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(AC-7: dp. 11,230; 1. 403'; b. 53'; dr. 24'8"; s. 12 k.; cpl. 82)
Hector (AC-7) was launched 3 July 1909 by the Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md., and commissioned 22 October 1909. She was on special service with the Atlantic Fleet from commissioning through 1913, when she was stationed at Norfolk. From there Hector served as a fuel ship, ferrying freight and fuel up the East Coast and down to the Caribbean, especially Guantanamo and Santo Domingo. Hector was wrecked off the Atlantic coast 14 July 1916 and sank 3 days later.
A Brief History of Antifa: Part II
"The only long-term solution to the fascist menace is to undermine its pillars of strength in society grounded not only in white supremacy but also in ableism, heteronormativity, patriarchy, nationalism, transphobia, class rule, and many others." — Mark Bray, "Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook," 2017.
"They're coming from other cities. That cost money. They didn't do this on their own. Somebody's paying for this. What Antifa is doing is they're basically hijacking the black community as their army. They instigate, they antagonize, they get these young black men and women to go out there and do stupid things, and then they disappear off into the sunset." — Bernard Kerik, former commissioner of the New York City Police Department.
The coordinated violence raises questions about how Antifa is financed. The Alliance for Global Justice (AFGJ) is an organizing group that serves as a fiscal sponsor to numerous radical left-wing initiatives, according to Influence Watch, a research group that collects data on advocacy organizations, foundations and donors. The Open Society Foundations, Tides Foundation, Arca Foundation, Surdna Foundation, Public Welfare Foundation, and the Brightwater Fund have all made contributions to AFGJ, according to Influence Watch.
One of the groups funded by AFGJ is called Refuse Fascism . an offshoot of the Radical Communist Party (RCP). The group's slogan states: "This System Cannot Be Reformed, It Must Be Overthrown!"
Editor's note: This is Part II of a series on the history of the global Antifa movement. Part I described Antifa and explored the ideological origins of the group. Part II examines the history, tactics and goals of the movement in the United States.
Antifa in the United States is highly networked, well-funded and has a clear ideological agenda: to subvert, often with extreme violence, the American political system, with the ultimate aim of replacing capitalism with communism. Pictured: An Antifa demonstration on November 16, 2019 in New York City. (Photo by Stephanie Keith/Getty Images)
U.S. President Donald Trump recently announced that the American government would designate Antifa — a militant "anti-fascist" movement — as a terrorist organization due to the violence that erupted at George Floyd protests across the United States.
The Code of Federal Regulations (28 C.F.R. Section 0.85) defines terrorism as "the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives."
American media outlets sympathetic to Antifa have jumped to its defense. They argue that the group cannot be classified as a terrorist organization because, they claim, it is a vaguely-defined protest movement that lacks a centralized structure.
As the following report shows, Antifa is, in fact, highly networked, well-funded and has a clear ideological agenda: to subvert, often with extreme violence, the American political system, with the ultimate aim of replacing capitalism with communism. In the United States, Antifa's immediate aim is to remove President Trump from office.
Gatestone Institute has identified Antifa groups in all 50 U.S. states, with the possible exception of West Virginia. Some states, including California, Texas and Washington, appear to have dozens of sub-regional Antifa organizations.
It is difficult precisely to determine the size of the Antifa movement in the United States. The so-called "Anti-Fascists of Reddit," the "premier anti-fascist community" on the social media platform Reddit, has approximately 60,000 members. The oldest Antifa group in America, the Portland, Oregon-based "Rose City Antifa," has more than 30,000 Twitter followers and 20,000 Facebook followers, not all of whom are necessarily supporters. "It's Going Down," a media platform for anarchists, anti-fascists and autonomous anti-capitalists, has 85,000 Twitter followers and 30,000 Facebook followers.
Germany, which has roughly one-quarter of the population of the United States, is home to 33,000 extreme leftists, of whom 9,000 are believed to be extremely dangerous, according to the domestic intelligence agency (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, BfV). Violent left-wing agitators are predominantly male, between 21 and 24 years of age, usually unemployed, and, according to BfV, 92% still live with their parents. Anecdotal evidence suggests that most Antifa members in the United States have a similar socio-economic profile.
In America, national Antifa groups, including "Torch Antifa Network," "Refuse Fascism" and "World Can't Wait" are being financed — often generously, as shown below — by individual donors as well as by large philanthropic organizations, including the Open Society Foundations founded by George Soros.
To evade detection by law enforcement, Antifa groups in the United States often use encrypted social media platforms, such as Signal and Telegram Messenger, to communicate and coordinate their activities, sometimes across state lines. Not surprisingly, the U.S. Department of Justice is currently investigating individuals linked to Antifa as a step to unmasking the broader organization.
Historical Origins of American Antifa
In the United States, Antifa's ideology, tactics and goals, far from being novel, are borrowed almost entirely from Antifa groups in Europe, where so-called anti-fascist groups, in one form or another, have been active, almost without interruption, for a century.
As in Europe, the aims and objectives of the American Antifa movement can be traced back to a single, overarching century-long ideological war against the "fascist ideals" of capitalism and Christianity, which the Antifa movement wants to replace with a "revolutionary socialist alternative."
The first so-called anti-fascist group in the United States was the American League Against War and Fascism, established in 1933 by the Communist Party USA. The League, which claimed to oppose fascism in Europe, was actually dedicated to subverting and overthrowing the U.S. government.
In testimony to the U.S. Congress in 1953, CPUSA leader Manning Johnson revealed that the American party had been instructed by the Communist International in the 1930s to set up the American League Against War and Fascism:
"as a cover to attack our government, our social system, our leaders. used as a cover to attack our law-enforcement agencies and to build up mass hate against them. used as a cover to undermine national security. used as a cover to defend Communists, the sworn enemies of our great heritage. used as a cover for preparing millions of people ideologically and organizationally for the overthrow of the United States Government."
A precursor to the modern Antifa movement was the Black Panthers, a revolutionary political organization established in October 1966 by Marxist college students in Oakland, California. The group advocated the use of violence and guerilla tactics to overthrow the U.S. government.
Historian Robyn C. Spencer noted that Black Panther leaders were deeply influenced by "The United Front of the Working Class Against Fascism," a report by Georgi Dimitroff delivered at the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International in July and August 1935:
"By 1969, the Panthers began to use fascism as a theoretical framework to critique the U.S. political economy. They defined fascism as 'the power of finance capital' which 'manifests itself not only as banks, trusts and monopolies but also as the human property of FINANCE CAPITAL — the avaricious businessman, the demagogic politician, and the racist pig cop.'"
In July 1969, the Black Panthers organized an "anti-fascist" conference called "United Front Against Fascism," attended by nearly 5,000 activists:
"The Panthers hoped to create a 'national force' with a 'common revolutionary ideology and political program which answers the basic desires and needs of all people in fascist, capitalist, racist America.'"
The last day of the conference was devoted to a detailed plan by the Black Panthers to decentralize police forces nationwide. Spencer wrote:
"They proposed amending city charters to establish autonomous community-based police departments for every city which would be accountable to local neighborhood police control councils comprised of 15 elected community members. They launched the National Committees to Combat Fascism (NCCF), a multiracial nationwide network, to organize for community control of the police."
In 1970, members of the Black Panthers created a terrorist group called the Black Liberation Army, whose stated goal was to "weaken the enemy capitalist state."
BLA member Assata Shakur described the group's organizational structure, which is similar to the one used by today's Antifa movement:
"The Black Liberation Army was not a centralized, organized group with a common leadership and chain of command. Instead there were various organizations and collectives working together out of various cities, and in some larger cities there were often several groups working independently of each other."
Other ideological anchors of the modern Antifa movement in the United States include a left-wing terrorist group known as the Weather Underground Organization, the American equivalent to Germany's Red Army Faction. The Weather Underground, responsible for bombings and riots throughout the 1970s, sought to achieve "the destruction of U.S. imperialism and form a classless communist world."
Former FBI Counterterrorism Director Terry Turchie has noted the similarities between Black Lives Matter today and the Black Panther Party and Weather Underground groups of the 1960s and 1970s:
"The Black Panther Party was a Marxist Maoist Leninist organization and that came from Huey Newton, one of the co-founders, who said we're standing for nothing more than the total transformation of the United States government.
"He went on to explain that they wanted to take the tension that already existed in black communities and exacerbate it where they can. To take those situations where there is a tinderbox and light the country on fire.
"Today we're seeing the third revolution and they think they can make this happen. The only thing that is different are the names of the groups."
The roots of the modern Antifa movement in the United States can be traced back to the 1980s, with the establishment of Anti-Racist Action, a network of anarchist punk rock aficionados dedicated to fist-fighting neo-Nazi skinheads.
Mark Bray, author of "The Antifa Handbook," explained:
"In many cases, the North American modern Antifa movement grew up as a way to defend the punk scene from the neo-Nazi skinhead movement, and the founders of the original Anti-Racist Action network in North America were anti-racist skinheads. The fascist/anti-fascist struggle was essentially a fight for control of the punk scene during the 1980s, and that was true across of much of north America and in parts of Europe in this era.
"There's a huge overlap between radical left politics and the punk scene, and there's a stereotype about dirty anarchists and punks, which is an oversimplification but grounded in a certain amount of truth."
Anti-Racist Action was inspired by Anti-Fascist Action (AFA), a militant anti-fascist group founded in Britain in the late 1970s. The American group shared the British group's penchant for violently attacking political opponents. ARA was eventually renamed the Torch Network, which currently brings together nine militant Antifa groups.
In November 1999, mobs of masked anarchists, predecessors to today's Antifa movement, laid waste to downtown Seattle, Washington, during violent demonstrations that disrupted a ministerial conference of the World Trade Organization. The Seattle WTO protests birthed the anti-globalization movement.
In April 2001, an estimated 50,000 anti-capitalists gathered in Quebec to oppose the Third Summit of the Americas, a meeting of North and South American leaders who were negotiating a deal to create a free trade area that would encompass the Western Hemisphere.
In February 2003, hundreds of thousands of anti-war protesters demonstrated against the Iraq War. After the war went ahead anyway, some parts of the so-called progressive movement became more radicalized and birthed the current Antifa movement.
The Rose City Antifa (RCA), founded in Portland, Oregon, in 2007, is the oldest American group to use "Antifa" in its name. Antifa is derived from a group called Antifaschistische Aktion, founded in May 1932 by Stalinist leaders of the Communist Party of Germany. Antifa's logo, with two flags representing anarchism (black flag) and communism (red flag), are derived from the German Antifa movement.
The American Antifa movement gained momentum in 2016, after Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, a self-described Socialist, lost the Democratic Party's nomination to Hillary Clinton. Grassroots supporters of Sanders vowed to continue his "political revolution" to establish socialism in America.
Meanwhile, immigration became a new flashpoint in American politics after Donald Trump campaigned on a pledge to reduce illegal migration. In June 2016, protestors violently attacked supporters of Donald Trump outside a rally in San Jose, California. In January 2017, hundreds of Antifa rioters tried to disrupt President Trump's inauguration ceremony in Washington, DC.
In February 2017, Antifa rioters employing so-called black bloc tactics — they wear black clothing, masks or other face-concealing items so that they cannot be identified by police — shut down a speech by Milos Yiannopoulos, a far-right activist who was slated to speak at the University of California at Berkeley, the birthplace of the 1964 Free Speech Movement. Antifa radicals claimed that Yiannopoulos was planning to "out" undocumented students at Berkeley for the purpose of having them arrested. Masked Antifa vandals armed with Molotov cocktails, bricks and a host of other makeshift weapons fought police and caused more than $100,000 in property damage.
In June 2018, Republican Representative Dan Donovan of New York introduced Bill HR 6054 — "Unmasking Antifa Act of 2018" — that calls for prison sentences of up to 15 years for anyone who, while wearing a mask or disguise, "injures, oppresses, threatens, or intimidates" someone else who is exercising any right or privilege guaranteed under the U.S. Constitution. The bill remains stalled in the House of Representatives.
In July 2019, Antifa radical Willem Van Spronsen attempted to firebomb the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement detention facility in Tacoma, Washington. He was killed in a confrontation with police.
That same month, U.S. Senators Ted Cruz and Bill Cassidy introduced a resolution that would label Antifa a "domestic terrorist organization." The resolution stated:
"Whereas members of Antifa, because they believe that free speech is equivalent to violence, have used threats of violence in the pursuit of suppressing opposing political ideologies Whereas Antifa represents opposition to the democratic ideals of peaceful assembly and free speech for all Whereas members of Antifa have physically assaulted journalists and other individuals during protests and riots in Berkeley, California
"Now, therefore, be it resolved, that the Senate . calls for the groups and organizations across the country who act under the banner of Antifa to be designated as domestic terrorist organizations."
"Antifa are terrorists, violent masked bullies who 'fight fascism' with actual fascism, protected by Liberal privilege," said Cassidy. "Bullies get their way until someone says no. Elected officials must have courage, not cowardice, to prevent terror."
Antifa Exploits Death of George Floyd
Antifa radicals increasingly are using incendiary events such as the death of George Floyd in Minnesota as springboards to achieve their broader aims, one of which includes removing President Trump from office.
Veteran national security correspondent Bill Gertz recently reported that the Antifa movement began planning to foment a nationwide anti-government insurgency as early as November 2019, when the U.S. presidential campaign season kicked off in earnest. Former National Security Council staff member Rich Higgins said:
"Antifa's actions represent a hard break with the long tradition of a peaceful political process in the United States. Their Marxist ideology seeks not only to influence elections in the short term but to destroy the use of elections as the determining factor in political legitimacy.
"Antifa's goal is nothing less than fomenting revolution, civil war and silencing America's anti-communists. Their labeling of Trump supporters and patriots as Nazis and racists is standard fare for left-wing communist groups.
"Antifa is currently functioning as the command and control of the riots, which are themselves the overt utilization of targeted violence against targets such as stores — capitalism monuments — history and churches — God."
Joe Myers, a former Defense Intelligence Agency official and counterinsurgency expert, added:
"President Trump's election and revitalization of America are a threat to Antifa's nihilist goals. They are fomenting this violence to create havoc, despair and to target the Trump campaign for defeat in 2020. It is employing organized violence for political ends: destruction of the constitutional order."
New York's top terrorism officer, Deputy Commissioner for Intelligence and Counterterrorism John Miller, explained why the George Floyd protests in New York City became so violent and destructive:
"No. 1, before the protests began, organizers of certain anarchist groups set out to raise bail money and people who would be responsible to be raising bail money, they set out to recruit medics and medical teams with gear to deploy in anticipation of violent interactions with police.
"They prepared to commit property damage and directed people who were following them that this should be done selectively and only in wealthier areas or at high-end stores run by corporate entities.
"And they developed a complex network of bicycle scouts to move ahead of demonstrators in different directions of where police were and where police were not for purposes of being able to direct groups from the larger group to places where they could commit acts of vandalism including the torching of police vehicles and Molotov cocktails where they thought officers would not be.
"We believe that a significant amount of people who came here from out of the area, who have come here as well as the advance preparation, having advance scouts, the use of encrypted information, having resupply routes for things such as gasoline and accelerants as well as rocks and bottles, the raising of bail, the placing of medics. Taken together, this is a strong indicator that they planned to act with disorder, property damage, violence, and violent encounters with police before the first demonstration and/or before the first arrest."
In an interview with The Epoch Times, Bernard B. Kerik, former police commissioner of the New York City Police Department, said that Antifa "100 percent exploited" the George Floyd protests:
"It's in 40 different states and 60 cities it would be impossible for somebody outside of Antifa to fund this. It's a radical, leftist, socialist attempt at revolution.
"They're coming from other cities. That cost money. They didn't do this on their own. Somebody's paying for this.
"What Antifa is doing is they're basically hijacking the black community as their army. They instigate, they antagonize, they get these young black men and women to go out there and do stupid things, and then they disappear off into the sunset."
After photos appeared to show protesters with military-grade communications radios and earpieces, Kerik noted: "They have to be talking to somebody at a central command center with a repeater. Where do those radios go to?"
Across the country, in Bellevue, Washington, which was also hit by looting and violence, Police Chief Steve Mylett confirmed that the people responsible were organized, from out of town, and being paid:
"There are groups paying these looters money to come in and they're getting paid by the broken window. This is something totally different we are dealing with that we have never seen as a profession before. We did have officers that were in different areas that were chasing these groups. When we make contact, they just disperse."
The coordinated violence raises questions about how Antifa is financed. The Alliance for Global Justice (AFGJ) is an organizing group that serves as a fiscal sponsor to numerous radical left-wing initiatives, according to Influence Watch, a research group that collects data on advocacy organizations, foundations and donors.
AFGJ, which describes itself as "anti-capitalist" and opposed to the principles of liberal democracy, provides "fiscal sponsorship" to groups advocating numerous foreign and domestic far-left and extreme-left causes, including eliminating the State of Israel.
The Tucson, Arizona-based AFGJ, and people associated with it, have advocated for socialist and communist authoritarian regimes, including in Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela. In the 2000s, AFGJ was involved in anti-globalization demonstrations. In the 2010s, AFGJ was a financial sponsor of the Occupy Wall Street movement.
AFGJ has received substantial funding from organizations often claiming to be the mainstream of the center-left. The Open Society Foundations, Tides Foundation, Arca Foundation, Surdna Foundation, Public Welfare Foundation, the Ben & Jerry Foundation and the Brightwater Fund have all made contributions to AFGJ, according to Influence Watch.
One of the groups funded by AFGJ is called Refuse Fascism, a radical left-wing organization devoted to promoting nationwide action to remove from office President Donald Trump, and all officials associated with his administration, on the grounds that they constitute a "fascist regime." The group has been present at many Antifa radical-left demonstrations, also according to Influence Watch. The group is an offshoot of the Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP).
In July 2017, the RCP bragged that it took part in violent riots against the G20 Summit in Hamburg, Germany. The RCP has argued that capitalism is synonymous with fascism and that the election of President Trump would lead the U.S. government to "bludgeon and eliminate whole groups of people."
In June 2020, Refuse Fascism took advantage of the death of George Floyd to raise money for a "National Revolution Tour" evidently aimed at subverting the U.S. government. The group's slogan states: "This System Cannot Be Reformed, It Must Be Overthrown!"
Meanwhile, in Seattle, Washington, Antifa radicals, protesters from Black Lives Matter, and members of the anti-capitalist John Brown Gun Club seized control of the East Precinct neighborhood and established a six-square-block "autonomous zone" called the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone, "CHAZ," recently renamed "CHOP," the Capitol Hill Organized (or Occupied) Protest. A cardboard sign at the barricades declares: "You are now leaving the USA." The group issued a list of 30 demands, including the "abolition" of the Seattle Police Department and court system.
"Rapes, robberies and all sorts of violent acts have been occurring in the area and we're not able to get to them," said Seattle Police Chief Carmen Best. Several people have been wounded or killed.
Christopher F. Rufo, a contributing editor of City Journal, observed:
"The Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone has set a dangerous precedent: armed left-wing activists have asserted their dominance of the streets and established an alternative political authority over a large section of a neighborhood. They have claimed de facto police power over thousands of residents and dozens of businesses — completely outside of the democratic process. In a matter of days, Antifa-affiliated paramilitaries have created a hardened border, established a rudimentary form of government based on principles of intersectional representation, and forcibly removed unfriendly media from the territory.
"The Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone is an occupation and taking of hostages: none of the neighborhood's residents voted for Antifa as their representative government. Rather than enforce the law, Seattle's progressive political class capitulated to the mob and will likely make massive concessions over the next few months. This will embolden the Antifa coalition — and further undermine the rule of law in American cities."
Antifa in its Own Words
The American Antifa movement's long-term objectives are identical to those of the Antifa movement in Europe: replacing capitalism with a communist utopia. Mark Bray, one of the most vocal apologists for Antifa in the United States and author of "Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook," explained:
"The only long-term solution to the fascist menace is to undermine its pillars of strength in society grounded not only in white supremacy but also in ableism, heteronormativity, patriarchy, nationalism, transphobia, class rule, and many others. This long-term goal points to the tensions that exist in defining anti-fascism, because at a certain point destroying fascism is really about promoting a revolutionary socialist alternative."
Nikkita Oliver, former mayoral candidate of Seattle, Washington, added:
"We need to align ourselves with the global struggle that acknowledges that the United States plays a role in racialized capitalism. Racialized capitalism is built upon patriarchy, white supremacy, and classism."
Patrisse Cullors, a co-founder of the Black Lives Matter movement, confirmed that the immediate goal is to remove President Trump from office:
"Trump not only needs to not be in office in November, but he should resign now. Trump needs to be out of office. He is not fit for office. And so, what we are going to push for is a move to get Trump out. While we're also going to continue to push and pressure Joe Biden around his policies and relationship to policing and criminalization. That's going to be important. But our goal is to get Trump out."
"As antifascists we know that our fight is not just against organized fascism, but also against the capitalist state, and the police that protect it. Another world is possible!"
"This is the revolution, this is our time and we will make no excuses for the terror."
A group called PNW Youth Liberation Front, Antifa's youth organization, tweeted:
"The only way to win a world without police, prisons, borders, etc. is to destroy the oppressive systems which we are currently caught in. We must continue the fight against the state, imperialism, capitalism, white supremacy, patriarchy, and so on if we ever want to be free."
A pamphlet distributed in the Seattle "Autonomous Zone" stated:
"The idea that the working class can control our own lives, without states, governments or borders, is also called anarchism. But how do we get from our current capitalist society to a future anarchist-communist one? . In order to destroy the current order, there will need to be a revolution, a time of great upheaval."
A poster in the Seattle "Autonomous Zone" stated:
"Oh, you thought I just wanted to defund the police? This whole system needs to go."
One of the leaders of the Seattle "Autonomous Zone" said:
"Every single day that I show up here I'm not here to peacefully protest. I'm here to disrupt until my demands are met. You cannot rebuild until you break it all the way down. Respond to the demands of the people or prepare to be met with any means necessary. By any means necessary. It's not a slogan or even a warning. I'm letting people know what comes next."
A group called the Revolutionary Abolitionist Movement, which has nearly 15,000 Twitter followers, called for an insurrection:
"Revolutionary greetings from the insurrection sweeping throughout the occupied territories of the so-called United States of America.
"As the history of this miserable nation repeats itself once again, what has become clearly evident is that black people have been and will continue to be the only revolutionary force that is capable of toppling the oppressive status quo.
"Everywhere the pigs [a derogatory term for police] have lost their will to fight. Their eyes, which only yesterday were windows to empty hatred and contempt, now display stultifying self-doubt and cowardice. For once, their behavior portrays their weakness as every step they take back is marked by hesitation.
"Together, if we keep pushing, this land of chattel slavery, indigenous genocide, and foreign imperial aggression can finally be wiped out so that it will only be remembered as one of the more ugly chapters in human history."
An Antifa radical from Maryland tweeted:
"This isn't protest. This is rebellion. When rebellion gets organized we get revolution. We are seeing the beginnings of that and it's glorious."
An Antifa agitator from New York comments on the American flag:
"That sh*t is a fucking cloth with colors on it. It doesn't live or breathe and is nothing but a representation. Any Black, Latinx, or Native person looking at that thing being respected, should be offended at that flag that represents genocide, rape, slavery, and colonization."
An Antifa media platform, "It's Going Down," wrote:
"Looting is an effective means of wealth redistribution."
An Antifa activist from North Carolina on free speech:
"The idea that freedom of speech is the most important thing that we can protect can only be held by someone who thinks that life is analogous to a debate hall. In my opinion, 'no platforming' fascists often infringes (sic) upon their speech, but this infringement is justified for its role in the political struggle against fascism."
Torch Antifa Network, in response to President Trump's announced plans to designate Antifa as a terrorist group:
"Antifa will be designating the United States of America as a terrorist organization."
Soeren Kern is a Senior Fellow at the New York-based Gatestone Institute.
© 2021 Gatestone Institute. All rights reserved. The articles printed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the Editors or of Gatestone Institute. No part of the Gatestone website or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied or modified, without the prior written consent of Gatestone Institute.
Epidemiology /Etiology [ edit | edit source ]
Injuries to the AC Joint account for approximately 10% of acute injuries to the shoulder girdle, with separations of the AC Joint accounting for 40% of shoulder girdle injuries in athletes. Commonly, injury happens when falling onto an outstretched hand or elbow, direct blows to the shoulder, or falling onto the point of the shoulder. 
Figure 2 illustrates the common mechanism of injury:
(A) a direct force onto the point of the shoulder
(B) indirect forces to the AC joint can also cause injury. For example, a fall on to the elbow can drive the humerus proximally, disrupting the AC joint. In this case, the force is referred only to the AC ligaments and not the coracoclavicular ligaments. 
The injury is frequently seen in hockey and rugby players, but is also seen in alpine skiing, snowboarding, football, cycling and motor vehicle accidents.  
Hector II AC-7 - History
(SS-10: dp. 145, 1. 82'5" b. 12'6" dr. 10'7" s. 9 k.
cpL 10 a. 2 18" TT. cl. B)
B-1 was launched 30 March 1907 by Ebre River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, Mass., as Viper (SS-10), sponsored by Mrs. Lawrence Y. Spear commissioned 18 October 1907, Lieutenant D. C. Gingham in command and reported to the 2d Submarine Flotilla, Atlantic Fleet.
Viper cruised along the Atlantic coast on training and experimental exercises until going into reserve at Charleston Navy Yard 30 November 1909. Recommissioned 15 April 1910 she served with the Atlantic Torpedo Fleet until assigned to the Reserve Torpedo Group at Charleston Navy Yard g May 1911. On 17 November 1911 her name was changed to B-1. In April 1914 B-1 was towed to Norfolk and later loaded on board Hector (AC-7) for transport to the Philippine Islands. Arriving at Olongapo, Luzon, 24 March 1915 B-1 was launched from the deck of Hector 15 April 1915 and recommissioned two days later.
B-1 was assigned to the 1st Submarine Division, Torpedo Flotilla, Asiatic Fleet, 19 May 1915 and later served with the 2nd Submarine Division in Manila Bay. On 1 December 1921 B-l was decommissioned at Cavite, Philippine Islands, and subsequently used as a target.
Troy is a new period for Total War and is the furthest back the franchise has ever gone in history. Ώ] Unlike the major era Total War Games, the Total War Saga titles tend to focus on key flashpoints in history, often within a singular culture, meaning the 20-year war Trojan War was an ideal choice of setting. Ώ] This period is also rich in myth, legend, heroes and monsters, which allowed the developers to explore a variety of new ideas. Ώ]
A unique approach was taken in regards to research, using both mythological sources such as Homer’s Iliad as well as historical data such as archaeological recordings and expert materials on the Bronze Age Collapse. Ώ] This merging of source material provided the developers with their key design pillar, portraying a more accurate world that might have inspired the legendary accounts of this era. Ώ] For example, the game will feature historical representations of renowned mythological monsters, such as a hulking man wearing hides and a bull’s skull to evoke a Minotaur. Ώ]
The legendary setting also inspired the use of a romanticised art style for Troy, visible throughout the campaign overview and user interface. Ώ] It blends the Hellenic artistry of the Iliad with a real-world representation of the Bronze Age Mediterranean. Ώ]
A History of Canadian Soldiers in World War 2
In WW1, Canada was automatically committed to war when Britain declared war. This was not the case in WW2, but there was never much doubt about Canada’s involvement, and the country declared war on September 10th, 1939.
The Early Days of the War
58,000 soldiers enlisted in the first month alone, and by December troops were already heading over to Britain. In total, about 250,000 went overseas to fight over the course of the war. Because of the bad start to the war for Britain, where France became occupied early on, Canada became Britain’s main ally during the first year.
Huge Sea and Air Commitment
Canada played a significant role in the air and at sea. Canada played a large role in the Battle of the Atlantic, which lasted throughout the war. The German U-boat offensive attempted to cut the lifeline provided to Britain, and Canada provided support through the contribution of the Canadian Merchant Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy.
It protected the convoys crossing the Atlantic by providing corvettes, minesweepers, destroyers and more. The Royal Canadian Air Force also assisted, and it provided an escort for the shipping. It was tough at the start, but it became a very effective force.
The Royal Canadian Navy was the third-largest fleet in the world by the end of the war, having enlisted 100,000 men and 6,500 women. It sank many submarines, but it also lost a large number of warships.
Canada’s air support was crucial throughout the war. It supported Britain’s Bomber Command from 1943 to 1945, contributing a huge strike force. It was very successful, but nearly 10,000 lost their lives.
The Royal Canadian Air Force had a huge role in the war, and it was very important to the Allied victory. Many thousands enlisted over the course of the war, and thousands also served in the Royal Air Force.
The Battle for Hong Kong
On December 8th, 1941, Canadian troops and others were defending Hong Kong when they were surprised by Japanese troops, who overwhelmed them. They were overrun in just over two weeks, and nearly 300 were killed and hundreds more injured. Many survivors were taken prisoner in appalling conditions, and almost 300 died while in captivity.
German Attacks in Canadian Waters
In Canada, life was affected for everyone. Price controls and wage controls were introduced in 1941, and rations were brought in during 1942. But millions volunteered and helped with salvage and other tasks.
Canada also faced German hostility in its own waters. German submarines attacked Canadian waters and Newfoundland waters and sank more than 100 ships. They got as far as the Gulf of St Lawrence.
The Worst Day
The worst moment for Canada came with the attack on Dieppe in 1942, which was a disaster. 5,000 troops attacked, with support from Britain, but the Germans had strong defences and 807 Canadian troops were killed and 1,946 captured. It was the worst loss for Canada in a single day.
Canada played a large role on D-Day on June 6th, 1944. 14,000 of the 150,000 soldiers were Canadian, and the Royal Canadian Navy also contributed ships and men. Canada then went on to play a large role in the campaign in Normandy.
The Price of Victory
Canada’s role was crucial in the war effort. As well as the above contributions, it also played a significant role in the campaign against Italy from 1943-45, helping to capture Sicily in July 1943 and later capturing Ortona.
But there was a high cost of victory. Over 42,000 lost their lives, and 54,000 were wounded. The war changed the country considerably, and to this day Canada proudly remembers all those who contributed to the war effort for the huge commitment they made.
Presidents, Parades, and Priests: A New Kind of Pope
John Paul II was born in 1920 and was appointed pope in 1978. In fact, he had only been pope for two years prior to this assassination attempt. Known as a pope for the people, John Paul II was a different kind of priest.
When you think about it, John Paul II was the first to become pope in an era where televisions were a norm in the average household. John Paul II definitely took advantage of the visibility that television offered. He was very much in the public eye for much of the late ‘70s, ‘80s, and ‘90s. Cities threw parades for him. Celebrities shook hands with him. It did not take long for John Paul II to take the world by storm.
The assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II occured on April 13, 1981. The pope had just arrived at Saint Peter's Square and greeted a crowd of 10,000 people. While blessing a man with a camera, the shot went off the camera man’s footage shows the pope seconds after being shot. On the footage, John Paul II was as cool, calm, and collected as possible, considering the circumstances.
The shooter’s name was Mehmet Ali Ağca. Mehmet was a 23-year-old man from Turkey. He was able to get a good shot on the pope, but did not do any further damage. Today, we may be more used to shootings that look like random acts of violence, crowds of people being dealt blow after blow. But Ağca only had one target that day.
In the aftermath of the shooting, two parts of the pope’s intestines were removed. Aside from that, there was not much lasting damage. John Paul II was able to make a quick recovery, but that is not where the story ends. A case like this seems pretty "open and shut." A man fired a gun at a figurehead, and was caught right away, right? Well, here’s where it gets wild.
Where Did Winston Churchill Deliver the "Never Give Up" Speech?
The famous speech where Winston Churchill spoke of never giving up was delivered at Harrow School on October 29, 1941. Many of Churchill's speeches were memorable, but this speech is most remembered for the lines that start, ". never give in, never give in, never, never, never - in nothing, great or small, large or petty - never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense."
Prior to this speech, Prime Minister Churchill discovered that the school had added a verse to one of the traditional songs in his honor. The verse referred to darker days, and Churchill requested it to be changed to sterner days. He wanted the people to look at the days of war as days of change and greatness, not as dark days. The fact that the days of war were hard and difficult could not be ignored, so the word change was made.
Even after the war and his time as Prime Minister, Churchill was well liked by the citizens of England. He faced many health issues, starting as early as 1941, but was able to manage them until he had a series of strokes in 1953. The strokes had caused his retirement in 1955. Although he remained in Parliament until 1964, he did not seek re-election. When he passed away at age 90, the United Kingdom mourned him for a long period.
Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science From Trade to Territory Textbook Evaluation
I. Choose the correct answer
The ruler of Bengal in 1757 was ……………
(a) Shuja – ud – daulah
(b) Siraj – ud – daulah
(d) Tippu Sultan
(b) Siraj – ud – daulah
The Battle of Plassey was fought in ………………
Which among the following treaty was signed after Battle of Buxar?
(a) Treaty of Allahabad
(b) Treaty of Carnatic
(c) Treaty of Alinagar
(d) Treaty of Paris
(a) Treaty of Allahabad]
The Treaty of Pondichery brought the …………….. Carnatic war to an end .
When did Hyder Ali crown on the throne of Mysore?
Treaty of Mangalore was signed between ……………..
(a) The French and Tippu Sultan
(b) Hyder Ali and Zamorin of Calicut
(c) The British and Tippu Sultan
(d) Tippu Sultan andMarathas
(c) The British and Tippu Sultan]
Who was the British Governor General during Third Anglo – Mysore War?
(a) Robert Clive
(b) Warren Hastings
(c) Lord Cornwallis
(d) Lord Wellesley
(c) Lord Cornwallis]
Who signed the Treaty of Bassein with the British?
(a) Bajirao II
(a) Bajirao II
Who was the last Peshwa of Maratha empire?
(b) BajiRao II
Who was the first Indian state to join the subsidiary Alliance?
- The Treaty of Alinagar was signed in ……………..
- The commander in Chief of Sirajuddaula was ……………….
- The main cause for the Second Carnatic war was ……………….
- ………………. adopted the policy of Doctrine of Lapse to extend the British Empire in India.
- Tippu Sultan was finally defeated at the hands of ……………….
- After the death of Tippu Sultan Mysore was handed over to ……………….
- In 1800, ………………… established a college at Fort William in Calcutta.
- Mir Jafar
- The issue of succession
- Lord Dalhousie
- Arthur Wellesely
- Krishna Raja Odayar
- Lord Wellesley]
After the death of Alivardi Khan, Siraj – ud – daula ascended the throne of Bengal.
Hector Munro, led the British forces in the battle of Plassey.
Robert Clive, led the British forces in the battle of Plassey.
The outbreak of the Austrian war of succession in Europe was led to Second Carnatic War in India.
The outbreak of the Austrian war of succession in Europe was led to First Carnatic War in India.
Sir Elijalmpey was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at Fort William in Bengal.
The Police system was created by Lord Cornwallis.
V. Which one of the following is correctly matched?
- Battle of Adayar – 1748
- Battle of Ambur – 1754
- Battle of Wandiwash – 1760
- Battle of Arcot – 1749
3. Battle of Wandiwash – 1760
VI. Answer the following in one or two sentences
Write a short note on Black Hole Tragedy.
There was a small dungeon room in the Fort William in Calcutta, where troops of the Nawab of Bengal Siraj – ud – daula, held 146 British Prisoners of war for one night. Next day morning, when the door was opened 123 of the prisoners found dead because of suffocation.
What were the benefits derived by the English after the Battle of Plassey?
After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the company was granted undisputed right to have free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It received the place of 24 parganas in Bengal.
Mention the causes for the Battle of Buxar.
Mir Qasim the son in law of the Nawab of Bengal revolted as he was angry with the British for misusing the destakes (free duty passes).
What were the causes for the First Mysore War?
- Haider Ali’s growing power and his friendly relations with the French became a matter of concern for the English East India Company.
- The Marathas, the Nizam and the English entered into a triple alliance against Haider Ali.
Bring out the results of the Third Maratha War.
- The Maratha confederacy was dissolved and Peshwaship was abolished.
- Most of the territory of Peshwa BajiRao II was annexed and became part of the Bombay Presidency
- The defeat of the Bhonsle and Holkar also resulted in the acquisition of the Maratha kingdoms of Nagpur and Indore by the British.
- The BajiRao II, the last Peshwa of Maratha was given an annual pension of 8 lakh rupees.
Name the states signed into Subsidiary Alliance.
Hyderabad (1798). It was followed by Tanjore (1799), Auadh (1801), Peshwa (1802), Bhonsle (1803), Gwalior (1804), Indore (1817), Jaipur, Udaipur and Jodhpur (1818).
VII. Answer the following in detail
Write an essay on second Carnatic war.
In the 18th century, three Carnatic wars were fought between various Indian rulers, British and French East Indian Company on either side.
1. The main cause of this war was the issue of succession in Carnatic and Hyderabad. Anwaruddin Khan and Chanda Sahib were the two claimants to the throne of Carnatic, whereas Nasir Jang and Muzaffar Jang were claimants to the throne of Hyderabad.
2. The French supported Chanda sahib and Muzaffar Jang, while the British supported the other claimants with the objective of keeping their interest and influence in the entire Deccan region.
1. Finally Dupleix, Chanda Sahib and Muzaffar Jang formed a grand alliance and defeated and killed Anwar-ud-din Khan, the Nawab of Carnatic, in the Battle of Ambur.
2. Muhammad Ali, the son of Anwar – ud – din, fled to Trichinopoly.
3. Chanda Sahib became the Nawab of Carnatic and rewarded the French with the grant of 80 villages around Pondicherry.
4. In the Deccan, the French defeated and killed Nasir Jang and made Muzaffar Jang as the Nizam.
5. The new Nizam gave ample rewards to the French.
6. He appointed Dupleix as the governor of all the territories in south of the river Krishna. Muzaffar Jang was assassinated by his own people.
7. Salabat Jang, brother of Nasir Jang was raised to the throne by Bussy.
8. Salabat Jang granted the Northern Circars to the French.
9. Dupleix’s power was at its zenith by that time.
1. In the meantime, Dupleix sent forces to besiege the fort of Trichy
2. Chanda Sahib also joined with the French in their efforts to besiege Trichy. Robert Clive’s proposal was accepted by the British governor, Saunders, and with only 200 English and 300 Indian soldiers, Clive was entrusted the task of capturing Arcot. His attack proved successful.
3. Robert Clive defeated the French at Ami and Kaveripak. With the assistance of Lawrence, Chanda Sahib was killed in Trichy. Muhammad Ali was made the Nawab of Arcot under British protection. The French Government recalled Dupleix to Paris.
Treaty of Pondicherry (1755):
1. Dupleix was succeeded by Godeheu who agreed the treaty of Pondicherry. According to it, both the powers agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the native states. They were to retain their old positions. New forts should not be built by either power. The treaty made the British stronger.
2. The second Carnatic war also proved inconclusive. The English proved their superiority on land by appointing Mohammad Ali as the Nawab of Carnatic. The French were still very powerful in Hyderabad. However, the predominant position of the French in the Deccan peninsula was definitely undermined in this war.
Give an account of the Fourth Anglo Mysore war.
The Fourth Anglo – Mysore War:
Tipu Sultan did not forget the humiliating treaty of Srirangapatnam imposed upon him by Cornwallis in 1790.
- Tipu sought alliance with foreign powers against the English and sent ambassadors to Arabia, Turkey, Afghanistan and the French.
- Tipu was in correspondence with Napoleon who invaded Egypt at that time.
- The French officers came to Srirangapatnam where they founded a Jacobin Club and planted the Tree of Liberty.
1. Wellesley declared war against Tipu in 1799. The war was short and decisive. As planned, the Bombay army under General Stuart invaded Mysore from the west.
2. The Madras army, which was led by the Governor – General’s brother, Arthur Wellesley, forced Tipu to retreat to his capital Srirangapatnam.
3. On 4th May 1799 Srirangapatnam was captured. Tipu fought bravely and was killed finally. Thus ended the fourth Mysore War and the whole of Mysore lay prostrate before the British.
- The English occupied Kanara, Wynad. Coimbatore. Darapuram and Srirangapattinam.
- Krishna Raja Odayar of the former Hindu royal family was brought to the throne.
- Tipu’s family was sent to the fort of Vellore.
Describe the policy adopted by Lord Dalhousie to expand the British empire in India.
Doctrine of Lapse:
1. Lord Dalhousie was one of the chief architects of the British Empire in India. He was an imperialist. He adopted a new policy known as Doctrine of Lapse to extend British Empire.
2. He made use of this precedent and declared in 1848 that if the native rulers adopted children without the prior permission of the Company, only the personal properties of the rulers would go to the adopted sons and the kingdoms would go to the British paramount power. This principle was called the Doctrine of Lapse.
3. It was bitterly opposed by the Indians and it was one of the root causes for the great revolt of 1857.
How did Lord Wellesley expand the British
The Subsidiary Alliance:
- Lord Wellesley introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance to bring the princely states under the control of the British.
- It was the most effective instrument for the expansion of the British territory and political influence in India.
- The princely state was called ‘the protected state’ and the British came to be referred as ‘the paramount power’.
- It was the duty of the British to safeguard the state from external aggression and to help its ruler in maintaining internal peace.
Main Features of Subsidiary Alliance:
- An Indian ruler entering into this alliance with the British had to dissolve his own armed forces and accept British Forces.
- A British Resident would stay in his capital.
- Towards the maintenance charges of the army, he should make annual payments or cede some territory permanently to the Company.
- All the non – English European officials should be turned out of his state.
- The native ruler should deal with foreign states only through the English Company.
- The British would undertake to defend the state from internal trouble as well as external attack.
Explain the causes for the success of the English in India.
1. Lack of unity among Indian Stats:
Even though there were powerful kings and who ruled Punjab, Mysore and Maratha region, they lacked unity and fought with each other for various reasons. They failed to perceive the danger arising from the East India Company.
2. Greater Naval Power:
The British came through the sea and established a strong naval power in the Indian Ocean before coming to the Indian main land. There was no strong naval power in India to challenge the Brititsh.
3. Development of textile:
By the beginning of the 19th century English made cotton textiles successfully ousted Indian goods from their traditional markets.
4. Scientific division of labour:
The production and growth of modem science in India was encouraged by the British with a view to further colonial interests.
5. Economic prospertiy:
The British had enough funds to pay its share holders that compelled them to finance the English wars in India.
IX. Mark the following on the River map of India
Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science History From Trade to Territory Additional Questions
I. Choose the correct answer
The rule of …………… in India became effective after the conquest of Bengal.
(b) East India Company
(b) East India Company
Siraj – ud – daula captured the British factory at …………….
(a) Kasim bazar
(a) Kasim bazar]
Buxar was a small fortified town in the territory of ……………….
(a) West Bengal
In the battle of Adayar, the French army fought under captain ……………..
(a) Hector Munro
(b) Robert Clive
(c) Eyre Coote
Under the terms of the Treaty of Aix – la – Chapelle, ……………. was returned back to the English.
The out break of the seven years’ was in Europe led to the ……………. war in India.
(a) I Carnatic
(b) II Carnatic
(c) III Carnatic
(c) III Carnatic
In the III Carnatic war, France captured Fort ……………
(b) St. David
(b) St. David
The Battle of Wandiwash was fought by the English army under General …………….
(c) Hector Munro
(d) Eyre Coote
(d) Eyre Coote
The Seven year’s war was concluded …………… by the treaty of.
The state of Mysore rose to prominence uder the leadership of …………….
(a) Chanda sahib
(b) Salabat Jang
(c) Haider Ali
(c) Haider Ali
In 1781, the British General Sir Eyre Coote defeated Haider Ali at ………………
(b) Porto Novo
(b) Porto Novo
………….. Saved the British Dominion from the wrath of powerful enemies.
(c) Warren Hastings
(c) Warren Hastings
Tipu attacked in ……………. 1789.
During the course of the third Anglo – Mysore war …………… took the command of the British Armyi
(c) Robert Clive
The internal conflict among the ……………. was best utilised by the British.
Colonel Upton concluded the treaty of ……………. in 1776.
The death of …………….. in 1800 gave the British an added advantage.
(a) Mahadaji Scindia
(b) Daulat Rao Scindia
(c) Madhav Rao
(d) Nana Phadnavis
(d) Nana Phadnavis]
In the III Anglo Maratha war, Hastings was supported by a force under General ……………
(a) Thomas Hislop
(a) Thomas Hislop]
……………… the Governor General of India in 1786, enforced the ruler against private trade.
(a) Warren Hastings
(d) Robert Clive
As per the Government of India Act of 1858, the maximum age for competitors of civil services examination was fixed at ……………
- ………………. of Portugal discovered a new sea route from Europe to India.
- ………………. ascended the throne of Bengal in 1756.
- British captured …………….. the French settlement in 1757.
- ………………. concluded two treaties with Siraj – Ud – daula and Shah Alam II.
- ………………. and ……………… were rival countries in Europe.
- The battle of ………………… was fought between the French forces and forces of Anwar – ud – din.
- ……………. was deputed from France to conduct the third Carnatic war.
- Robert Clive sent ………….. from Bengal to occupy the Norhem Circars.
- Haider Ali and his son …………. played a prominent role against the expansion of British empire in India.
- The Nizam, with the help of British troops led by General invaded Mysore in 1767.
- Tipu captutred Brigadier …………. the supreme commander of the forces in 1783.
- After the death of Narayan Rao, ……………. became the Peshwa.
- Raghunath Rao’s authority was challenged by a strong party at poona under ……………..
- ……………. made an attempt to form a coalition of Indian rulers to fight against the British.
- The Royal Commission on Public Service was Chaired by Lord ……………. in 1912.
- In 1918 ………….. and ……………. recommended that 33% of Indians should be recruited in Indian civil services.
- The …………….. was the second important pillar of the British administration in India.
- The highest rank in the army that an Indian could ever reach was that of a ……………..
- Circles or Thanas were headed by a …………….
- The heriditary village police became ……………
- Vasco da Gama
- Siraj – Ud – daula
- Chandra nagore
- Robert Clive
- Britain and France
- San Thome (Madras)
- Count de Lally
- Colonel Forde
- Tipu Sultan
- Joseph Smith
- Raghunath Rao
- Nana Phadnavis
- Yashwant Rao Holkas
- Montague, Chelmsford
Within a year after the Battle of Wandiwash the English army totally routed the French Army.
In 1761, Tipu Sultan became the de facto ruler of Hyderabad.
In 1761, Tipu Sultan became the de facto ruler of Mysore.
Warren Hastings consolidated the British power in India. [Ans : True]
The Treaty of Salbai was signed between Cornwallis and Mahadaji Scindia.
The Treaty of Salbai was signed between Warren Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia.
The idea of competition for recruitment was introduced first by the Charter Act, 1833.
V. Answer the following in one or two sentences.
What was the motive behind the discovery of sea routes to India?
The main motive behind those discoveries was to maximize profit through trade and to establish political supremacy.
What were the causes of the Second Anglo Mysore war?
1. The English did not fulfill the terms of the treaty of 1769, when Haider’s territories were attacked in 1771 by Marathas, Haider did not get help from the British.
2. British captured Mahe, a French settlement within Haider’s Jurisdiction. It led to the formation of an alliance by Haider with the Nizam and Marathas against the English in 1779.
Prepare flow chart to explain the period of the three Carnatic wars.
What were the results of the First Anglo Maratha War?
- RaghunathRao was pensioned off and MadhavRao II was accepted as the Peshwa.
- Salsette was given to the British.
- The Treaty of Salbai established the British influence in Indian politics. It provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas.
Explain with a flow chart the period of the Anglo Mysore wars.
Prepare a flow chart mentioning the period in which the Anglo Maratha wars were fought.
What did the Indian Civil Service Act of 1861 state?
The Indian Civil Service Act of 1861 passed by the British Parliament exclusively reserved certain categories of high executive and judicial posts for the covenanted civil service which was later designated as the Indian Civil Service.
Name the three Indians who became successful in the I.C.S. examination in 1869.
In 1869, three Indians – Surendra Nath Banerje, Ramesh Chandra Dutt and Bihari Lai Gupta became successful in the I.C.S. examination.
What did the Royal Commission of Public Service or the Lee Commission recommend in 1923?
In 1923, a Royal Commission on Public Services was appointed with Lord Lee of Fareham as chairman. This commission recommended that recruitment to all-Indian services like the Indian Civil Service, the Indian Police Service and the Indian Forest Service should be made and controlled by the Secretary of State for India. The Lee Commission recommended the immediate establishment of a Public Service Commission.
Write a short note on the Act of 1935.
The Act of 1935 also made provisions for the establishment of a Federal Public Service Commission at the Centre and the Provincial Public Service Commissions in the various provinces. Provision was also made for a Joint Public Service Commission in two or more Provinces. Although, the main aim of this measure was to serve the British interests, it became the base of the civil service system in independent India.
Name the provinces in which separates armies were organised during the British rule.
During the early stage of British rule, three separate armies had been organised in three Presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras.
Name the places where high courts were setup according to the Act of 1861.
According to the Indian High Courts Act, 1861, three High Courts were set up in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
Brief the merits of the subsidiary Alliance for the British.
Merits for the British:
- The British Company maintained a large army at the expense of the Indian rulers.
- All Frenchmen in the service of native rulers were dismissed, and the danger of French revival was completely eliminated.
- The British Company began to control the foreign policy of the Princely States,
- Wellesley’s diplomacy made the British the paramount power in India. He transformed the British Empire in India into the British empire of India.
What were the factors for the success of the British?
Factors for the success of the British
- Greater naval power.
- Development of textile.
- Scientific division of labour.
- Economic prosperity and skilful diplomacy of the British.
- Feelings of insecurity among the Indian merchants.
- The inequality and ignorance of the Indian kings.
What was the impact of the policies of Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse in India?
This policy led to a South Indian rebellion (1800 – 01), Vellore Rebellion (1806) and the Great Rebellion (1857).
Hector II AC-7 - History
The History of Aria
“It all started with the classical guitar”, says Shiro Arai, Chairman and the founder of Aria Guitars.
One day, a friend came to visit Shiro’s apartment with a guitar. Shiro was expecting to hear Koga-type Japanese popular music, but instead his friend started to play a piece by Bach. From this moment, he had been inspired by the sound of this instrument forever.
The very next day, Shiro bought his first guitar, costing over two months salary and began to teach himself to play. Now playing day and night, his passion for the guitar brought him to a famous classical guitar master in Nagoya, and soon became one of his students.
Shiro started work for a trading company in 1947, aged 17. In 1953, Shiro and two of his colleagues resigned their positions and founded their own trading firm. After the fledgling company failed after just one year Shiro found himself homeless with nothing but his guitar. In order to live and settle the outstanding debts from this first business he started to teach the guitar.
In 1954 unable to buy guitars, music and strings in Japan’s music stores, Shiro started to import classical guitars, Augustine guitar strings, and musical scores for himself and his students. These were the first classical guitars imported into post-war Japan and included instruments from renowned makers Jose Ramirez and Hermann Hauser. Recognising an increasing demand for guitars from friends and players throughout Japan, Shiro grasped the opportunity to start his own business. On August 2nd, 1956, ARAI & CO., INC was founded.
At this time, although demand for classical guitars and accessories were increasing, it was still comparatively low and business was supplemented with other products including woollen material.
The name, “ARIA”, which means expressive melody, was first used in 1958 when Arai exported Japanese built classical guitars fitted with steel strings to South East Asia in 1963. Also the letters of his name “ARAI” were just switched around to “ARIA as he recalled.
Shiro embarked on a tour of the US with two of the best Japanese KOHNO guitars. At that time Japanese guitars had a poor reputation for developing body cracks and warped necks after being exposed to drier conditions abroad. It was Shiro’s intention to prove how good Japanese guitars were by performing and showing to fellow guitarists, teachers and music shops. After two months these guitars also started to crack.
Even the best available Kohno guitars faced the same problem. Shiro took these cracked guitars back to Japan to show their makers just how vital it is to use properly seasoned tone woods. This trip gave Shiro the experience and knowledge to improve the quality of guitars and export Japanese guitars worldwide.
It was as early as the late 50’s when Arai started to import Fender guitars and amplifiers from the US, although at that time the Japanese market was not quite ready for the electric guitar! With the advent of rock n’ roll demand for electric guitars took-off. Arai released its first ARIA brand electric guitars in 1963. Exporting to the US followed with models including the 1532T and 1802T.
To counter the decline of the solid body electric guitar boom, Arai released the Aria Diamond series hollow body semi-acoustic guitars. Aria Diamond was named after the imitation diamond inlayed into the headstock. This series lead to the release of the 1202 and 1302 models in 1966 and caused nothing short of a sensation in Japan. From 1967 Aria added a variety of models including the solid body 1962T, R-320, and violin shaped 12-string and bass guitars, and a full acoustic guitar, the 1262.
In 1975, Aria Pro II was developed from Aria’s custom shop making high-end models for professional users. In 1976, Aria Pro II released its first original model, the PE-1500.
PE (Prototype Line) is a classic Aria design, also known as the legendary masterpiece, it featured an arched top, and all maple carved body with Aria’s original “heel-less neck and DiMarzio Super Distortion Humbucking Pickups. Primarily designed for tone and playability, the PE series has been modified to match today’s trends while keeping its original features and timeless design.
In 1978, Aria Pro II released another long-selling model, the SB-1000. The SB-1000 was highly regarded throughout the world and came to represent everything that was good about Aria and Japanese guitar building. Featuring a Canadian Ash body with neck through body and, to enhance playability, a heel-less neck. For its original tone, SB featured the Aria original BB circuit. Its exotic see-through finish and the eye position marks make the SB amongst the most distinctive basses ever made.
Aria Pro II led the way with the 80’s shift to Hard Rock and Heavy Metal. Releasing many models such as XX, ZZ and U-1. Whilst not abandoning their routes also re-established the semi-acoustic guitar models, FA and TA. The 80s, also saw the introduction of the famous IGB (SB INTEGRA) bass series.
In the early 1990s, after the heavy metal rush, Aria Pro II released one of its favourite original models, the MA series to reinforce the PE and SB line-ups. MA series bodies are constructed with innovative crystal shaped carved top and back.
Continuing its remarkable progress, Aria released the very unique concept of the SWB (electric upright bass) series to the world in 1992. The SWB range offers compact modern design and features the Fishman custom bridge Piezo pickup and active tone circuit.
Aria has been at the forefront of guitar and Japanese guitar building excellence for 60 years, which means a wealth of experience and acquired expertise. The core value remains the same today, to constantly strive to achieve a higher level of excellence, quality and value for musicians.