

Special uniform situations Edit

Coast Guardsmen serving in certain billets will wear non-standard uniforms, uniform items, and insignia. For example, company commanders (the Coast Guard's equivalent of drill sergeants) at Training Center Cape May wear the traditional Smokey Bear-style campaign hat.

The Coast Guard Pipe Band, a special musical unit composed of active, reserve and auxiliary members, wears a modified form of highland dress, including kilt and sporran. It is, along with the Band of the Air Force Reserve Pipe Band, one of only two kilted units in the United States military, excluding those maintained by state defense forces and service academies. The band's kilt is patterned in the official U.S. Coast Guard tartan, which is registered with the Scottish Register of Tartans and based on the Hamilton tartan (in honor of the founder of the Revenue-Marine, Alexander Hamilton). [107]

Cadets at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy wear standard Coast Guard uniforms, but also wear two different styles of parade dress uniforms, similar to those worn by Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy. Full Dress Blue (B) consists of black blouses with banded collars and double rows of buttons, worn with matching black trousers and a white peaked hat. Full Dress Blue (A) substitutes white trousers in lieu of black. [108]

The United States Coast Guard Reserve is the reserve military force of the Coast Guard. [109] The Coast Guard Reserve was founded on 19 February 1941. The Coast Guard has 8700 reservists [2] who normally drill two days a month and an additional 12 days of active duty each year, although many perform additional drill and active duty periods, to include those mobilized to extended active duty. Coast Guard reservists possess the same training and qualifications as their active duty counterparts, and as such, can be found augmenting active duty Coast Guard units every day. [ citation needed ]

During the Vietnam War and shortly thereafter, the Coast Guard considered abandoning the reserve program, but the force was instead reoriented into force augmentation, where its principal focus was not just reserve operations, but to add to the readiness and mission execution of every-day active duty personnel. [ citation needed ]

Since 11 September 2001, reservists have been activated and served on tours of active duty, to include deployments to the Persian Gulf and also as parts of Department of Defense combatant commands such as the U.S. Northern and Central Commands. Coast Guard Port Security Units are entirely staffed with reservists, except for five to seven active duty personnel. Additionally, most of the staffing the Coast Guard provides to the Navy Expeditionary Combat Command are reservists. [ citation needed ]

The Reserve is managed by the Assistant Commandant for Reserve, Rear Admiral Todd C. Wiemers, USCG. [ citation needed ]

Women in the Coast Guard Edit

In 1918, twin sisters Genevieve and Lucille Baker of the Naval Coastal Defense Reserve became the first uniformed women to serve in the Coast Guard. [110] Later, United States Coast Guard Women's Reserve (SPARS) was created on 23 November 1942 with the signing of Public Law 773 by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. [111] The name is a contraction of the Coast Guard motto Semper Paratus, meaning "Always Ready" in Latin. The name also refers to a spar in nautical usage. Like the other women's reserves such as the Women's Army Corps and the WAVES, it was created to free men from stateside service in order to fight overseas. Its first director was Captain Dorothy C. Stratton who is credited with creating the name for the organization. [112] The cutter USCGC Spar is named for the SPARS. [ citation needed ]

The United States Coast Guard Auxiliary is the civilian volunteer uniformed auxiliary service of the United States Coast Guard, established on 23 June 1939 by an act of Congress as the United States Coast Guard Reserve, it was re-designated as the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary on 19 February 1941. It works within the Coast Guard in carrying out its noncombatant and non-law enforcement missions. [113] Auxiliarists are subject to direction from the Commandant of the Coast Guard making them unique among all federal volunteers (e.g. Air Force's Civil Air Patrol and FBI's InfraGard) they are not a separate organization, but an integral part of the Coast Guard. As of 2018, there were approximately 24,000 members of the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary. [114]

The Coast Guard has assigned primary responsibility for many recreational boating safety tasks to the Auxiliary, including public boating safety education and voluntary Vessel Safety Checks (formerly called Courtesy Examinations). [115] Additionally, Auxiliarists use their own vessels, boats, and aircraft (once registered as Coast Guard facilities) to conduct safety patrols, aid in search and rescue missions, and perform other tasks on behalf of the Coast Guard. [ citation needed ]

Prior to 1997, Auxiliarists were largely limited to activities supporting recreational boating safety. In 1997, however, new legislation authorized the Auxiliary to participate in any and all Coast Guard missions except direct military and direct law enforcement. [116] Auxiliarists may directly augment active duty Coast Guard personnel in non-combat, non-law enforcement roles (e.g. radio communications watch stander, interpreter, cook, etc.) and may assist active duty personnel in inspecting commercial vessels and maintaining aids-to-navigation. Auxiliarists may support the law enforcement and homeland security missions of the Coast Guard but may not directly participate (make arrests, etc.), and Auxiliarists are not permitted to carry a weapon while serving in any Auxiliary capacity. [ citation needed ]

The Deployable Operations Group (DOG) was a Coast Guard command established in July 2007. The DOG established a single command authority to rapidly provide the Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Defense, Department of Justice and other interagency operational commanders adaptive force packages drawn from the Coast Guard's deployable specialized force units. The DOG was disestablished on 22 April 2013 and its deployable specialized forces (DSF) units were placed under the control of the Atlantic and Pacific Area Commanders. [117]

The planning for the unit began after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, and culminated with its formation on 20 July 2007. Its missions included maritime law enforcement, anti-terrorism, port security, pollution response, and diving operations. [ citation needed ]

There were over 25 specialized units within the Deployable Operations Group including the Maritime Security Response Team, Maritime Safety and Security Teams, Law Enforcement Detachments, Port Security Units, the National Strike Force, and Regional Dive Lockers. The DOG also managed Coast Guard personnel assigned to the Navy Expeditionary Combat Command and was involved in the selection of Coast Guard candidates to attend Navy BUD/S and serve with Navy SEAL Teams. [118]

One Coast Guardsman, Douglas Albert Munro, has earned the Medal of Honor, the highest military award of the United States. [119] Fifty five Coast Guardsmen have earned the Navy Cross and numerous men and women have earned the Distinguished Flying Cross. [ citation needed ]

The highest peacetime decoration awarded within the Coast Guard is the Homeland Security Distinguished Service Medal prior to the transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, the highest peacetime decoration was the Department of Transportation Distinguished Service Medal. The highest unit award available is the Presidential Unit Citation. [ citation needed ]

In wartime, members of the Coast Guard are eligible to receive the Navy version of the Medal of Honor. A Coast Guard Medal of Honor is authorized but has not yet been developed or issued. [ citation needed ]

In May 2006, at the Change of Command ceremony when Admiral Thad Allen took over as Commandant, President George W. Bush awarded the entire Coast Guard, including the Coast Guard Auxiliary, the Coast Guard Presidential Unit Citation with hurricane device, for its efforts during and after Hurricane Katrina and Tropical Storm Rita. [ citation needed ]

Vice Admiral Thad Allen in 2005 was named Principal Federal Officer to oversee recovery efforts in the Gulf Region after Hurricane Katrina. After promotion to Admiral, on the eve of his retirement as Commandant, Allen again received national visibility after being named National Incident Commander overseeing the response efforts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

Former Coast Guard officers have been appointed to numerous civilian government offices. After retiring as Commandant of the Coast Guard in 2002, Admiral James Loy went on to serve as United States Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security. After their respective Coast Guard careers, Carlton Skinner served as the first Civilian Governor of Guam G. William Miller, 65th Secretary of the Treasury, and retired Vice Admiral Harvey E. Johnson Jr. served as Deputy Administrator and Chief Operating Officer of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) under President George W. Bush. Rear Admiral Stephen W. Rochon was appointed by President George W. Bush to serve as the Director of the Executive Residence and White House Chief Usher, beginning service on 12 March 2007, and continued to serve in the same capacity under President Barack Obama.

Two Coast Guard aviators, Commander Bruce E. Melnick and Captain Daniel C. Burbank, have served as NASA astronauts.

Signalman First Class Douglas Albert Munro was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously, and is the only Coast Guardsman to ever receive this honor.

Coast Guard Aviation Association Edit

Those who have piloted or flown in Coast Guard aircraft under official flight orders may join the Coast Guard Aviation Association which was formerly known as the "Ancient Order of the Pterodactyl" ("Flying Since the World was Flat"). The Ancient Albatross Award is presented to the active duty USCG member who qualified as an aviator earlier than any other person who is still serving. Separate enlisted and officer awards are given. [120] [121]

Coast Guard CW Operators Association Edit

The Coast Guard CW Operators Association (CGCWOA) is a membership organization comprising primarily former members of the United States Coast Guard who held the enlisted rating of Radioman (RM) or Telecommunications Specialist (TC), and who employed International Morse Code (CW) in their routine communications duties on Coast Guard cutters and at shore stations. [122]

USCG Chief Petty Officers Association Edit

Members of this organization unite to assist members and dependents in need, assist with Coast Guard recruiting efforts, support the aims and goals of the Coast Guard Chief Petty Officers Academy, keep informed on Coast Guard matters, and assemble for social amenities and include Chief, Senior Chief, and Master Chief Petty Officers, active, reserve and retired. Membership is also open to all Chief Warrant Officers and Officers who have served as a Chief Petty Officer. [123]

USCG Chief Warrant and Warrant Officers Association (CWOA) Edit

Established in 1929, the Chief Warrant and Warrant Officers Association, United States Coast Guard (CWOA) represents Coast Guard warrant and chief warrant officers (active, reserve and retired) to the Congress, White House and the Department of Homeland Security. Additionally, the association communicates with the Coast Guard leadership on matters of concern to Coast Guard chief warrant officers. [124]

The U.S. Coast Guard maintains a Motion Picture and Television Office (MOPIC) in Hollywood, California, along with its sister services at the Department of Defense dedicated to enhancing public awareness and understanding of the Coast Guard, its people, and its missions through a cooperative effort with the entertainment industry. [125] [126]

In film Edit

  • Swamp Fire (1946) features the Coast Guard bar pilots in Louisiana.
  • Fighting Coast Guard (1951), depicts Coast Guard trained to help win WWII. [126]
  • Onionhead (1958), is a comedy-drama film set aboard the (fictional) Coast Guard buoy tender USCGC Periwinkle at the start of World War II. The film was shot at Warner Bros.' studio in Burbank, California location shooting for the film took place at the Coast Guard station in Alameda, California, and aboard USCGC Yamacraw (WARC-333), at Coast Guard Base Yerba Buena Island.
  • The Boatniks (1970), is a light-hearted depiction of a Coast Guard unit tasked with supervising recreational boaters on the California coast.
  • The Island (1980), latter-day Caribbean pirates capture the (fictional) cutter USCGC New Hope. Filming was done on USCGC Dauntless. [126]
  • Bad Boys II (2003), depicts counter-drug helicopters from the Helicopter Interdiction Tactical Squadron (HITRON). [126]
  • The Guardian (2006), depicts the Aviation Survival Technician (AST) program.
  • Pain & Gain (2013), starring Dwayne Johnson and Mark Wahlberg, depicted the Coast Guard Deployable Operations Group in action. [126]
  • The Finest Hours (2016), A film portraying the rescue of the crew of SS Pendleton by coxswainBernard C. Webber and the three other crewmen of Coast Guard Motor Lifeboat CG 36500. [126]

On television Edit

The Coast Guard has been featured in several television series, including:


Coast Guard History: Pre-WW2

From a 1939 strength of 10,544 men, the Coast Guard grew to 171,749 men and women (excluding medical personnel) in February 1944. Much of the service’s early wartime service was in the Pacific. The cutter Taney’s anti-aircraft guns deterred Japanese planes from bombing Honolulu’s power plant on 7 December 1941, and in July 1942 Coast Guard vessels claimed sinkings of enemy submarines in Alaskan waters. Coast Guardsmen also operated landing craft for U.S. Marine and Army troops in the Pacific.

From July 1942 until July 1944 Coast Guard beach patrols, often mounted on horses and using guard dogs, covered the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The threat was no idle one a Coast Guardsman helped capture four German saboteurs landed by a submarine on Long Island in June 1942. Meanwhile, four cutters were lost to U-boats during the war. The commandant, Adm. Russell R. Waesche, consulted with U.S. and Royal Navy leaders throughout the war on a variety of topics, including better methods of saving naval and merchant seamen. A dedicated search and rescue agency was established in February 1944 at the request of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Though tiny by most standards, Coast Guard aviation played a role in World War II. Apart from patrolling coastal and sea lanes on antisubmarine and lifesaving missions, Coast Guard aviators helped pioneer helicopter operations and training.


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Sources:

Jeffery B. Floyd and Dean S. Veremakis, “Semper Paratus” Honors to the U.S. Coast Guard in World War II (Tavaris, FL: Tavares Printing, 2008).

Reg Ingraham, First Fleet: The Story of the U.S. Coast Guard at War (New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1944).

Arch A. Mercey and Lee Grove, eds. Sea, Surf, & Hell: The U.S. Coast Guard in World War II (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1945).

Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, 15 vols. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1947–62).

J. Rohwer and G. Hummelchen Chronology of the War at Sea, 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2d ed., 1992).

Robert L. Scheina, U.S. Coast Guard Cutters & Craft of World War II (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1982).

U.S. Coast Guard, Historian’s Office, “World War II,” www.uscg.mil/history/WW2Index.asp.

U.S. Coast Guard, Statistical Division/Historical Section, Public Information Division, The Coast Guard At War (Washington: Public Information Division, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 30 June 1944–1 January 1954), 30 monographs.

John M. Waters, Bloody Winter (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1984).


US Coast Guard Traditions and Honors

Of Surfmen, Cuttermen, Albatross, Pterodactyls, Mariners, and Queens, the US Coast Guard has several unique and colorful awards and references.

The United States Coast Guard, one of the smallest of the countrys armed uniformed branches, has a rich and varied tradition of service awards and honors that are not repeated anywhere.

The US Coast Guard was formed in 1916 when the Revenue Cutter Service and the Lifesaving Service were merged and the new amalgam organization renamed. One of the old traditions of the 19th-century Lifesaving Service was certifying surfboat coxswains, who captained rescue boats through the pounding waves to rescue those lost at sea, as Surfmen. Today this is an extreme elite group of coxswains who stand ready at 19 designated “surf stations” around the United States. These 161 coastguardsmen are the Navy Seals of Search and Rescue and operate 47-foot Motor Rescue Boats and a quartet of Eisenhower-era 52-foot Motor Lifeboats in some of the worst seas imaginable.

Ancient Albatross and Pterodactyls

The current Ancient Albatross award was established to honor the most senior individual Coast Guard aviator in 1966. Enlisted aircrews were added to the award in 1988. The current officer is Vice Admiral John P. Currier while the current enlisted man is Aviation Maintenance Technician Senior Chief Peter G. MacDougall who has been flying since December 1975 when he started as a Flight Mechanic on the Sikorsky HH-3F “Pelican” helicopters.

Honorees perform the award ceremony wearing vintage Red Baron”-style flying leathers, goggles, scarves and caps. These awards are part of the larger US Coast Guard Aviation Association formed in 1977 by retired USCG aviators. Today it has some 1200 members who proudly refer to themselves collectively as the Ancient Order of Pterodactyls because they have been flying since the earth was flat.

The Coast Guard Cutterman and Mariner honors

In 2007, the US Coast Guard, now under the Department of Homeland Security and celebrating its 217th birthday, decided to institute an honor for old salts and established the Master Cutterman certificate for those who had served 20 years at sea. The wording, punched up by Admiral Thad Allen, the unsung hero of the Deepwater Horizon disaster reads:

“To all sailors who have crossed the deck of a Cutter, from the ghosts of the Revenue Marine to the United States Coast Guard, wherever ye may be And to all Ancient Mariners, Albatrosses, Pterodactyls, Surfman and various breeds of Dogs Let it be known that ______ has stood watch, laid before mast, made rounds, checked the navigational lights, monitored engine temperatures, launched boats as required, balanced the electrical loads, provided rations and otherwise attended to the watch, quarter and station bill for all evolutions required to guard the coast and protect the Nation for 20 years. Accordingly, all cutterman with lesser sea time and those unaccustomed to venturing offshore shall show due honor and respect at all times.”

As of 2017, more than 600 certificate members have joined to form the Coast Guard Cuttermen Association.

The Cutterman honor their senior most members with the title Ancient Mariner. The USCG officer still on duty with the longest linage of sea time is referred to as the Gold Ancient Mariner while the veteran enlisted man is the Silver Ancient Mariner. Admiral Robert J. Papp, Jr. who, serving since 1975 holds the Gold award, and Master Chief Boatswain’s Mate Steven Hearn whose service since 1981 earned him the Silver hold the current titles. As their badge of office, they carry nautical spyglasses and authentic relic headgear of the Revenue Cutter Service and Lighthouse Service respectively when carrying out Mariner duties


10-12. David Jarvis, Ellsworth Bertholf, and Samuel Call

(U.S. Coast Guard photo)

David Jarvis, Ellsworth Bertholf, and Samuel Call snowshoed more than 1,500 miles to Point Barrow, Alaska to rescue hundreds of fishermen who were trapped in ice after winter came early in 1897. During the three months it took them to reach their destination they engaged with native communities along their route, healing illnesses, teaching more effective hunting techniques, and arbitrating legal disputes. For their heroism, the trio received Congressional Gold Medals. All three have Coast Guard cutters named in their honor.


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Records of the United States Coast Guard [USCG]

Established: In the Treasury Department by act of January 28, 1915 (38 Stat. 800), merging the Revenue Cutter Service and the Life Saving Service.

Predecessor Agencies:

In the Department of the Treasury:

  • Lighthouse Service (1792-1852)
  • Lighthouse Board (1852-1903)
  • Revenue Marine Division (1843-49, 1871-94)
  • Revenue Cutter Service (1894-1915)
  • Life Saving Service (1871-1915)
  • Steamboat Inspection Service (1852-1903)
  • Bureau of Navigation (1884-1903)
  • Bureau of Customs (vessel documentation functions only, 1942-66, to USCG)

In the Department of Commerce and Labor:

  • Lighthouse Board (1903-10)
  • Bureau of Lighthouses (1910-13)
  • Steamboat Inspection Service (1903-13)
  • Bureau of Navigation (1903-13)

In the Department of Commerce:

  • Bureau of Lighthouses (1913-39, functions to USCG, 1939)
  • Steamboat Inspection Service (1913-32)
  • Bureau of Navigation (1913-32)
  • Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection (1932-36)
  • Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation (functions relating to vessel inspection, navigation, and merchant seamen, 1936-42, to USCG)

Transfers: To the Department of Transportation, effective April 1, 1967, by Department of Transportation Act (80 Stat. 931), October 15, 1966.

Functions: Conducts search and rescue operations in and over the high seas and navigable waters of the United States. Provides medical aid to U.S. ocean fishermen. Enforces maritime and other laws pertaining to protection of life and property at sea, suppression of smuggling and illicit drug trafficking, and protection of the marine environment. Formulates and enforces safety standards for U.S. commercial vessels and offshore structures. Enforces safety standards on foreign vessels subject to U.S. jurisdiction. Evaluates and licenses U.S. merchant marine personnel. Enforces regulations governing the safety and security of ports and the anchorage and movement of vessels in U.S. waters. Establishes and maintains aids to navigation. Regulates the construction, maintenance, and operation of bridges across the navigable waters of the United States. Operates ice-breaking ships and the International Ice Patrol. Develops and directs a national boating safety program. Operates as a wartime service in the Department of the Navy.

Finding Aids: Forrest R. Holdcamper, comp., "Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the United States Coast Guard," NC 31 (1963) supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

Related Records:
Record copies of publications of the U.S. Coast Guard in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
Records of the U.S. Customs Service, RG 36.
General Records of the Department of Commerce, RG 40.
Records of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation, RG 41.
General Records of the Department of the Treasury, RG 56.

26.2 RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF LIGHTHOUSES AND ITS PREDECESSORS
1785-1951 (bulk 1785-1942)

History: During the pre-federal period, lighthouses were owned and operated by the individual colonies and successor states. An act of August 7, 1789 (1 Stat. 53), effective August 15, 1789, enabled the states to transfer their lighthouses and lighthouse sites to the Federal Government, and vested the oversight of federal lighthouses and lighthouse sites in the Secretary of the Treasury. Responsibility for the Lighthouse Service (the name given to federal lighthouse operations and lighthouse site maintenance) was delegated by the Secretary of the Treasury to the Commissioner of Revenue, 1792. Oversight transferred, October 9, 1852, to the Lighthouse Board, established in the Department of the Treasury by an act of August 31, 1852 (10 Stat. 119). Lighthouse Board transferred to Department of Commerce and Labor by the Department of Commerce Act (32 Stat. 825), February 14, 1903. Reorganized and redesignated the Bureau of Lighthouses by an act of July 27, 1910 (36 Stat. 537). Bureau of Lighthouses assigned to Department of Commerce when it was separated from the Department of Labor by the Department of Commerce Act (37 Stat. 736), March 4, 1913. Abolished by Reorganization Plan No. II of 1939, effective July 1, 1939, with functions transferred to USCG, established 1915. SEE 26.1.

Note: Records described below dated after 1939 are those of the USCG.

26.2.1 General records

Textual Records: Correspondence of the Secretary of the Treasury, Commissioner of Revenue, and Fifth Auditor of the Treasury, relating to lighthouses, 1785-1852. Letters sent, 1792-1852, and received, 1833-1900, by the Lighthouse Service. General correspondence of the Lighthouse Board, 1852-1910, and the Bureau of Lighthouses, 1911-39. Letters sent to district engineers and inspectors, 1852-1939. Minutes and journals of the Lighthouse Board, with gaps, 1851-1910. Annual reports, 1820-53. Reports submitted by committees, 1875-1900. Printed bulletins and circulars, 1878, 1903-4, 1911-39. Newspaper clippings, 1900-32. Legal case files on the acquisition and disposition of sites, 1867-1907. Title papers to vessels owned by the Lighthouse Board, 1853-95.

Microfilm Publications: M63.

Photographs and Artworks (3,718 images): Lighthouses, light stations, and lanterns, 1855-1933 (LG, LGA). SEE ALSO 26.12.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Bureau of Lighthouses in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

26.2.2 Records relating to operations

Textual Records: Lighthouse site files, 1790-1939. Descriptions of light stations, 1858-89, and lighthouses, 1900. Descriptions of light sites, 4th District (in Philadelphia) and 11th District (in Chicago), 1900. Inspection, physical condition, and repair reports, 1871-1907. Logbooks of lighthouses, light stations, tenders, and light vessels, 1872-1944 (543 ft.). Journals of shipwrecks, Alligator Reef, FL, 1874-1911 (in Atlanta) Alpena, MI, 1879-1902 (in Chicago) Burnt Coat Harbor, ME, 1872-1924 (in Boston) Cape Ann, MA, 1902-12 (in Boston) Currituck Beach, NC, 1876-1915 (in Atlanta) Cuttyhunk, MA, 1882 (in Boston) Fair Haven, MI, 1872-1902 (in Chicago) Hudson City, NY, 1905 (in New York) Kalamazoo River, MI, 1872-79 (in Chicago) Libby Island, ME, 1906-9 (in Boston) Little River Island, ME, 1870-1907 (in Boston) Negro Island, ME, 1880-93 (in Boston) North Point, WI, 1874-75 (in Chicago) Port du Mort, WI, 1863-1938 (in Chicago) Pottawatomie, MI, 1882-1911 (in Chicago) Presque Isle, MI, 1879- 1904 (in Chicago) Rock Island, IL, 1873-1900 (in Chicago) Rock of Ages, MI, 1909-33 (in Chicago) Santa Cruz, CA, 1878-92 (in San Francisco) Stamford Harbor, CT, 1882-1908 (in Boston) Stepping Stone, NY, 1896-1909 (in New York) Thatchers Island, ME, 1856-99 (in Boston) Two Harbors, MN, 1913-14 (in Chicago) Two Rivers, WI, 1886-96 (in Chicago) and Tybee Island, GA, 1873- 94 (in Atlanta). Lighthouse Service publications, 1838-1942, including record sets of Light Lists, 1838-1940, and Notices to Mariners, 1852-1941.

Maps and Charts (217 items): United States, showing lighthouse district boundaries, 1912 (1 item). Mississippi River lights locations and apparatus, 1876-1910 (150 items). Lighthouse Board lithographs of historical surveys of St. Lawrence River, 1891 (60 items). Taunton, MA, showing lights, 1921 (3 items). Airway routes, Midwest and California, 1927-29 (3 items). SEE ALSO 26.9.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (4,800 items): Bound drawings of illuminating apparatus, 1839-81 (800 items). Lighthouse plans and specifications, 1805-1939 (4,000 items). SEE ALSO 26.9.

Photographs and Lithographs (13 images):Lighthouses and certificates for the Columbian and other expositions, 1873-1936 (LH). SEE ALSO 26.12.

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, and 26.6.1-26.6.12.

26.2.3 Personnel and payroll records

Textual Records: Correspondence concerning keepers and assistants, 1821-1902. Appointment and salary registers, 1801- 1912. Miscellaneous personnel records, 1832-1951, including proceedings of boards for the induction of bureau employees into the U.S. Coast Guard, 1939-40, and lighthouse service retirement cards, 1907-51.

26.2.4 Accounting records

Textual Records: Deeds and contracts for lighthouses and sites, 1790-1853. Correspondence concerning disbursements, 1914-39. Registers of receipts and disbursements, 1825-1920. Allotment ledgers, 1879-1931.

Microfilm Publications: M94.

26.2.5 Records of lighthouse districts

Textual Records: Correspondence and other records of the 3d Lighthouse District (New York, NY), 1854-1939 4th Lighthouse District (Philadelphia, PA), 1901-39 5th Lighthouse District (Baltimore, MD) 1851-1912 6th Lighthouse District (Charleston, SC), 1916 7th Lighthouse District (Key West, FL, and Mobile, AL), 1838-1910 8th Lighthouse District (New Orleans), 1851-1910 9th Lighthouse District (Chicago, IL), 1886-1905 10th Lighthouse District (Buffalo, NY), 1893-1938 12th Lighthouse District (San Francisco, CA), 1855-1913 and 17th Lighthouse District (Portland, OR), 1909-22. Miscellaneous records of the 6th Lighthouse District (Charleston, SC), 1908-16. Records of lighthouses in the Virgin Islands, 1910-17, and Puerto Rico, 1838-99. Newspaper clippings and other records relating to lighthouses, 1910-39.

26.2.6 Records of collectors of customs relating to lighthouses

Textual Records (in Boston): Records of the Customs District, Newport, RI, including general records, 1792-1857 correspondence, 1789-1830 records relating to construction and repair, 1808-42 lighthouse accounts, 1790-1829 and keepers' reports, 1819-61. Records of the Customs District, New London, CT, including correspondence, 1789-1914 accounts of the Superintendent of Lights for Rhode Island, 1843-80 reports on the state of lighthouses, 1816-49 and lighthouse vouchers, disbursements, and estimates of funds, 1791-1880. Records of the Customs District, New Bedford, MA, including correspondence and miscellaneous records, 1820-78.

Finding Aids: Forrest R. Holdcamper, comp. "Preliminary Inventory of the Field Records of the Light-House Service," NC 63 (1964).

26.3 RECORDS OF THE REVENUE CUTTER SERVICE AND ITS PREDECESSORS
1790-1933 (bulk 1790-1915)

History: Revenue cutters authorized by an act of August 4, 1790 (1 Stat. 175), to enforce laws governing the collection of customs and tonnage duties. Supervised by collectors of customs, 1791-1871, except for the period 1843-49, when oversight was vested in Revenue Marine Division of the Treasury Department. A new Revenue Marine Division, established 1871, became the Revenue Cutter Service (RCS) by act of July 31, 1894 (28 Stat. 171). In addition to its customs and tonnage responsibilities, RCS acted to suppress smuggling, piracy, and the slave trade assisted ships removed navigation hazards enforced quarantine regulations, neutrality laws, and laws prohibiting the importation of Chinese coolie labor and, after 1867, enforced regulations in Alaska concerning the unauthorized killing of fur- bearing animals, fishery protection, and the firearms, ammunition, and liquor traffic. RCS merged with Life Saving Service to form the USCG, 1915. SEE 26.1.

Note: Records described below dated after 1915 are those of the USCG.

26.3.1 General records

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1790-1897, and received, 1836- 1910. Letters received from collectors of customs, 1834-96 and from officers of cutters, 1833-69. Letters to captains and engineers, 1884-1921. Miscellaneous correspondence and reports, 1793-1910.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Revenue Cutter Service in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

26.3.2 Records relating to operations

Textual Records: Logbooks of revenue cutters, 1819-1915. Records relating to Alaska cruises and police work, 1868-1915, including the rescue by the U.S.R.C. Bear of icebound whalers in 1897-98, and the U.S.R.C. Nunivak's ethnological and meteorological studies and collection of botanical and geological data in the Yukon River area in 1899. Private journal of J.C. Cantwell, crew member of the U.S.R.C. Nunivak, 1900-01. Abstracts and lists of wreck reports, 1894-1913. Records of assistance rendered, 1886-95, 1903-14. Correspondence relating to service in the Spanish-American War, 1898 international cup races, 1903 the yellow fever patrol, 1905 and the San Francisco fire, 1906.

Microfilm Publications: M641.

Maps and Charts (2 items): Manuscript charts of Perry Harbor and Kashega Bay, AK, by Revenue Cutter Unalga, n.d. SEE ALSO 26.9.

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, and 26.6.1-26.6.12.

26.3.3 Records relating to legal matters

Textual Records: Decisions of the solicitor, 1866-1915. Legal case files, 1871-1910. Records of minor courts, 1906-13.

26.3.4 Personnel and payroll records

Textual Records: Muster rolls, 1833-1932. Examinations of cadets, 1872-1911, and of applicants for the Revenue Marine Service, 1861-92. Applications, 1844-80. Ships' rosters, 1819-1904. Report of changes in personnel, 1865-1911. Register of warrant officers, 1894-1912. Records of the Mutual Aid Association, 1891-1933.

Related Records: Additional cadet records UNDER 26.7.

26.3.5 Accounting records

Textual Records: Construction and repair proposals, 1830-1910. Abstracts of expenditures, 1871-1912. Records of the Division of Construction and Repairs, 1870-1926. Correspondence relating to construction, 1873-1908.

26.3.6 Records of collectors of customs relating to revenue
cutters

Textual Records (in Boston): Records of the Customs District, Newport, RI, including general records, 1831-72 correspondence relating to revenue cutters, 1812-30, and the Revenue Marine, 1792-1868 requisitions for the Revenue Cutter Crawford, 1865-69, and for the Revenue Schooner Jackson, 1844-48 records of the Revenue Cutter Samuel Dexter, including quarterly logbook, 1875, engineers' journal, 1877, and requisitions, 1875-85 and vessel passports, 1797-1845. Records of the Customs District, New London, CT, including revenue cutter journals, 1800-9, 1842-66 logbooks of the Revenue Cutters Crawford, 1844-47, James Campbell, 1853-63, and Ewing, 1841-44, 1865-83 vouchers, 1791- 1905 and provision returns, 1790-1900.

26.4 RECORDS OF THE LIFE SAVING SERVICE
1791-1944

History: Established, 1871, in the Revenue Marine Division, Treasury Department. Placed under a general superintendent immediately responsible to the Secretary of the Treasury by an act of June 18, 1878 (20 Stat. 163). Merged with Revenue Cutter Service to form USCG, 1915. SEE 26.1.

Note: Records described below dated after 1915 are those of the USCG.

26.4.1 General records

Textual Records: Letters received, 1847-1914, with registers. Letters relating to disasters, 1888-1907. Letters to the commandant, 1873-1915. Letters sent and received by the superintendent, 1878-1912. Letters sent by the 5th District (in New York), 6th District (in Atlanta), 7th District (in Atlanta), 8th District (in New York), 10th District (in New York), 11th District (in Chicago), California 12th District (in San Francisco), Michigan 12th District (in Chicago), and 13th District (in San Francisco), 1881-1941. Correspondence relating to life-saving medals, 1894-1924. Correspondence and reports of the Board of Life Saving Appliances, 1888-1911.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Lifesaving Service in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

26.4.2 Records relating to operations

Textual Records: Journals, 1881-1914, with indexes. Station wreck reports for lifesaving stations located at Absecon, NJ, 1876-1916 (in New York) Ashtabula, OH, 1894-1904 (in Chicago) Assateague Beach, VA, 1883-1917 (in Philadelphia) Avalon, NJ, n.d. (in New York) Baileys Harbor, WI, 1896-1919 (in Chicago) Barnegat, NJ, 1906-15 (in New York) Bay Head, NJ, 1863-1911 (in New York) Bellport, NY, 1883-1919 (in New York) Big Kinnakeet, NC, 1883- 1918 (in Atlanta) Brazos, TX, 1881-86 (in Fort Worth) Brigantine, NJ, 1892-1915 (in New York) Buffalo, NY, 1883-1918 (in New York) Cape Disappointment, WA, 1902-13 (in Seattle) Cape Hatteras, NC, 1883-84 (in Atlanta) Cape May, NJ, 1886-1932 (in New York) Cedar Creek, NJ, 1886-1932 (in New York) Chadwick, NJ, 1885-1929 (in New York) Charlevoix, MI, 1900-20 (in Chicago) Charlotte, NY, 1890-1918 (in New York) Chicago, IL, 1895-1902 (in Chicago) Cleveland, OH, 1893-1917 (in Chicago) Cold Spring, NY, 1885-1902 (in New York) Coney Island, NY, 1883-94 (in New York) Coskata, ME, 1883-1915 (in Boston) Cranberry Island, ME, 1883-1915 (in Boston) Crisp Point, MI, 1865-1918 (in Chicago) Cross Island, ME, 1883-1915 (in Boston) Crumple Island (Great Wass Island), ME, 1883-1913 (in Boston) Davis Neck, MA, 1883-1900 (in Boston) Duluth, MN, 1895-1915 (in Chicago) Durants, NC, 1910-17 (in Atlanta) Erie, PA, 1893-1916 (in Philadelphia) Evanston, IL, 1883-1918 (in Chicago) Fire Island, NY, 1883-1918 (in New York) Forge River, NY, 1884-1916 (in New York) Forked River, NJ, 1883-1915 (in New York) Fort Lauderdale, FL, 1911-18 (in Atlanta) Gilberts Bar, FL, 1886-1918 (in Atlanta) Grande Point Sable, MI, 1883-1902 (in Chicago) Grays Harbor, WA, 1913-16 (in Seattle) Great Boars Head, NH, 1900-15 (in Boston) Great Egg Harbor, NJ, 1880-1911 (in New York) Harvey Cedars, NJ, 1883-1915 (in New York) Hog Island, VA, 1883-1915 (in Philadelphia) Holland, MI, 1887-1919 (in Chicago) Holly Beach, NJ, 1884-1915 (in New York) Indian River Inlet, DE, 1883-1915 (in Philadelphia) Island Beach, NJ, 1886- 1920 (in New York) Isle of Shoals, NH, 1911-16 (in Boston) Jackson Park, IL, 1893-1920 (in Chicago) Kenosha, WI, 1883-1915 (in Chicago) Knobbs Beach (Merrimac River), MA, 1891-1902 (in Boston) Lake View Beach, MI, 1883-1913 (in Chicago) Lewes, DE, 1884-1904 (in Philadelphia) Little Beach, NJ, 1883-1915 (in New York) Long Branch, NJ, 1883-1915 (in New York) Lorain, OH, 1911-17 (in Chicago) Loveladies (Beach), NJ, 1885-1913 (in New York) Little Kinnakeet, NC, 1885-1921 (in Atlanta) Mantoloking, NJ, 1885-1913 (in New York) Marquette, MI, 1911-21 (in Chicago) Milwaukee, WI, 1893-1920 (in Chicago) Monmouth Beach, NJ, 1884- 1915 (in New York) Muskegon, MI, 1882-1918 (in Chicago) Narragansett, RI, 1905-18 (in Boston) Niagara, NY, 1893-1922 (in New York) North Manitou Island, MI, 1883-1911 (in Chicago) Ocean City, NJ, 1885-1904 (in New York) Oregon Inlet, NC, 1884- 1920 (in Atlanta) Oswego, NY, 1883-1916 (in New York) Parramore (Beach), VA, 1884-1916 (in Philadelphia) Pecks Beach, NJ, 1896- 1916 (in New York) Peterson Point, WA, 1900-13 (in Seattle) Plum Island, MA, 1908-17 (in Boston) Point Alerton, MA, 1890- 1918 (in Boston) Point Bonita, CA, 1902-15 (in San Francisco) Point Judith, RI, 1903-13 (in Boston) Point Lookout, MD, 1883- 1917 (in Philadelphia) Portage, MI, 1905-18 (in Chicago) Racine, WI, 1883-1921 (in Chicago) Rockaway, NY, 1883-1918 (in New York) Rockaway Point, NY, 1883-1917 (in New York) Rye Beach, NH, 1884-1914 (in Boston) Sabine Pass, TX, 1902-18 (in Fort Worth) Salisbury Beach, MA, 1898-1916 (in Boston) Sandy Hook, NJ, 1883-1917 (in New York) Sandy Point, RI, 1899-1916 (in Boston) Seabright, NJ, 1875-1920 (in New York) Sea Isle City, NJ, 1889-1914 (in New York) Sheboygan, WI, 1895-1917 (in Chicago) Ship Bottom, NJ, 1886-1910 (in New York) Ship Canal, WI, 1886-1905 (in Chicago) South Chicago, IL, 1890-1921 (in Chicago) Spermacetti (Cove), NJ, 1885-1925 (in New York) Spring Lake, NJ, 1884-1915 Ewing Stone Harbor, NJ, 1916-24 (in New York) Straitsmouth, MA, 1900-19 (in Boston) Sturgeon Bay, WI, 1898-1917 (in Chicago) Tathams, NJ, 1884-1912 (in New York) Thunder Bay (Island), MI, 1883-1916 (in Chicago) Turtle Gut, NJ, 1884-1908 (in New York) Two Mile Beach, NJ, 1908-24 (in New York) Two Rivers, WI, 1883-1920 (in Chicago) Vermilion, OH, 1883-1920 (in Chicago) Waadah (Point), WA, 1909-15 (in Seattle) Wachapreague, VA, n.d. (in Philadelphia) Wallis Sands, ME, 1892- 1916 (in Boston) Wallops Beach, VA, 1883-1919 (in Philadelphia) Wash Woods, NC, 1884-1917 (in Atlanta) Whales Head, NC, 1899- 1920 (in Atlanta) and Wood End, MA, 1897-1909 (in Boston).

Logbooks of lifesaving stations located in Boston District (in Boston), Chicago District (in Chicago), Cleveland District (in Chicago), Delaware (in Philadelphia), Florida (in Atlanta), Jacksonville District (in Atlanta), New Orleans District (in Fort Worth), New York District (in New York), Nome, AK (in Anchorage), Norfolk District (in Philadelphia), North Carolina (in Atlanta), San Francisco District (in San Francisco), and Seattle District (in Seattle), 1873-1941. Records of medals awarded, 1876-1944. Scrapbooks, 1874-1937.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (600 items): Lifesaving stations, 1875-1915. SEE ALSO 26.9.

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.5.8, and 26.6.1-26.6.12.

26.4.3 Legal and accounting records

Textual Records: Records of investigations of the 8th (New Orleans, LA) and 10th (Buffalo, NY) Districts, 1901. Appropriation ledgers, 1876-1912. Shipping articles, 1863-1915.

26.4.4 Personnel and payroll records

Textual Records: Registers and lists of station keepers, 1852-78. Application files, 1878-97. Articles of engagement for surfmen, 1878-1914. Registers of employees, 1866-1913. Disability correspondence, 1878-1910. Records relating to officers, 1791- 1919, and to cadets, 1876-1912. Muster rolls of the Spring Lake, NJ, District, 1924-31 (in New York).

26.5 RECORDS OF THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD
1859-1986

History: Established, 1915, by merger of Revenue Cutter Service and Life Saving Service. Acquired functions of Bureau of Lighthouses, 1939. By EO 9083, February 28, 1942, effective March 1, 1942, absorbed functions of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation relating to navigation, vessel inspection, and merchant seamen. Bureau functions relating to admeasuring and documenting American vessels transferred by EO 9083 to Bureau of Customs and subsequently to USCG, effective April 1, 1967, by Department of Transportation Act (80 Stat. 938), October 15, 1966. For complete administrative histories of the Bureau of Customs and of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation and its predecessors (Steamboat Inspection Service, Bureau of Navigation, and Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection), SEE 36.1 and 41.1, respectively.

26.5.1 General correspondence and reports

Textual Records: Central correspondence, 1910-41 (1,738 ft.). Records relating to the consolidation of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation and the Lighthouse Service with the USCG, 1933-49. Management and improvement reports, 1959-64. Regulations and administrative instructions, 1940-77.

26.5.2 Records of the Office of Public and International Affairs

Textual Records: Records of the Public Affairs Branch, including a reference information file, 1948-50, and miscellaneous reference materials, 1910-41.

Photographs (23,511 images): General photographic file, 1886- 1967, documenting USCG activities in Alaska, and the European and Pacific theaters during World War II ships and boats aircraft the Revenue Cutter Service and Life Saving Service captured rumrunners personalities Admiral Byrd's Antarctic expedition, 1946-47 navigational activities training programs rescue operations disasters activities relating to the space program artwork and Cuban refugees (G, 15,000 images). Photographs relating to the Steamboat Inspection Service and the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation, Coast Guard and merchant ships, and lifeboat stations and other aids to navigation, 1859-1945 (M, 500 images). Lightships and light tenders, 1891-1935 (LS, LSON 774 images). Lifeboat stations, 1893-1974 (CGS, 2,304 images). U.S.R.C. Nunivak on duty in Alaska, 1899-1901 (RSN, 138 images). Mississippi River flood relief efforts, 1927 (MF, 47 images). Survey of lighthouses, 1945 (S, 1,200 images). Activities and enrollees of the U.S. Maritime Service and U.S. Coast Guard stations, 1938-41 (A, 1,680 images). Japanese, allied, and neutral merchant vessels entering San Francisco Bay, 1937-43 (SAN, SJ 378 images). Visit of U.S.C.G.C. Kukui to Coast Guard stations, 1948-53 (T, 572 images). Commissioned officers of the Revenue Cutter Service and USCG, 1860-1945 (PC, PR 918 images). SEE ALSO 26.12.

Color Photographs (475 images, in Washington Area): Antarctic color photographs taken by U.S.C.G.C. Eastwind photographers on Antarctic cruises in support of Operation Deep Freeze, 1955-63. SEE ALSO 26.12.

Photographic Negatives (7,455 images, in Washington Area): From USCG icebreakers and other vessels on the Bering Sea Patrol or DEW Line supply in western and eastern Arctic, and Antarctic cruises in Operation Deep Freeze, 1946-68. SEE ALSO 26.12.

Filmstrips(1 item): Whaling, 1939 (FS). SEE ALSO 26.12.

26.5.3 Fiscal, accounting, and supply records

Textual Records: Boards of survey case files, 1965-80. Boards of survey (real property) files, 1945-80. Miscellaneous records of boards of survey, 1939-50. Expired and canceled leases, 1935-49.

26.5.4 Legal records

Textual Records: Opinions of the Chief Counsel, 1941-64. Records of boards of investigation, 1915-30. Records of general and summary courts-martial, 1906-41, and of deck courts, 1920-41. Watch books, 1914-23. Records of imprisonments and probation, 1929-31.

26.5.5 Personnel records

Textual Records: Copies of payrolls and muster rolls, 1925-32. Records of honorable discharges, 1917-18, 1927-37. Personnel and pay cards, 1917-21. Proceedings of officer personnel boards, 1941-55. Officer personnel files, 1915-29. Lifesaving medals case files, 1944-67.

26.5.6 Engineering records

Textual Records: Correspondence and budget files, 1957-64. Records of the Marine Engineering Division, 1924-40, including blueprints, tracings, and construction reports of vessels in the Tampa class and small boats constructed by the Work Projects Administration. Engineering program subject files, 1943-64. Planning and administrative files, 1938-64. Damage control books for USCG vessels, 1944-78. Directives originating in the Office of Engineering, 1965-71.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (37,050 items): Plans of cutters, lightships, and other vessels, 1871-1986 (36,800 items). USCG bases and depots, 1917-53 (250 items), including Boston, MA Ketchikan, AK Elizabeth City, NC Sault Ste. Marie, MI and Jersey City, NJ. SEE ALSO 26.9.

26.5.7 Records relating to oceanographic operations and statutory
patrols

Textual Records: Reports, 1946-60. Correspondence of the Aerology and Oceanographic Section, 1945-57. Records of the Bering Sea Patrol, 1926-40 (in Anchorage). Correspondence, reports, and other records of the International Ice Patrol, 1938-60 Greenland Patrol, 1940-44 and Ocean Station Program (Weather Patrol), 1945-58.

Maps and Charts (58 items): Bering Sea Patrols by U.S.C.G.C. Chelan, 1933-34. SEE 26.8.

Photographs (458 images):Greenland Survey Expedition, U.S.C.G.C. Duane, 1940 (H, 233 images). Surveys of the west coast of Greenland by U.S.C.G.C. Duane, August-September 1940, and of Baffin Bay and Davis Strait by U.S.C.G.C. Northland, autumn, 1940 (225 images, in Washington Area). SEE ALSO 26.11.

26.5.8 Records of the Surface Facilities Branch

Textual Records: Reports and correspondence, 1951-67. Cutter files, 1941-63. Logbooks of USCG vessels, 1915-47. Logbooks of vessels, stations, and depots, 1925-47, 1969-72. Microfilm copy of records and reports of assistance rendered, 1916-40 (280 rolls). Microfilm copy of casualty and wreck reports, 1913-36 (21 rolls). Microfilm copy of records of marine casualties, 1913-40 (7 rolls).

Microfilm Publications: T720, T919, T920, T921, T925, T926.

Photographs (66 images): Discontinued shore units, 1945-61 (LB). SEE ALSO 26.11.

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, and 26.6.1-26.6.12.

26.5.9 Records of the Intelligence Division

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, and other records, 1922-41, relating to violations of customs laws, including the Volsted (Prohibition) Act of 1919. Records relating to seized vessels, 1926-35. Merchant vessel information file, 1941-46.

Photographs(460 negative images, in Washington area):United States Coast Guard Intelligence Division Vessel Surveillance Photographs, 1935-41.

26.5.10 Records of the Military Readiness Division

Textual Records: Navy war program reports, 1943. World War II narrative histories, including district histories, 1941-45. War diaries, 1942-45. Action reports, 1942-45. Correspondence concerning relations between U.S. Navy and USCG, 1941-47.

26.5.11 Records relating to merchant marine safety

Textual Records: Records of the War Casualty Section, including subject files, 1941-45 survivor statements, 1941-45 merchant vessel casualty reports, 1941-46 foreign flag merchant vessel casualty reports, 1941-45 reports of enemy action, 1941-45 and publications, 1943-50. Marine Board case files of the Casualty Review Branch, 1943-58. Records of the Ship Structure Committee (SSC), including general records and reports of the Board of Investigation into the design and construction of welded steel merchant vessels, 1943-47 records of the Welding Research Project, 1944-46 SSC research project files, 1944-54 and admeasurement case files of the Tonnage Survey Branch, 1890-1943.

Photographs (661 images, in Washington Area):Merchant vessel war casualties, 1941-45. SEE ALSO 26.11.

26.5.12 Records relating to port safety and law enforcement

Textual Records: Subject files and printed materials of the Port Security Division, 1941-46. Correspondence and related records of the Port Security and Law Enforcement Division, 1946-62.

26.5.13 Records relating to navigation

Textual Records: Bridge permit case files of the Bridge Administration Division, 1962-75.

26.5.14 Other records

Textual Records: Records of the Marine Safety Council (Merchant Marine Council), including journals, 1942-44 records of meetings, 1942-64 transcripts of public hearings, 1950-64 and records of subcommittees, 1955-61. Records of the Permanent Board, including correspondence, 1935-43 minutes of meetings, 1935-43 and records of long-range projects, 1935-46. Records relating to boating safety, including correspondence of the Office of Recreational Boating, 1955-64. Records of interagency groups, including correspondence, reports, and related records of the Air Sea Rescue Agency, 1942-58 and records relating to USCG participation in the Air Coordinating Committee, 1945-62.

Maps and Charts (80 items):Greenland, 1931-41 (7 items). Beach patrol maps of the New England coast, with accompanying reports on operations, searchlights, and towers, 1942-43 (73 items). SEE ALSO 26.9.

26.6 RECORDS OF U.S. COAST GUARD DISTRICTS
1789-1988

26.6.1 Records of the 1st Coast Guard District, Boston (ME, MA,
NH, RI, VT)

Textual Records (in Boston, except as noted): Records of the Customs District, Newport, RI, consisting of records relating to vessel documentation, including registers, 1855-1916, enrollments, 1854-1932, licenses, 1869-1911, and indexes to vessels, owners, and masters, 1802-1902 records relating to seamen, including registers, 1796-1878, returns of seamen on board vessels, 1800-62, and shipping articles, 1841-71 and wreck reports, 1874-1954. Records of the Customs District, Providence, RI, consisting of records relating to vessel documentation, 1854- 1941 and wreck reports, 1911-63. Aids-to-navigation case files, 1900-65. Administrative notices and instructions, 1956-66. Publications, 1956-66. Initial vessel inspection reports, 1929- 54. Records of the Office of the Commandant, consisting of correspondence, 1952-65 and directives, 1962-68. Logbooks of USCG Light Stations, Chatham, MA, 1971-73, Race Rock (New London), CT, 1966-68, 1970-73, The Cuckolds (Newagen), ME, 1971- 73, Beavertail (Newport), RI, 1971-72, Moose Peak (Southwest Harbor), ME, 1971-72, Petit Manon (Southwest Harbor), ME, 1971- 72, Browns Head (Vinalhaven), ME, 1971, Eastern Point (Gloucester), MA, 1971-72, Portland, ME, 1972, Halfway Rock, ME, 1972-73, Southeast, RI, 1970-74, and Mount Desert, ME, 1971-73 USCG Stations, Portsmouth Harbor, NH, 1971-72, Castle Hill (Newport), RI, 1971-72, Block Island, RI, 1971-72, Rockland Breakwater, ME, 1971-72, Point Judith, RI, 1964-66 and 1971-72, and Brant Point (Nantucket), MA, 1971-72 USCG LORAN Stations, Nantucket, MA, 1971-72, and Cape Atholl, Greenland, 1971-75 USCG Weather Observation Station, Scituate, MA, 1971 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Active, 1971-79, Bibb, 1969-78, Bittersweet, 1978-80, Cape Cross, 1971-78, Cape Fairweather, 1971-81, Cape George, 1971-76, Cape Higgon, 1981-83, Cape Horn, 1969-77, Chase, 1970- 84, Cowslip, 1969-72, Decisive, 1971-79, Duane, 1969-74, Eagle, 1963-72, Escanaba, 1971-73, Evergreen, 1969-78, Hamilton, 1971- 73, Hornbeam, 1968, Mesquite, 1974-76, Nantucket Island, 1971-75, Owasco, 1969, 1971-73, Pendant, 1970-79, Point Bonita, 1970-72, Point Hannon, 1971-78, 1980-81, Point Jackson, 1970-72, Point Turner, 1971-81, Redwood, 1970-76, Shackle, 1971-74, 1978-82, Sherman, 1971-73, Snohomish, 1971-84, Spar, 1971-82, Swivel, 1971-73, Towline, 1971-78, Unimak, 1977-79, Vigilant, 1969-72, 1974-80, Vigorous, 1971-82, White Heath, 1971-77, 1980, White Lupine, 1970-72, White Sage, 1971-76, 1979-82, and Yankton, 1971- 82. Logbook of U.S.C.G.C. Munro, 1971-75 (in Seattle).

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, and 26.6.2-26.6.12.

26.6.2 Records of the 2d Coast Guard District, St. Louis (AR, CO,
IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, MN, MO, NE, ND, OH, OK, western PA, SD, TN,
WV, WI, WY)

Textual Records: Records (in Philadelphia) of the Marine Safety Office, Pittsburgh, PA, relating to vessel documentation, including bills of sale and mortgages of enrolled vessels, 1940- 77 certificates of enrollment and licenses, 1941-63 vessel conveyances, 1927-45 title records, 1944-49 initial vessel inspection files, 1943-69 master carpenter certificates, 1941- 63 vessel folders, 1906-75 and masters' oaths for renewal of license of vessel, 1945-66. Records of the Marine Safety Office, Memphis, TN, consisting of vessel documentation case files, 1967- 75 (in Atlanta). Logbooks (in Atlanta) of USCG Depots, Hickman, KY, 1971-73, and Buchanon, TN, 1971-72 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Chippewa, 1971-75, Cimarron, 1971-79, Goldenrod, 1971-73, Obion, 1971-74, Poplar, 1971-73, and Sycamore, 1973-77. Logbooks (in Kansas City) of USCG Base, St. Louis, MO, 1971-72 USCG Depots, Leavenworth, KS, 1971, and Dubuque, IA, 1971-72 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Cheyenne, 1971-74, Gasconade, 1971-75, Foxglove, 1971-77, Muskingum, 1971, Sumac, 1971-78, and Wyaconde, 1969-76. Logbooks (in Fort Worth) of USCG Depots, Salisaw, OK, 1971-72, and Pine Bluff, AR, 1971-72. Logbooks (in Chicago) of USCG Depot, Peoria, IL, 1971-72 and USCG LORAN Station, Dana, IN, 1971-72. Logbooks of U.S.C.G.C. Oleander, 1972-77 (in Philadelphia).

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1, and 26.6.3-26.6.12.

26.6.3 Records of the 3d Coast Guard District, New York (CT, DE,
NJ, eastern NY, eastern PA)

Textual Records: Records (in Boston) of the Customs District, New London, CT, consisting of records relating to vessel documentation, including registers, 1789-1914 enrollments, 1793- 1911, licenses, 1793-1911, and bonds, 1799-1897 and records relating to seamen, including crew lists, 1792-1888, and shipping articles, 1840-1924. Records (in Boston) of the Customs District, Stonington, CT, and Westerly, RI, consisting of records relating to vessel documentation, 1842-1922 returns of seamen aboard vessels, 1848-73 and wreck reports, 1876-1912. Records of the Customs District, Bristol-Warren, RI, relating to vessel documentation, 1833-1913 (in Boston). Records of the Marine Inspection Office, New York, NY, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1942-58 (1,172 ft., 40,662 vols., in New York). Records of the Vessel Documentation Office, Wilmington, DE, 1939- 57 (in Philadelphia). Records (in Philadelphia) of the Marine Inspection Office, Philadelphia, PA, consisting of initial vessel inspection files, 1940-56, 1959-61 logbooks of merchant vessels, 1956-65 and notices of change of master, renewal of licenses, and withdrawals from deposit, 1956-65. Records (in Philadelphia) of the Marine Safety Office, Philadelphia, PA, consisting of certificates of enrollment and yacht licenses, 1915-38 license and registry records, 1910-46 and vessel admeasurement records, 1900-50. Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Wilmington, DE, consisting of initial vessel inspection files, 1940-62 (in Philadelphia). Weekly reports of the New York district, 1936-38 (in Washington Area). Logbooks (in New York) of USCG Air Station, Ramey AFB, PR, 1972 USCG Light Stations, Brandywine Shoal, DE, 1971-74, Hams Bluff, VI, 1971-73, Miah Maull Shoal, NJ, 1970, 1972-73, and Mona Island (San Juan), PR, 1971-73 USCG LORAN Stations, Targabarun, Turkey, 1970-72, Sylt, Germany, 1971-72, Simeri Crichi, Italy, 1971-72, Cape San Juan (Fajardo), PR, 1971, and Scatsta, Brae (Shetland Islands), United Kingdom, 1971-72 USCG Stations, Atlantic Beach, NY, 1971, Fort Totten, NY, 1971- 73, Manasquan Inlet (Point Pleasant Beach), NJ, 1971-72, Niagara (Youngstown), NY, 1971, Rochester, NY, 1971-72, Rockaway (Fort Tilden), NY, 1971-72, Short Beach (Freeport), NY, 1971, and Townsend Inlet, NJ, 1972 USCG Training Center, Cape May, NJ, 1971-72 U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Alert, 1971-73, Arundel, 1976- 82, Cape Strait, 1971-74, Dallas, 1971-75, Gallatin, 1971-82, Hornbeam, 1977-80, Mahoning, 1971-75, Manitou, 1971-80, Morgenthau, 1969-74, Ojibwa, 1971-80, Point Francis, 1972-75, Point Herron, 1971-74, Point Steele, 1971-75, Point Wells, 1971- 80, Raritan, 1975-78, Red Oak, 1971-80, Sagebrush, 1971-81, Sassafras, 1971-73, Sauk, 1974-78, Spencer, 1971-74, Tamaroa, 1971-80, Tern, 1971-74, and Wire, 1969, 1971-80 and decommissioned U.S.C.G.C. Maple, 1971-73. Logbooks (in Philadelphia) of USCG Depot, Sewickley, PA, 1971-72 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Apalachee, 1975-82, Cherokee, 1969-77, Cleat, 1971-80, Cuyahoga, 1970-76, Madrona, 1975-84, Mohican, 1971-82, Point Arena, 1976-82, Point Highland, 1971-82, Red Birch, 1974- 80 and 1986-93, Red Cedar, 1971-80, Sledge, 1977-80, Southwind, 1970-74, Tackle, 1971-83, and White Pine, 1969-73. Logbooks of U.S.C.G.C. Mariposa, 1972-73 (in Boston).

Maps and Charts (44 items): Coastal charts, NY and NJ, annotated to show harbor facilities, lights, and buoys, 1915-41, and including World War II blackout charts, 1940-41. SEE ALSO 26.8.

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1, 26.6.2, and 26.6.4-26.6.12.

26.6.4 Records of the 5th Coast Guard District, Portsmouth, VA
(DC, MD, NC, VA)

Textual Records: Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Wilmington, NC, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1950- 57, 1969-74 (in Atlanta). Logbooks (in Atlanta) of USCG Base, Fort Macon (Atlantic Beach), NC, 1971-72 USCG LORAN Station, Carolina Beach, NC, 1971-72 USCG Stations, Hatteras Inlet (Hatteras), NC, 1971-72, Oregon Inlet (Rodanthe), NC, 1971-72, Wrightsville Beach, NC, 1971-72, and Hobucken, NC, 1972 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Cape Upright, 1971-73, Chilula, 1970-78, Chokeberry, 1971-76, Conifer, 1971-76, Laurel, 1971-73, Northwind, 1973-79, Point Martin, 1971-74, and Verbena, 1969, 1971-75. Logbooks (in Philadelphia) of USCG Base Section No. 8, 1926-34 USCG Base, Portsmouth, VA, 1972 USCG Repair Base, Norfolk, VA, 1934-41 USCG Training Station, Hoffman Island and Station Little Creek, VA, 1940-42 Crisfield, MD, Light Attendant Station, 1972-74 U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Apalachee, 1972-73, Capstan, 1972-73, Cherokee, 1978-80, Chinook, 1972-75, Chock, 1972, Ingham, 1972- 79, Madrona, 1972-74, Point Huron, 1972, Primrose, 1974-77, Sledge, 1972-76, Taney, 1972-78, and Unimak, 1972-75 and decommissioned U.S.C.G.C. Edisto, 1973-74. Logbooks of U.S.C.G.C. Winnebago, 1972-73 (in Atlanta).

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1-26.6.3, and 26.6.5-26.6.12.

26.6.5 Records of the 7th Coast Guard District, Miami (FL, GA,
PR, SC, VI)

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of the Marine Safety Office, Savannah, GA, relating to vessel documentation, including bills of sale, abstracts of title, and mortgages, 1906-60. Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Savannah, GA, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1956-63 original vessel inspection files, 1942-46 and abstracts of title case files, 1942-49. Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Miami, FL, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1943-64. Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Jacksonville, FL, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1943-65 and vessel documentation case files, 1967-72. Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Tampa, FL, consisting of vessel documentation case files, 1967- 75 original vessel inspection files, 1931-65 and logbooks of merchant vessels, 1942-65. Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Charleston, SC, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1949-58. Records of the Marine Inspection Office, San Juan, PR, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1957. Logbooks of USCG Bases, Mayport, FL, 1971-72, and St. Petersburg, FL, 1971-72 USCG Light Stations, Apalachicola, FL, 1971-72, Cape San Blas (Port St. Joe), FL, 1952-53, and St. Joseph Point (Port St. Joe), FL, 1951-52 USCG LORAN Stations, South Caicos, British West Indies, 1971-73, and San Salvador, Bahama Islands, 1972-73 USCG Radio Stations, Jacksonville Beach, FL, 1971-72, and Miami (Perrine), FL, 1971-72 USCG Shore Unit, Jacksonville, FL, 1971- 72 USCG Stations, Islamorada, FL, 1971-72, Ponce de Leon Inlet (New Smyrna Beach), FL, 1971-72, Saint Simons Island, GA, 1971- 72, and Sullivans Island, SC, 1971-72 U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Androscoggin, 1972-73, Azalea, 1971-78, Cape Current, 1972-77, Cape Knox, 1971-76, Cape Morgan, 1971-77, Cape Shoalwater, 1971- 78, Cosmos, 1971-78, Courageous, 1971-76, Dauntless, 1971-78, Dependable, 1969-76, Diligence, 1971-74, Hammer, 1971-74, Hollyhock, 1970-77, Juniper, 1971-75, Papaw, 1975-77, Point Charles, 1971-78, Point Lobos, 1971-75, Point Roberts, 1971-79, Point Swift, 1971-76, Spike, 1971-76, Steadfast, 1971-78, Sweetgum, 1971, 1973-79, and White Sumac, 1971-77 and decommissioned U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Ariadne, 1968, and Rambler, 1971-78.

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1-26.6.4, and 26.6.6-26.6.12.

26.6.6 Records of the 8th Coast Guard District, New Orleans (AL,
LA, MS, NM, TX)

Textual Records (in Fort Worth, except as noted): Records (in Atlanta) of the Marine Inspection and Marine Safety Offices, Mobile, AL, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1942-65 vessel documentation case files, 1967-72 owners' oaths on registry, 1952-66 masters' oaths for renewal of license of vessel, 1952-67 declarations of new or alternate masters of vessels, 1941-67 and master carpenters' certificates, 1941-66. Records of the Vessel Documentation Branch, New Orleans, LA, including masters' oaths and other vessel documentation files, 1930-75. Records of the Customs District, Beaumont, TX, consisting of articles of agreement between masters and seamen, 1936-43. Records of the Vessel Documentation Branch, Brownsville, TX, 1940-75. Records of the Marine Inspection and Marine Safety Offices, Brownsville, TX, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1946-59. Records of the Vessel Documentation Branch, Corpus Christi, TX, 1933-62, 1972. Records of the Marine Inspection and Marine Safety Offices, Corpus Christi, TX, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1943-52. Records of the Vessel Documentation Branch, Galveston, TX, 1935-75. Records of the Marine Inspection and Marine Safety Offices, Galveston, TX, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1942-74. Records of the Vessel Documentation Branch, Houston, TX, including masters' oaths, 1968-80, sale and mortgage records, 1967-78, and other vessel documentation records, 1928-79. Records of the Marine Inspection and Marine Safety Offices, Houston, TX, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1942-73. Weekly reports of the New Orleans district, 1933-43. Logbooks of USCG Air Stations, Corpus Christi, TX, 1971- 72, and New Orleans, LA, 1971-72 USCG Base, Galveston, TX, 1971- 74 USCG Depot, Corpus Christi, TX, 1971-72 USCG Light Stations, Dulac, LA, 1972-73, Freeport, TX, 1971-72, New Canal (New Orleans), LA, 1971-72, South Jetty (Galveston), TX, 1972, and South Pass, TX, 1965-71 USCG Radio Beacon Station, Calcagieu (Cameron), LA, 1971-73 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Anvil, 1971- 79, Clamp, 1970-76, Clematis, 1971-76, Dallas, 1980 and 1986, Dogwood, 1976-79, Durable, 1971-86, Forsythia, 1971-77, Gentian, 1968-76, Hatchett, 1971-73, Mallet, 1971-76, Pamlico, 1976-79, Point Baker, 1971-76, Point Lookout, 1972-75, 1981-83, Point Nowell, 1971-72, Point Spencer, 1971-80, Reliance, 1972-76, Shadbrook, 1971-76, Valiant, 1972-84, Wedge, 1971-77, White Alder, 1964, and White Holly, 1971-77. Logbooks (in Atlanta) of USCG Base, Mobile, AL, 1971-72 USCG Depots, Greenville, MS, 1972, and Vicksburg, MS, 1971-72 USCG Light Station, Mobile Point, Fort Morgan (Gulf Shores), AL, 1971-73 USCG Station, Pascagoula, MS, 1971-72 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Acushnet, 1971-79, Axe, 1971-78, Blackthorn, 1971-73, Chena, 1971-75, Kickapoo, 1971-77, Osage, 1971-76, Patoka, 1976-80, Point Estero, 1971-77, and Salvia, 1970-75. Logbook of U.S.C.G.C. Iris, 1971-73 (in Seattle).

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1-26.6.5, and 26.6.7-26.6.12.

26.6.7 Records of the 9th Coast Guard District, Cleveland (Great
Lakes, including MI and WI)

Textual Records (in Chicago, except as noted): Vessel folders, 1938-72. Logbooks of USCG Consolidated Group, Sault Ste. Marie, MI, 1971-73 USCG Lifeboat Stations, Belle Isle, MI, 1972, Charlevoix, MI, 1971-72, Detroit, MI, 1966-72, Duluth, MN, 1971- 75, Frankfort, MI, 1971-72, Grand Haven, MI, 1971-73, Holland, MI, 1971-73, Ludington, MI, 1971-72, Muskegon, MI, 1972-73, South Haven, MI, 1971-72, and Two Rivers, WI, 1971-72 USCG Light Stations, Algoma, WI, 1971-73, Chicago, IL, 1972-78, Devil's Island, WI, 1973-77, Eagle Harbor, MI, 1937-44, Grand Marais, MI, 1971-72, Grand Traverse, MI, 1963-72, Gray's Reef, MI, 1971-73, Green Bay, WI, 1976-77, Lansing Shoal, MI, 1971-73, Lorain, OH, 1971-77, Manistee, MI, 1971-73, Marblehead, OH, 1977-80, Marquette, MI, 1971-72, Michigan City, IN, 1971-72, Munising, MI, 1971-72, Pointe Betsie, MI, 1971-72, Rock of Ages, WI, 1970-77, St. Joseph, MI, 1971-73, St. Martin's Isle, MI, 1971-73, Sandusky, OH, 1971, Seal Choix Pointe, MI, 1971-72, Spectacle Reef, MI, 1971-72, Toledo, OH, 1971, and White Shoal, MI, 1970- 73 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Acacia, 1969-80, Bramble, 1966- 83, Buckthorn, 1972-80, Kaw, 1969-79, Mackinaw, 1971-81, Mariposa, 1974-77, Mesquite, 1971-74, Naugatuck, 1971-79, Raritan, 1971-75, Sangamon, 1971-79, Sundew, 1978-81, and Woodrush, 1971-78. Logbooks of U.S.C.G.C. Edisto, 1972 (in Philadelphia).

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1-26.6.6, and 26.6.8-26.6.12.

26.6.8 Records of the 11th Coast Guard District, Long Beach, CA
(AZ, southern CA)

Textual Records (in Los Angeles , except as noted):Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Los Angeles, CA, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1942-58, 1963-64. Los Angeles Port Patrol duty logbooks, 1950-53. Shipping articles and crew lists, Port San Luis, CA, 1942-54. Shipping articles, Port Hueneme, CA, 1945. Coast Guard Auxiliary scrapbooks, Port of Long Beach, 1949-66. Port San Luis radio sealing reports, 1942-44. Weekly reports of the San Diego district, 1936-38 (in Washington Area). Records of the Marine Safety Office, Long Beach, CA, consisting of logbooks of merchant vessels, 1957-61, 1963, 1965-66. Logbooks of USCG Air Station, Los Angeles, CA, 1971-72 USCG Base, Terminal Island (San Pedro), CA, 1971-73 USCG Light Stations, Point Conception, CA, 1971-73, and Port Hueneme, CA, 1971-72 USCG Port Safety Station, Long Beach (Los Angeles), CA, 1971-72 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Burton Island, 1971-73, Cape Hedge, 1971-77, Glacier, 1971-73, Laurel, 1979-82, Point Brower, 1970-82, Point Camden, 1971-75, Point Divide, 1971-80, Point Evans, 1971-75, Point Hobart, 1972-75, and (in San Francisco) 1975-80, Point Judith, 1971-83, Point Stuart, 1971-82, Pontchartrain, 1972-73, Venturous, 1971-73, 1976-82, and Walnut, 1971-82. Logbooks of U.S.C.G.C. Reliance, 1945-46 (in San Francisco). Logbooks of Port Security Units at Long Beach, San Pedro, and Terminal Island, CA, 1950-53.

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1-26.6.7, and 26.6.9-26.6.12.

26.6.9 Records of the 12th Coast Guard District, San Francisco
(northern CA, NV, UT)

Textual Records (in San Francisco, except as noted): Records of the Marine Safety Office, San Francisco, CA, including vessel documentation files, 1925-51 vessel files, 1922-54 vessel enrollment records, 1948-60 logbooks of merchant vessels, 1941- 45, 1953-57, 1961 and inherited or acquired customs records, including vessel licenses, 1953-55, and a vessel index, 1950-52. Records of the Vessel Documentation Branch, San Francisco, CA, including new masters' oaths, 1940-61, and license enrollment oaths, 1942- 1950's. Logbooks of USCG Air Station, San Francisco, CA, 1971-72 USCG Lifeboat Stations, Rio Vista, CA, 1971-76, Yerba Buena Island, CA, 1970-71, Fort Point, CA, 1969-70, and Lake Tahoe, CA, 1970-71 USCG Light Stations, Pigeon Point, CA, 1913-22, 1971-73, Point Blunt, CA, 1971-76, Point Reyes, CA, 1961-63, 1968-71, 1973-74, St. George Reef, CA, 1971-73, and Trinidad Head, CA, 1971-73 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Blackhawk, 1971-73, 1977- 82, Cape Carter, 1947-48, 1971-74, 1978-79, 1981-82, Cape Wash, 1976-80, Chico, 1977-81, Comanche, 1971-73, 1977-80, Midgett, 1972-74, Point Barrow, 1969, 1971-72, 1974-80, Point Harris, 1976-79, Point Heyer, 1969, 1971-75, Point Ledge, 1971-80, Point Winslow, 1971-75, Red Bird, 1971-74, Resolute, 1968-73, and Rush, 1976-85. Logbook of U.S.C.G.C. Bayberry, 1967-73 (in Seattle).

Related Records: Architectural plans of lighthouses in the 12th district are in the custody of the USCG. Reference microfilm copies of these plans are in San Francisco. Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1-26.6.8, 26.6.10- 26.6.12, and 26.8.

26.6.10 Records of the 13th Coast Guard District, Seattle (OR,
ID, MT, WA)

Textual Records (in Seattle , except as noted):Records of the Customs District, Great Falls, MT, consisting of records relating to vessel documentation, including bills of sale, 1899-1943, and "dead vessel" documentation files, n.d. warehouse ledgers, 1878- 1909 and records of imports and exports (Canada), 1886-98. Records of the Customs District, Tacoma, WA, relating to vessel documentation, including bills of sale, 1922-51 miscellaneous conveyances, 1923-40 mortgages, 1940-55 enrollments, 1918-55 registers, 1930-54 licenses, 1926-55 yacht licenses, 1922-54 certificates of registry, 1909-16 and "dead vessel" documentation files, n.d. Records of the Customs District, Portland OR, relating to vessel documentation, including bills of sale, 1870-1941, 1968-71 mortgages, 1883-1930 records of tonnage admeasurement, 1902-9 licenses, 1889-1928 master carpenter certificates, 1920-61 "dead vessel" documentation files, 1906-67 indexes for the ports of Portland and Astoria, OR, 1845-1949 and logbooks of merchant vessels, 1959-61, 1964. Records of the Customs District, Seattle, WA, relating to vessel documentation, including certificates of admeasurement, 1873- 1912 bills of sale, 1865-1954 mortgages, 1861-1915 index of registers, enrollments, and licenses, 1888-1943 masters' oaths, 1913-51 "dead vessel" documentation files, 1927-47 and index of marine documents, 1915-88. Records of the Customs District, Olympia, WA, relating to vessel documentation, consisting of masters' oaths, 1927-50. Logbooks of merchant vessels, Astoria, OR, 1915-28, 1939-40, 1948-52 Coos Bay, OR, 1912-27 Portland, OR, 1942-57 and Seattle, WA, 1940-56, 1962-65. Bridge permits granted, 1902-69, for bridges removed prior to 1973. Logbooks of USCG Air Station, Astoria, OR, 1970, 1972 USCG Base, Seattle, WA, 1971- 72 USCG Light Stations, Alki Point (Seattle), WA, 1971-72, New Dungeness, WA, 1970, and Port Townsend, WA, 1970-75 USCG Radio Station, Westport, WA, 1971-73 USCG Stations, DePoe Bay, OR, 1971-73, Portland, OR, 1971, Quilayute, WA, 1971, and Umpqua River, OR, 1971-72 U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Aster, 1961-62, Boutwell, 1971-72, 1974-79, Cape Resolute, 1971-72, 1976-77, Elderberry, 1971-76, Fir, 1971-79, and (in San Francisco) 1980- 82, Iris, 1977-79, Laurel, 1974-79, Mallow, 1976-79, Morgenthau, 1975-77, Northwind, 1972-73, Point Bennett, 1970, Point Countess, 1973-74, Point Doran, 1971-77, Point Glass, 1970-73, Point Richmond, 1971-74, Polar Star, 1976-79, Whitebush, 1974-81, and Yocona, 1971-82 and decommissioned U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Campbell, 1971-73, Cape Newegen, 1980-82, Klamath, 1969-73, Modoc, 1971-79, Staten Island, 1971-74, Tupelo, 1969-75, Wachusett, 1971-73, and Winona, 1972-74.

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1-26.6.9, and 26.6.11-26.6.12.

26.6.11 Records of the 14th Coast Guard District, Honolulu,
(American Samoa, GU, HI, Pacific Islands)

Textual Records (in San Francisco, except as noted): Records of the Marine Safety Office, Honolulu, HI, relating to vessel documentation, including master carpenter certificates, 1920-66 master vessel license oaths, 1959-66 new masters' documentation oaths, 1951-66 and vessels "in lieu" enrollments, 1942-66. Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Honolulu, HI, including vessel files, 1948-55 master oaths (new and renewal), 1946-58 and recorded instruments, 1902-38. Logbooks of USCG Air Station, Guam, 1970-71, 1973 USCG Lifeboat Station, Honolulu, HI, 1971- 72 USCG Light Stations, Barber's Point, HI, 1947-48, Kalae, HI, 1944, 1947-48, Kauhola Point, HI, 1943-48, Kilauea, HI, 1942-48, Kumakali, HI, 1947-48, Makapuu Point, HI, 1947-48, 1971-74, Molokai, HI, 1947-48, Nawiliwili, HI, 1943-48, Peteekeo, HI, 1944-46, and Tauwella Point, HI, 1947-48 USCG LORAN Stations, Con Son, Vietnam, 1971-72, Kauai, HI, 1971-72, Kure Island, HI, 1971-73, Marcus Island, 1970-72, Saipan, 1971-72, Tan My, Vietnam, 1972-73, Utulo Point, HI, 1971-72, and Wake Island, 1971-72 and U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Basewood, 1947-48, Buttonwood, 1972-74, Cape Corwin, 1971-74, Cape Small, 1970-74, Mallow, 1971-73, Mellon, 1971-73, Planetree, 1971-72, and (in Seattle) 1969-72, 1974-77, Rush (Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam), 1971-73, and Trillium, 1949.

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, 26.6.1-26.6.10, and 26.6.12.

26.6.12 Records of the 17th Coast Guard District, Juneau (AK)

Textual Records (in Anchorage, except as noted): Records of the Customs District, Juneau, AK (including some records from Cordova and Seward, AK), relating to vessel documentation, including bills of sale, 1901-36 mortgages, 1904-41 licenses, 1907-39 enrollments, 1914-38 registers, 1903-39 records of tonnage admeasurement, 1900-19 and "dead vessel" documentation files, 1920-57. Records of the Customs District, Ketchikan, AK, relating to vessel documentation, including bills of sale, 1911-36 licenses, 1893-1914 enrollments, 1895 record of marshal's bill of sale, 1926-41 register of licensed officers and seamen, 1941 and record of mortgages, n.d. Records of the Customs District, Wrangell, AK, relating to vessel documentation, consisting of "dead vessel" documentation files, 1920-36. Logbooks of USCG Air Station, Kodiak, AK, 1971-72 USCG Bases, Ketchikan, AK, 1971-72, and Kodiak, AK, 1972 USCG Light Stations, Cape Decision, AK, 1968-72, and Cape St. Elias, AK, 1968-72 USCG LORAN Stations, Biorka Island, AK, 1971-72, Cape Srichet, AK, 1971-73, St. Paul Island, AK, 1971-72, and Sitkinak Island, AK, 1971-72 U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Bittersweet, 1971-74, Cape Henlopen, 1971-74, Cape Romain, 1971-74, Citrus, 1969-72, Clover, 1971-74, and (in San Francisco) 1978-80, Confidence, 1970-72, Ironwood, 1972-74, Sedge, 1971-73, Sorrel, 1969-72, Storis, 1972-74, and Sweetbriar, 1969, 1973-74 and decommissioned U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Balsam, 1970-75, and Cape Coral, 1971-75. Logbooks of U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Jarvis, 1971-74, and Morgenthau, 1978-80 (in San Francisco).

Related Records: Additional logbooks UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.4.2, 26.5.8, and 26.6.1-26.6.11.

26.7 RECORDS OF THE U.S. COAST GUARD ACADEMY, NEW LONDON, CT
1894-1954

Textual Records (in Boston): General correspondence of the Office of the Superintendent, 1938-53. Cadet records, 1894-1954. U.S. Coast Guard Academy Logbooks, 1912-22, 1936, and Quartermasters' Bridge Book, 1938. Correspondence of the Coast Guard Academy, 1916-17 (in Washington area).

Related Records: Additional cadet records UNDER 26.3.4.

26.8 TEXTUAL RECORDS (GENERAL)
1819-1988

Correspondence concerning the Diaphone fog signal device, 1911-53. Unit logs of Coast Guard cutters, Region Four, U.S. Coast Guard (in Atlanta), 1968-80. General account of supplies of the St. Martin's Island, MI, light station (in Chicago), 1905-09. Documented vessel files, Marine Inspection Office, St. Ignace, MI (in Chicago), 1974. Correspondence relating to the "cutting and joining" of the U.S. Revenue cutters Gresham, Algonquin, and Onondaga (in New York), 1898. Original or Initial Vessel Inspection Files, U.S. Coast Guard, Marine Safety Detachment, St. Paul, MN (in Chicago), 1958-62. Record of fog signal of Matinicus Light Station (in Washington area), 1918-20. Operations message traffic relating to Challenger disaster consisting of radio logs and incoming and outgoing messages of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Dallas documenting its role in the search and rescue operations (in Atlanta), 1986. Records of the Office of Marine Inspection, Seattle, WA (all in Seattle), including Recorded Instruments of Title, 1914-67, and Vessel Folders, 1974-75 and Recorded Instruments of Title, 1922-65, from the Office of Marine Inspection, Portland, OR. Records of the Marine Safety Office, Long Beach, CA (all in Los Angeles), including Marine Documents Index, 1965 Merchant Marine Applications for Licenses of Officers Files, 1900-37 Bill of Sale Books, 1915-32 Record of Instrument (Mortgage) Books, 1956-66 and Vessel Inspection Files, 1962-66. Office of Merchant Marine Safety, Merchant Vessel Information Files, for vessels named "Oriskany - Parma," (in Washington area), ca. 1930-49. Records of the Marine Safety Office in San Francisco (all in San Francisco), Vessel Inspection Files, 1956-71, and station logs from the Point Montara, CA Light Station, 1970. Merchant Vessel Information Files (in Washington area), 1941-46. Vessel folders (in Seattle), 1974. Marine Safety Office, San Diego, Bills of Sale (in Los Angeles), 1913-64. Unit logs for USCGC Lantana (in Atlanta), 1971-75. Vessel Documentation Files, 1968-74, from the Wilmington, NC, Marine Safety Office (in Atlanta). Records of the Marine Inspection Office, Philadelphia, PA (in Philadelphia) consisting of vessel mortgages from Wilmington, DE, 1963-72 vessel mortgages from Philadelphia, 1946-72 vessel bills of sale from Wilmington, DE, 1960-72 and vessel bills of sale from Philadelphia, 1959-73. Log Books of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Chautauqua (in San Francisco), 1972-73. Records of the Light House Service (all in the Washington area) include U.S. Lighthouse Board Scrapbook, 1899-1919 Reports of Inspection of Philippine Lighthouses, 1945-46 Lighthouse Supply Inventory, 1840-41 Lighthouse Service Record of Repairs, 1879-86 Cape Blanco Light Station Journals, 1936-44 and Logbook of Portsmouth Harbor Light Station, 1923-38. Records of the Revenue Cutter Service include (in the Washington area) U.S. Revenue Cutter Service Contracts, 1843-46 Correspondence Relating to Revenue Cutter Crawford, 1845-76 Correspondence of the Practice Ships Chase, Itasca, The Academy, and Fort Trumball, 1903-11 Correspondence of the Revenue Cutters Chase and Itasca, 1907-08 Correspondence of the Revenue Cutter Itasca, 1906-20 Logbook of USCGC Saranac, 1940 Correspondence relating to U.S. Practice Cutter Itacsa, 1910 Letterbook of Revenue Cutters Jackson and Taney, 1839-57 Journal of Revenue Cutter Harriet Lane, 1858-60 Logs of Revenue Cutters and Coast Guard Vessels, 1819-1941 Correspondence of the Cutter Onondaga, 1917 and records of the Captain of the Port of New York relating to explosives passing through the Port of New York-WWI, 1917-19. Lifesaving Service Scrapbooks, 1911-13, (in Washington area). Correspondence of Fort Trumball, 1913-15 (in the Washington area). Correspondence of USRCS Officer Lt. T.S. Klinger, 1908-16 (in Washington area). Logbooks of the S.S.S. Horst Wessel, 1936-46 (in German), a former German sail vessel taken as a prize after WWII, renamed the Eagle, and used by the Coast Guard as a training ship (in the Washington area). Logbook of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Bear, 1923 (in Washington area). Logbooks (in Atlanta) of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Mendota, 1972-73, and Winnebago, 1972-73. Records (in Seattle) of the Marine Safety Office, Portland,OR, consisting of Merchant Marine Log Books, 1959, 1962. Records (in Atlanta) of the Marine Inspection Office, Port Everglades, FL, consisting of Official Logbooks of Merchant Vessels, 1959. Search and Rescue Incident Reports from the U.S. Coast Guard Base in Ocean City, MD, 1987-88 (in Philadelphia). Unit Logs of the Coast Guard Cutters Mellon, 1968-74, and Basswood, 1971-72 (in San Francisco). Records (all in Philadelphia) of the Fifth Coast Guard District include Vessel Inspection Records, 1960-64 Merchant Vessel Logbooks from Portsmouth, VA and Baltimore, MD, 1958-64 Vessel Folders from Norfolk, VA, Reedville, VA, Baltimore, MD, Cambridge, MD, and Annapolis, MD, 1957-71 Recorded Instruments for Merchant Vessels, 1923-58 Numerical Index to Licenced Boats, 1966 and Tracings of Buildings and Equipment, 1939-50.

26.9 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)
16,800 items
ca. 1865-1985

Architectural and Engineering Plans: Lighthouses, beacons, and rescue stations in the eastern United States and on the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River, compiled by the Civil Engineering Units, Maintenance and Logistics Command, ca. 1865-1985 (in Washington area). Charts of New York Harbor used by Captain G.L. Cardeu, Captain of the Port-WWI, n.d., (in New York). Sketchbooks of 2nd Lt. John C. Cantwell, U.S.R.C.S., 1886-87, 1893, and Charts from the U.S. Revenue Cutter Manning, Bering Sea Patrol, 1910 (in Anchorage). Records of the Ocean Engineering Branch, Civil Engineering Division, consisting of Drawings of Lights and Lanterns, 1854-1912 (in Washington area). Records of the Maintenance and Logistics Command consisting of historical architectural and engineering drawing file depicting lighthouses, beacons, and rescue stations in the Eastern States, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River, 1865-1985 (in Washington area).

SEE Maps and Charts UNDER 26.2.2, 26.3.2, 26.5.7, 26.5.14, and 26.6.3.

SEE Architectural and Engineering Plans UNDER 26.2.2, 26.4.2, and 26.5.6.

26.10 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)
1918-76
252 reels

Peacetime activities, World War II domestic and overseas activities, and activities during the Vietnam War, 1918-76.

26.11 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)
1937-39
10 items

Radio broadcasts concerning USCG administration and its role in training merchant seamen its history, traditions, and activities graduation exercises at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy and award ceremonies for ham radio operators who maintained communications in disaster areas, 1937-39.

26.12 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)
1895, 1900-86

Photographs of United States Coast Guard cutters, 1911-86 (4,000 images). Photographs of the cruise of the U.S. Revenue Cutter Bear to Alaska and Siberia, 1895 (179 images). Photographs of Hawaii lighthouses, 1904-06 (133 images). Photographs of discontinued lights and stations, 1900-72.

SEE Photographs UNDER 26.2.1, 26.5.2, 26.5.7, 26.5.8, 26.5.9, and 26.5.11.
SEE Color Photographs UNDER 26.5.2.
SEE Photographs and Artworks UNDER 26.2.1.
SEE Photographs and Lithographs UNDER 26.2.2.
SEE Photographic Negatives UNDER 26.5.2.
SEE Filmstrips UNDER 26.5.2.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.