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T84 8in Howitzer Motor Carriage

T84 8in Howitzer Motor Carriage


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T84 8in Howitzer Motor Carriage

The T84 8in Howitzer Motor Carriage was the first attempt to mount a heavy artillery gun on the chassis of the M26 Pershing tank, but only two pilots were ever built.

Early in 1944 work began on the 155mm Gun Motor Carriage T83, which carried a 155m gun on the chassis of the Medium Tank M4A3 (this later became the M40 Gun Motor Carriage). In April 1944 the Artillery Board suggested mounting an 8in howitzer on the same chassis. Army Service Forces approved the idea as long as the heavier T26E1 chassis was used instead. Two pilots of the T84 were ordered, but construction was delayed by the limited availability of the T26 chassis. Trials were underway at the end of the war, and the project was then cancelled. As a result of the delays the M4A3 was eventually used to carry the 8in Howitzer, as the M43 8in Howitzer Motor Carriage (T89), which saw service during the Korean War.

The T84 used the basis chassis of the T26E1, with six road wheels on each side. The T84 reversed the layout of the Pershing. The engine and transmission were moved to the front. The drive wheel was also at the front. The old engine compartment was removed and an un-armoured open fighting platform was built at the back of the vehicle. The main weapon had a limited range of traverse, which all came from the existing 8in howitzer mount.

The T84 was developed alongside two heavier motor carriages, the T92 240mm Howitzer Motor Carriage and the T93 8in Gun Motor Carriage, but these both involved a much larger rebuild of the basic Pershing.

Stats
Weight: 82,000lb
Armament: 8in howitzer


Self-propelled artillery

During World War II, armored personnel carriers appeared under a variety of names. These included tractors, cargo carriers, and armored utility vehicles. When used to tow an artillery piece, they were referred to as prime movers. The armored half-track was standardized during this period as the carrier for infantry in the armored divisions of the U.S. Army.

These lightly armored, open top, vehicles served in many roles including personnel carriers, mortar carriers, and self-propelled artillery. Although they were intended to combine the best features of the wheeled and full-tracked vehicles, it also was true that they combined the worst characteristics of each. They were not as efficient on roads as armored cars and they lacked the crosscountry mobility of the full-tracked vehicles.

The introduction of the Sexton 25 pounder self-propelled gun resulted in the replacement of the early 105mm howitzer motor carriage M7 in the British forces. Many of these surplus vehicles were then converted to armored personnel carriers by removing the howitzer and modifying the armor and the stowage arrangement. This conversion provided a full-tracked armored personnel carrier that could easily keep up with the tanks in cross-country operations.

When the Canadian Army was equipped with Sherman tanks, a large number of the earlier Ram tanks became available for conversion to other duties. With the turret removed and the interior modified, they became personnel carriers with mobility and armor protection equal to that of the medium tank. Some old Sherman III (M4A2) medium tanks also had their turrets removed and were converted to armored personnel carriers by the British forces. All of these converted vehicles were referred to as Kangaroos.

The appearance of the high performance 76mm gun motor carriage M18 as a self-propelled tank destroyer revealed the need for an equivalent vehicle to serve as a personnel carrier, reconnaissance vehicle, and prime mover for the towed guns in the tank destroyer battalions.

The M18 chassis was modified by removing the turret and changing the stowage to provide a suitable vehicle. Standardized as the armored utility vehicle M39, it served in the U.S. Army until the end of the war in Korea. However, its very light armor was vulnerable to rifle caliber fire at close range and the open top exposed the crew to artillery air bursts.

Numerous wartime development programs were initiated to provide full-tracked, armored, personnel and ammunition carriers as companion vehicles for the self-propelled artillery mounted on the chassis of the medium and light tanks. These companion vehicles also were conversions of the same chassis used to mount the self-propelled weapon.

The T14 cargo carrier, based upon the medium tank chassis, was modernized and standardized as the cargo carrier M30. It saw action as the companion vehicle to the 155mm gun motor carriage M12. With the introduction of the 155mm gun motor carriage M40, a new companion vehicle was designed using the same chassis.Originally designated as the cargo carrier T30, it was modified to permit the stowage of either 155mm, 8 inch, or 240mm ammunition.

This modified version was designated as the cargo carrier T30E1. However, with the decision to use unarmored, high speed, tractors as the companion vehicles for the heavy self-propelled artillery, production plans for the T30E1 were canceled. A similar fate befell the cargo carrier T31. This vehicle was designed to accompany the 8 inch howitzer motor carriage T84. The chassis of both the T84 and the T31 was based upon components of the M26 Pershing tank.

Companion vehicles for the self-propelled artillery utilizing the light tank chassis followed the same pattern. The cargo carrier T22 was designed as the companion vehicle for the 4.5 inch gun motor carriage T16 or the 155mm howitzer motor carriage T64. Like the artillery motor carriages, the T22 was based upon the light tank M5A1.

The cargo carrier T23 also used the chassis of the M5A1 and was intended to accompany the 40mm gun motor carriage T65. When the artillery motor carriages were redesigned to utilize the chassis of the later light tank M24, a similar change was made in the cargo carriers. They now became the cargo carriers T22E1 and T23E1. However, neither vehicle was placed in production.

The heavy tractors T2 and T16 were early prime movers intended to serve as armored personnel carriers for the crew of the heavy artillery pieces to which they were assigned. Based upon the early medium tank, neither the T2 nor the T16 proved to be satisfactory and they never entered production. Later, in December 1943, some M31 and M32B1 tank recovery vehicles were converted into prime movers for use with the 8 inch gun and the 240mm howitzer.

The turret, armament, and recovery equipment was removed and they were designated as the prime movers M33 and M34 respectively. In January 1944, 209 M10A1 tank destroyers also were converted to M35 prime movers for the heavy artillery by removing the turret. All of these served as armored personnel carriers for the artillery crews.


Contents

The development started in September 1941 with a requirement for a close-support vehicle based upon the M3 Stuart's chassis, but it was made of a mild steel superstructure. A 75 mm Pack Howitzer was mounted on the right of the glacis plate of the vehicle. The gun mount was modeled from the M3 Lee's 75 mm gun's mount. [1]

Two prototypes were produced and sent to Aberdeen Proving Grounds. They were unsatisfactory because of their heavy nose weight. By the time the first pilot model was midway into being completed, the project was canceled since the army disliked the high superstructure, nose weight, and nearly vertical armor. The project was soon superseded by the T41 project. [2] Later, the prototypes were kept on display in the Aberdeen Proving Ground until they were destroyed in 1947. [3]


Studebaker M29 Weasel


The idea for the Weasel came from the work of British inventor Geoffrey Pyke in support of his proposals to attack Axis forces and industrial installations in Norway. Pyke's plan to hamper the German atomic weapons development became Project Plough for which he proposed a fast light mechanised device that would transport small groups of commando troops of the 1st Special Service Force across snow. In active service in Europe, Weasels were used to supply frontline troops over difficult ground when wheeled vehicles were immobilised.

The first 2,103 vehicles had 15 in (380 mm) tracks, a later version had 20 in (510 mm) tracks. The M29 was amphibious, but with a very low freeboard [ 2 ] the M29C Water Weasel was the amphibious version, with buoyancy cells in the bow and stern as well as twin rudders.


T84 8in Howitzer Motor Carriage - History

M43 8" (203.2 mm) Howitzer Motor Carriage

Désirant remplacer l' obusier automoteur M12 basé sur le châssis du Medium Tank M3 et armé du vétéran obusier de 155 mm M1918, l' US Army décida de développer un nouvel engin du même type sur base du châssis du Medium Tank M4 équipé non plus de la suspension verticale standard mais de la nouvelle suspension horizontale (HVSS) et du plus puissant canon de 155 mm M1 ou M2. Le prototype fut désigné T83 et en mars 1944, 5 modèles pilotes furent commandés. Après des tests satisfaisants, le T83 fut accepté pour la production début 1945 et fut standardisé en mai 1945 sous la désignation de M40 155 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage. On décida après les tests sur le T83 de monter à la place du 155 mm M1/M2, l' obusier de 8 pouces (203.2 mm). Le nouveau prototype fut baptisé T89. Le T89 fut standardisé en novembre 1945 sous la désignation de M43 8 inch Howitzer Motor Carriage.

Wishing to replace the motorized howitzer M12 based on the chassis of Medium Tank M3 and armed with the veteran howitzer of 155 mm M1918, US Army decided to develop a new machine of the same type on the basis of chassis of Medium Tank M4 equipped either with the standard vertical suspension but with the new horizontal suspension (HVSS) and with the most powerful gun of 155 mm M1 or m2. The prototype was indicated T83 and in March 1944, 5 pilot models were ordered. After satisfactory tests, T83 was accepted for the production at the beginning of 1945 and was standardized in May 1945 under the designation of M40 155 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage. One decided after the tests on T83 to mount in the place of the 155 mm M1/M2, the the howitzer of 8 inches (203.2 mm). The new prototype was baptized T89. T89 was standardized in November 1945 under the designation of M43 8 inches Howitzer Motor Carriage.

Le M43 comme le M40 est basé sur le châssis du M4A3 à suspension horizontale HVSS. La caisse fut allongée pour fournir un compartiment de combat suffisant pour accueillir l' obusier de 8 pouces. Le char était divisé en trois parties, la cabine de pilotage à l' avant munie de deux coupoles de vision sur le toit (ainsi qu' une trappe de secours sur le plancher), le compartiment moteur au centre et le compartiment de combat à l' arrière qui occupe la moitié de la longueur du char. L'équipage du M43 avait un équipage de 8 hommes dont le pilote et le copilote qui prenaient place dans la cabine de pilotage. Le reste était divisé entre le poste de combat et un transport de munitions. L' armement du M43 consistait en un obusier de 203.2 mm M1 8 pouces. Le M43 était dotée d' un large porte à rabattement arrière avec une rampe de chargement/accès pour que les 6 servants du canon puisse opérer à l' aise, et faciliter le chargement des munitions. Comme le M40, cet obusier automoteur était doté d' une large bêche à l' arrière qui enfoncée dans le sol empêchait le char de reculer en raison du recul de l' arme lors que celle-ci était utilisée.

M43 as M40 is based on the chassis of the M4A3 with horizontal suspension HVSS. The hull was lengthened to provide a sufficient compartment of combat to accomodate the howitzer of 8 inches. The tank was divided into three parts, the cockpit in front provided with two cupolas of vision on the roof (as well as a trap door of escape on the floor), the engine compartment in the center and the compartment of combat to the back which occupies half the length of the tank. The M43 had a crew of 8 men which the driver and the copilot who took seat in the cockpit. The remainder was divided between the station of combat and an ammunition carrier. The armament of M43 consisted of an howitzer of 203.2 mm M1 (8 inches). M43 was equipped with a broad door with back folding back with a slope of loading/access where the 6 gun crewmen can can operate at ease, and which to facilitate the loading of the ammunition. Like M40, this motorized howitzer was equipped with a broad spade to the back which inserted in the ground prevented the tank from moving back because of the recoil of the weapon at the time this one was used.

Le moteur installé au milieu était un Continental R975 C4 essence de 9 cylindres développant entre 400 et 460 CV à 2400 tours/minute. Le M43 pouvait atteindre sur route les 39 km/h et avec les 976 l embarqués parcourir environ 160 km sur son propre carburant. La suspension de type HVSS, c' est-à-dire à ressorts horizontaux comportait 3 paires de chariots munis chacun de deux double-galets de roulement, une paire de poulies de tension arrière, une paire de barbotins avant et cinq paires de rouleaux porteurs. Les chenilles montées avec la suspension HVSS était plus large que celles montées sur la suspension VVSS (Verticale) et atteignait les 580 mm de large. Cette disposition assurait au char une meilleure stabilité et une pression au sol acceptable. La suspension horizontale devait aussi être moins éprouvée par le recul du canon que la suspension verticale.

Types de chenilles montées sur le M43:

T66 type: guide central, simple goupille, moulée, acier
Largeur: 580 mm - Pas (espacement): 150 mm - Patins: 2x86 - Contact au sol: 4.17 m
T80 type: guide central, double goupille, caoutchouc et acier
Largeur: 580 mm - Pas (espacement): 150 mm - Patins: 2x86 - Contact au sol: 4.17 m
T84 type: guide central, double goupille, caoutchouc
Largeur: 580 mm - Pas (espacement): 150 mm - Patins: 2x86 - Contact au sol: 4.17 m

The engine installed in the middle was Continental R975 C4 gasoline of 9 cylinders developing between 400 and 460 hp to 2400 rpm. M43 could reach on road the 39 km/h and with the 976 L embarked to run approximately 160 km on its own fuel. The suspension of the type HVSS (Horizontal Volute Springs Suspension) comprised 3 pairs of bogies provided each one with two double-road wheels, a pair of back idlers, a pair of front sprocket-wheels and five pairs of return rollers. The tracks assembled with suspension HVSS was broader than those assembled on suspension VVSS (Vertical) and reached the 580 mm broad. This provision ensured the tank a better stability and a pressure on the ground acceptable . The horizontal suspension resisted better to the recoil of the gun as the vertical suspension.

Types of tracks assembled on M43:

T66 type: central guide, single pin, steel, rubber
Width: 580 mm - Pitch: 150 mm - Links: 2x79 - Track ground contact: 3.84 m
T80 type: central guide, double pin, steel, rubber
Width: 580 mm - Pitch: 150 mm - Links: 2x79 - Track ground contact: 3.84 m
T84 type: central guide, double pin, rubber
Width: 580 mm - Pitch: 150 mm - Links: 2x79 - Track ground contact: 3.84 m

Le blindage du M43, était très léger et ne dépassait pas les 25 mm. Seuls les deux pilotes étaient entièrement protégés dans la cabine de pilotage alors que les servants étaient très exposés dans le compartiment de combat ouvert au dessus et à l' arrière . Étant donné que le M43 opérait pratiquement comme une pièce d' artillerie classique, c' est-à-dire depuis les lignes arrière, à longue distance, ce défaut (voulu pour ménager la suspension et la mobilité du char) n' avait que peu d' importance.

Au total, 48 M43s seulement furent fabriqués en 1945 par Pressed Steel Car Co. dont 24 étais des M40 convertis. Peut être que certains furent utilisés dans le Pacifique mais c' est une supposition.

The shielding of M43, was very light and did not exceed the 25 mm. Only the two drivers were entirely protected in the cockpit whereas other crewmen were very exposed in the open (top and back) combat compartment. Since M40 practically operated like a traditional piece of artillery, i.e. since the rear lines, at long distance, this defect (desired to spare the suspension and the mobility of the tank) had only little importance.

On the whole, 48 M43s only were manufactured in 1945 by Pressed Steel Car Co including 24 were M40 converted. Can be that certain were used in the Pacific but it is an assumption.


USA nevenovala medzi dvoma svetovými vojnami takú pozornosť pri vývoji tankov, ako európske štáty. Situácia sa zmenila na začiatku 2. svetovej vojny, keď bolo len otázkou času, kedy sa americké vojská zapoja do vojenského konfliktu. Ale aj tak sa však Američania sústreďovali na vývoj ľahkých tankov (napr. M5 Stuart) a stredných tankov (M3 Lee), ktorých koncepcia bola už v tom období prekonaná. Tieto stroje sa síce vyrovnali starším nemeckým tankom, ale počas vojny museli byť rýchlo nahradzované novými typmi. Po príchode nových nemeckých tankov Panther a Tiger Američania čelili nemeckej kvalitatívnej prevahe nasadením veľkého počtu tankov M4 Sherman. Spojenci tiež ťažili zo svojej veľkej leteckej prevahy, ktorá citeľne oslabovala nemecké tankové jednotky pri nasadení na fronte. Pri invázii v Normandii a následných bojoch však Tigre a Panthery spôsobovali Američanom ťažké straty. V USA sa začalo pracovať na rozpracovanom projekte T26 z roku 1942 a do konca roku 1944 boli vyrobené prvé tanky M26 Pershing.

M26 Pershing mal dobré balistické vlastnosti korby aj veže, čo mu poskytovalo rovnakú pasívnu ochranu ako tanku Tiger. Okrem toho mal veľmi dobrú pohyblivosť, manévrovateľnosť aj rýchlosť, Jeho kanón M3 kalibru 90 mm je zrovnateľný s 88 mm kanónom Tigra alebo stíhača tankov Jagdpanther. Pershing mal aj efektívny stabilizátor kanóna a rýchlejšie otáčanie veže. S kanónom bol namontovaný aj spriahnutý guľomet M1919A4 kalibru 7,62 mm. Taký istý guľomet bol inštalovaný v prednej časti korby, na vrchu veže bol upevnený protilietadlový guľomet kalibru 12,7 mm. Podvozok pozostával z dvojice šiestich dvojitých pojazdových kolies odpružených na torzných tyčiach. Hnacie kolesá sa nachádzali vzadu, napínacie vpredu. Okrem toho pásy napínalo päť napínacích kladiek. Pohon tanku zabezpečoval benzínový motor Ford GAF V8 o objeme 18 l, ktorý bol uložený v zadnej časti korby.

Po nemeckej ofenzíve v Ardenách sa ukázalo, že americko-britským silám chýba tank, ktorý by odolával tankom Panther a Tiger ale aj Tiger II. Američania preto v roku 1945 poslali do Európy prvých 20 Pershingov, ktoré boli priradené k 3. a 9. tankovej divízii. Ďalších 200 Pershingov prišlo do Európy začiatkom marca. 7. marca 1945 zničil Pershing nemecký Panther počas jazdy vďaka stabilizátoru, čo u nemeckých vojakov vyvolalo údiv.


  1. ^ Spoelstra, Hanno. "Marmon-Herrington Tanks". Marmon-Herrington Military Vehicles . http://marmon-herrington.webs.com/tank.html .  
  2. ^ Spoelstra, Hanno. "Marmon-Herrington tanks: The Dutch Connection". Marmon-Herrington Military Vehicles . http://marmon-herrington.webs.com/nl-mh.html .  
  3. ^ Klemen, L. "The conquest of Java Island, March 1942". The Netherlands East Indies 1941-1942 . http://www.dutcheastindies.webs.com/java.html .  
  4. ^ Spoelstra, Hanno. "Marmon-Herringtons in Commonwealth service". Marmon-Herrington Military Vehicles . http://marmon-herrington.webs.com/common.html .  
  5. ^ Spoelstra, Hanno. "Marmon-Herrington tanks in US service". Marmon-Herrington Military Vehicles . http://marmon-herrington.webs.com/usa.html .  
  • Leland Ness (2002) Janes World War II Tanks and Fighting Vehicles: A Complete Guide, Harper Collins, ISBN 0-00-711228-9

The M3 Stuart, officially Light Tank, M3, was an American light tank of World War II. An improved version entered service as M5. It was supplied to British and other Commonwealth forces under lend-lease prior to the entry of the U.S. into the war. Thereafter, it was used by U.S. and Allied forces until the end of the war.

The M24 Chaffee is an American light tank used during the later part of World War II it was also used in post–World War II conflicts including the Korean War, and by the French in the War in Algeria and the First Indochina War. In British service it was given the service name Chaffee after the United States Army General Adna R. Chaffee Jr., who helped develop the use of tanks in the United States armed forces. M24s were mostly removed from U.S. and NATO armies by the 1960s, but remained in service with some Third World countries.

The M3 Lee, officially Medium Tank, M3, was an American medium tank used during World War II. In Britain, the tank was called by two names based on the turret configuration and crew size. Tanks employing US pattern turrets were called the "Lee", named after Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Variants using British pattern turrets were known as "Grant", named after Union general Ulysses S. Grant.

The M10 tank destroyer was an American tank destroyer of World War II. After US entry into World War II and the formation of the Tank Destroyer Force, a suitable vehicle was needed to equip the new battalions. By November 1941, the Army requested a vehicle with a gun in a fully rotating turret after other interim models were criticized for being too poorly designed. The prototype of the M10 was conceived in early 1942 and delivered in April that year. After appropriate changes to the hull and turret were made, the modified version was selected for production in June 1942 as the 3-inch Gun Motor Carriage M10. It mounted a 3-inch gun M7 in a rotating turret on a modified M4A2 tank chassis. An alternate model, the M10A1, which used the chassis of an M4A3 tank, was also produced. Production of the two models ran from September 1942 to December 1943 and October 1942 to November 1943, respectively.

The M3 half-track was an American armored personnel carrier half-track widely used by the Allies during World War II and in the Cold War. Derived from the M2 half-track car, the M3 was extensively produced, with about 15,000 standard M3s and more than 38,000 variant units manufactured.

The M114 155 mm howitzer is a towed howitzer developed and used by the United States Army. It was first produced in 1942 as a medium artillery piece under the designation of 155 mm Howitzer M1. It saw service with the US Army during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, before being replaced by the M198 howitzer.

The M115 203 mm howitzer, also known as the M115 8 inch howitzer, and originally 8 inch Howitzer M1 was a towed howitzer developed and used by the United States Army.

The 105 mm M101A1 howitzer is an artillery piece developed and used by the United States. It was the standard U.S. light field howitzer in World War II and saw action in both the European and Pacific theaters. Entering production in 1941, it quickly gained a reputation for accuracy and a powerful punch. The M101A1 fires 105 mm high explosive (HE) semi-fixed ammunition and has a range of 12,330 yards (11,270 m), making it suitable for supporting infantry.

The 37 mm gun M3 is the first dedicated anti-tank gun fielded by United States forces in numbers. Introduced in 1940, it became the standard anti-tank gun of the U.S. infantry with its size enabling it to be pulled by a jeep. However, the continuing improvement of German tanks quickly rendered the 37 mm ineffective and, by 1943, it was being gradually replaced in the European and Mediterranean theaters by the more powerful British-developed 57 mm gun M1. In the Pacific, where the Japanese tank threat was less significant, the M3 remained in service until the end of the war, but some 57mm guns were issued.

The 3-inch gun M1918 was a United States 3-inch anti-aircraft gun that entered service in 1918 and served until it was largely superseded by the 3-inch anti-aircraft gun M3 in 1930, though the M1918 remained with some National Guard units until early in World War II. The M3 was subsequently replaced by the M1 90mm AA gun early in World War II, primarily during 1942. The M3 3" gun was later adapted for the anti-tank role, serving as the main armament of the M10 tank destroyer during World War II.

The 76 mm gun M1 was an American World War II–era tank gun developed by the U.S Ordnance Department in 1942 to supplement the 75 mm gun on the basic Medium tank M4. It was also used to arm the M18 Hellcat tank destroyer.

The 105 mm Howitzer M3 was a U.S. light howitzer designed for use by airborne troops. The gun utilized the barrel of the 105 mm Howitzer M2, shortened and fitted to a slightly modified split trail carriage of the 75 mm pack howitzer.

The 155 mm gun M1 was a 155 millimeter caliber field gun developed and used by the United States military. Nicknamed "Long Tom", it was produced in M1 and M2 variants, later known as the M59. Developed to replace the Canon de 155mm GPF, the gun was deployed as a heavy field weapon during World War II and the Korean War, and also classed as secondary armament for seacoast defense. The gun could fire a 100 lb (45 kg) shell to a maximum range of 14 mi (23 km), with an estimated accuracy life of 1,500 rounds.

The 3-inch gun M5 was an anti-tank gun developed in the United States during World War II. The gun combined a 3-inch (76.2 mm) barrel of the anti-aircraft gun T9 and elements of the 105 mm howitzer M2. The M5 was issued exclusively to the US Army tank destroyer battalions starting in 1943. It saw combat in the Italian Campaign and in the Northwest Europe campaign.

The M3 Gun Motor Carriage (GMC) was a United States Army tank destroyer equipped with a 75 mm M1897A4 gun, which was built by the Autocar Company during World War II.

The 4.5 inch gun M1 was a field gun developed in the United States in the beginning of World War II. It shared the same carriage with the 155mm Howitzer M1 and fired the same ammunition as the British BL 4.5 inch Medium Field Gun. Beginning in 1944, the weapon was used by the U.S. Army as corps-level artillery with the end of hostilities, it was declared obsolete.

The T18 Howitzer Motor Carriage, abbreviated as HMC. was an American self-propelled gun. Its development started in September 1941 as a close-support vehicle using the M3 Stuart's chassis. A 75 mm howitzer was mounted on the right front of the vehicle. The gun mount was adapted from the M3 Grant. Two prototypes were produced by Firestone and then sent to the Aberdeen Proving Ground. However, they were unsatisfactory because of their high superstructure and nose weight. Because the Army disliked the high superstructure and nearly vertical armor, the T18 was abandoned in 1942, and soon started a new turreted project, the T41 75 mm HMC, also known as the Howitzer Motor Carriage M8.

The T30 Howitzer Motor Carriage (HMC) was a United States Army self-propelled gun used in World War II. Its design was based on requirements for an assault gun issued by the Armored Force in 1941 and it was built as an interim solution until a fully tracked design was complete.

The T19 Howitzer Motor Carriage (HMC) was a 105 mm (4.1 in) howitzer mounted on a M3 Half-track chassis. It saw service during World War II with the U.S. Army. Its secondary armament consisted of an air-cooled .50 in (13 mm) M2 machine gun for local defense. It was produced by Diamond T between January 1942 and April 1942.

The 75 mm Field Gun M1897 on M2 Carriage was a field gun and anti-tank gun which was used by the US Army during World War II.


T30 (tank)

T30 bol americký ťažký tank vyvíjaný koncom druhej svetovej vojny. Mal byť, rovnako ako jeho „príbuzný“ tank T29, americkou odpoveďou na ťažký nemecký 70 tonový tank Tiger II, lebo práve dokončovaný 45 tonový M26 Pershing nebol podľa amerického velenia patrične pancierovaný proti 88 mm kanónu KwK 43, ktorým boli tanky Tiger II vyzbrojené.

Rovnako ako T29 nebol ani T30 nikdy sériovo vyrábaný a nezasiahol ani do bojov.

S vývojom štyroch ťažkých tankov sa začalo v roku 1944 išlo o dva tanky T29 vybavené 105 mm delom T5 vo veži a dva tanky T30 vyzbrojené 155 mm delom T7. Na verziách T30 sa začalo pracovať v apríli 1945 a vývoj bol dokončený v roku 1947. Až na nevyhnutné úpravy vyvolané použitím rozdielneho motora Continental 810 HP, mali obe tanky zhodný podvozok.

155 milimetrový tankový kanón T7 patril k najväčším delám, ktorými bol kedy americký tank vybavený. Strieľal ako protipancierovými delostreleckými granátmi, tak trieštivými delostreleckými granátmi. Nabíjacie zariadenie bolo vybavené pružinovým nabijákom. Veža tanku bola pomerne vysoká, aby pojala stojace nabíjačky a delovú lafetu. Aj tak však mohlo byť delo nabíjané len v obmedzenom námere. Tank so sebou mohol viezť až 34 protipancierových a trieštivých granátov.

Kanón T7 používal delenú muníciu. Projektil vážil 43 kg a prachová náplň 18 kg. Manipulácia s nimi bola pomerne veľmi obtiažna, čo bolo jednou z príčin veľmi nízkej rýchlosti paľby (2 rany za minútu s dvoma nabíjačmi).

Posádka tanku bola šesťčlenná - vodič a radista v trupe, veliteľ, strelec a dvaja nabíjači vo veži.

Tank verzia T30 označený T30E1 bol vybavený nabíjacím automatom, ktorý mal uľahčiť manipuláciu s muníciou. Automat sklopil delo do nabíjacej polohy, uvoľnil záver, zatlačil granát do nábojovej komory a pripravil delo k paľbe tým, že ho navrátil do pôvodného uhla. Pre automatický vyhadzovač nábojníc musela byť zadná časť veže vybavená ďalším poklopom.

Ďalším variantom bola verzia T30E2.

Tento článok je čiastočný alebo úplný preklad článku T30 (tank) na českej Wikipédii.


USA nevenovala medzi dvoma svetovými vojnami takú pozornosť pri vývoji tankov, ako európske štáty. Situácia sa zmenila na začiatku 2. svetovej vojny, keď bolo len otázkou času, kedy sa americké vojská zapoja do vojenského konfliktu. Ale aj tak sa však Američania sústreďovali na vývoj ľahkých tankov (napr. M5 Stuart) a stredných tankov (M3 Lee), ktorých koncepcia bola už v tom období prekonaná. Tieto stroje sa síce vyrovnali starším nemeckým tankom, ale počas vojny museli byť rýchlo nahradzované novými typmi. Po príchode nových nemeckých tankov Panther a Tiger Američania čelili nemeckej kvalitatívnej prevahe nasadením veľkého počtu tankov M4 Sherman. Spojenci tiež ťažili zo svojej veľkej leteckej prevahy, ktorá citeľne oslabovala nemecké tankové jednotky pri nasadení na fronte. Pri invázii v Normandii a následných bojoch však Tigre a Panthery spôsobovali Američanom ťažké straty. V USA sa začalo pracovať na rozpracovanom projekte T26 z roku 1942 a do konca roku 1944 boli vyrobené prvé tanky M26 Pershing.

M26 Pershing mal dobré balistické vlastnosti korby aj veže, čo mu poskytovalo rovnakú pasívnu ochranu ako tanku Tiger. Okrem toho mal veľmi dobrú pohyblivosť, manévrovateľnosť aj rýchlosť, Jeho kanón M3 kalibru 90 mm je zrovnateľný s 88 mm kanónom Tigra alebo stíhača tankov Jagdpanther. Pershing mal aj efektívny stabilizátor kanóna a rýchlejšie otáčanie veže. S kanónom bol namontovaný aj spriahnutý guľomet M1919A4 kalibru 7,62 mm. Taký istý guľomet bol inštalovaný v prednej časti korby, na vrchu veže bol upevnený protilietadlový guľomet kalibru 12,7 mm. Podvozok pozostával z dvojice šiestich dvojitých pojazdových kolies odpružených na torzných tyčiach. Hnacie kolesá sa nachádzali vzadu, napínacie vpredu. Okrem toho pásy napínalo päť napínacích kladiek. Pohon tanku zabezpečoval benzínový motor Ford GAF V8 o objeme 18 l, ktorý bol uložený v zadnej časti korby.

Po nemeckej ofenzíve v Ardenách sa ukázalo, že americko-britským silám chýba tank, ktorý by odolával tankom Panther a Tiger ale aj Tiger II. Američania preto v roku 1945 poslali do Európy prvých 20 Pershingov, ktoré boli priradené k 3. a 9. tankovej divízii. Ďalších 200 Pershingov prišlo do Európy začiatkom marca. 7. marca 1945 zničil Pershing nemecký Panther počas jazdy vďaka stabilizátoru, čo u nemeckých vojakov vyvolalo údiv.



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