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Civil War Naval History November 1864 - History

Civil War Naval History November 1864 - History

1 C.S.S. Chickamauga, Lieutenant Wilkinson, captured and scuttled off the northeast coast of the United States schooners Goods peed in ballast and Otter Rock with cargo of potatoes.

Dr. W. A. Spotswood, Surgeon in Charge, Office of Medicine and Surgery, C.S.N., reported the effect of the continuing blockade: ''It affords me much satisfaction to report that, by the operations of the purveyor's department, an ample supply of medicines, instruments, and every-thing to meet the wants of the sick has been furnished up to the present time, but owing to the strict blockade of the seacoast and harbors of the Confederacy, rendering it impossible to procure medical supplies from abroad, I feel that there will necessarily be much difficulty in procuring many valuable articles soon required for the use for the sick. Every effort has been made to pro-cure a large supply, but in vain, and it is to be regretted that the supply of cotton placed in the hands of the Navy agent at the port of Wilmington can not be sent to Bermuda to purchase more or to pay for the medicines that have been received."

Rear Admiral Lee assumed command of the Mississippi Squadron at Mound City, Illinois.

2 Paddle-wheelers U.S.S. Key West, Acting Lieutenant King, and U.S.S. Tawah, Acting Lieutenant Jason Goudy, patrolling the Tennessee River, encountered Undine and Venus, which the Confed-erates had captured three days earlier. After a heated running engagement, Venus was retaken, but Undine, though badly damaged, escaped. Carrying Southern troops, Undine outran her pursuers and gained the protection of Confederate batteries at Reynoldsburg Island, near Johnsonville, Tennessee. King wired his district commander, Lieutenant Commander Shirk, "Weather so misty and dark, did not follow her."

C.S.S. Chickamauga, Lieutenant Wilkinson, captured bark Speedwell off the New Jersey coast and bonded her for $18,000.

U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba, Captain Glisson, captured blockade running steamer Lucy at sea east of Charleston with cargo of cotton and tobacco.

4 Paddle-wheelers U.S.S. Key West, Acting Lieutenant King, U.S.S. Tawah, Acting Lieutenant Goudy, and small steamer U.S.S. Elfin, Acting Master Augustus F. Thompson, were destroyed after an engagement with Confederate batteries off Johnsonville, Tennessee, along with several transport steamers and a large quantity of supplies. Acting Lieutenant King, in command of the naval group, was patrolling the river and protecting the Union depot and headquarters at Johnsonville as the forces of Confederate General Forrest suddenly struck the city. On 3 November, King discovered a strong Confederate field battery emplaced to command a narrow channel in the Tennessee River between Reynoldsburg Island and the west bank two miles below Johnsonville. Confederate gunboat Undine, lately captured from the Union (see 30 October), twice attempted on the 3rd to lure King and his gunboats downriver in range of the batteries without success. On the morning of 4 November, Undine again came upriver from the Confederate batteries, and this time King took his three ships down to engage her. At about the same time, Lieutenant Commander Fitch, commanding U.S.S. Moose and five other small steamers, Brilliant, Victory, Curlew, Fairy, and Paw Paw, approached the downstream side of Reynoldsburg Island, to support King. The Confederates burned Undine and opened on the Union gunboats with shore fire. Because of the narrowness of the channel and the commanding position occupied by the batteries Fitch could not bring his ships closer to Johnsonville to aid Key West, Tawah, and Elfin, which had retired to a position off the town to protect the transports and supplies. The Confederates then moved their main batteries along the river to positions opposite Johnsonville, leaving suffi-cient guns to block Fitch's passage, and commenced a fierce bombardment of the gunboats, trans-ports, and wharf area. After fighting for nearly an hour against great odds, King at last ordered his three riddled gunboats fired. Army Assistant Quartermaster Henry Howland, a witness to the action from ashore, described it: ". for nearly thirty minutes the cannonading was the most terrific I have ever witnessed. The gunboats fought magnificently and continued firing for more than twenty minutes after they were all disabled, when Lieutenant Commander King was compelled to order them abandoned and burned." King and most of his men escaped to the waterfront, which by this time was itself a roaring inferno as Union officers put the torch to supplies on the wharves to prevent them from falling into Southern hands. The gunboats and transports were lost, but General Forrest was prevented from capturing them intact, and was thus unable to cross the river in force and capture Johnsonville. Instead, the Confederate commander, anxious to press his advantage, moved his batteries downstream to cut off Fitch and the gun-boats below Reynoldsburg Island. Fitch, nevertheless, succeeded in withdrawing his forces safely. Later reflecting on the action at Johnsonville, he commented: "The Key West, Tawah, and Elfin fought desperately and were handled in magnificent style, but it is impossible for boats of this class, with their batteries, to contend successfully against heavy-rifled field batteries in a narrow river full of bars and shoals, no matter with what skill and desperation they may be fought." By this time it was clear that the Confederates were moving in force, and that Forrest was threatening to close the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers completely. Decisive events both on the rivers and the hills of Tennessee were imminent.

5 In General Order No. 34 to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Rear Admiral Porter wrote: "The gallant exploits of Lieutenant Cushing previous to this affair will form a bright page in the history of the war, but they have all been eclipsed by the destruction of the Albemarle. The spirit evinced by this officer is what I wish to see pervading this squadron. Opportunity will be offered to all those who have the energy and skill to undertake like enterprises."

Secretary Mallory reported to President Davis on the continuing contribution of the Confederate Naval Academy which was training young midshipmen not only in the classroom but under fire: "In my last report I brought to your notice that the steamship Patrick Henry had been or-ganized as a school and practice ship for the education of midshipmen in the several essential branches of their profession. The system of instruction conforms, as nearly as practicable, to that of the most approved naval schools, and this institution will serve as a nucleus for an estab-lishment which the necessities of a naval service and the interests of the country will at an early day render necessary. Under the efficient command of Lieutenant Commander Parker, aided by zealous and competent officers, the beneficial results of the school are already visible in the progress, tone, and bearing of our midshipmen. Though but from 14 to 18 years of age, they eagerly seek every opportunity presented for engaging in hazardous enterprises, and those who are sent upon them uniformly exhibit good discipline, conduct, and courage. Classroom ordnance theory was often interrupted by the very real ordnance "drills" of helping to man ship and shore batteries to repel Union attack.

W. G. Fargo, Mayor of Buffalo, New York, telegraphed Secretary Welles that ship Georgian had been purchased in Toronto by a Southern sympathizer, Dr. James Bates: "My information is that she will be armed on the Canada shore for the purpose of encountering the U.S.S. Michigan and for piratical and predatory purposes on the Lakes. .Though Commander Carter, U.S.S. Michigan, discounted the rumors, Georgian continued to arouse grave concern in the Great Lakes area. To be commanded by Master John Y. Beall, CSN, she was in fact to be part of a new plot on the part of Confederate agent Jacob Thompson to capture U.S.S. Michigan and attack the cities on Lake Erie, but the suspicions of Union authorities and the strict surveillance under which the ship was placed by Union agents prevented the plot from being carried out. Welles ordered Carter to seize Georgian if she ventured into American waters, but she was searched twice by local American and Canadian authorities without any hint of her true character being detected. Nevertheless, Union intelligence and close surveillance prevented this Confederate scheme from bearing fruit, and Georgian was laid up at Collingwood, on the Canadian side, eventually to be sold again to private parties.

Monitor U.S.S. Patapsco, Lieutenant Commander John Madigan, bombarded and set afire an un-identified sloop aground off Fort Moultrie, Charleston. Madigan noted: "She seems to have had a cargo of cotton and turpentine." Rear Admiral Dahlgren wrote: ". the work was so well done that the conflagration made a considerable appearance at night."

C.S.S. Shenandoah, Lieutenant Waddell, captured and burned schooner Charter Oak at sea off the Cape Verde Islands, after removing her passengers and a quantity of fruit, vegetables, and other provisions. Waddell remained near the burning prize to make sure she was consumed, and then, suspecting that Union cruisers might be attracted by the blaze, stood southward.

U.S.S. Fort Morgan, Lieutenant William B. Eaton, captured blockade runner John A. Hard off the Texas coast (27o N, 96o W) with cargo including coffee, rice, oil, dry goods and medicines.

6 U.S.S. Fort Morgan, Lieutenant Eaton, captured blockade running schooner Lone off Brazos Pass, Texas, with cargo including iron and bagging.

Boats from U.S.S. Adela, Acting Lieutenant Louis N. Stodder, captured schooner Badger attempt-ing to run the blockade out of St. George's Sound, Florida, with cargo of cotton.

7 Upon learning that Confederate officers were quartered in a house on the Arkansas side of the Mississippi River near Island 68, Acting Lieutenant Frederic S. Hill led an expedition from U.S.S. Tyler to capture them. However, they had departed. The mother of one of them boldly showed Hill her permit to transport cotton up the Mississippi and a request, officially endorsed by Major General Cadwallader C. Washburn, USA; for gunboat protection. Hill reluctantly complied with the request, remarking to Rear Admiral Lee: ". in the face of all these documents, as I was upon the spot and a steamer then at hand ready to take the cotton, I considered it proper to give her the required protection, although with a very bad grace. Permit me, ad-miral, respectfully to call your attention to the anomaly of using every exertion to capture rebel officers at 2 a.m., whose cotton I am called upon to protect in its shipment to a market at 10 a.m. of the same day, thus affording them the means of supplying themselves with every comfort money can procure ere they return to their brother rebels in arms with Hood."

8 Rear Admiral Farragut, writing Secretary Welles, expressed his deeply held conviction that effec-tive seapower was not dependent so much on a particular kind of ship or a specific gun but rather on the officers and men who manned them: . I think the world is sadly mistaken when it supposes that battles are won by this or that kind of gun or vessel. In my humble opinion the Kearsarge would have captured or sunk the Alabama as often as they might have met under the same organization and officers. The best gun and the best vessel should certainly be chosen, but the victory three times out of four depends upon those who fight them. I do not believe that the result would have been different if the Kearsarge had had nothing but a battery of 8-inch guns and 100-pound chase rifle. What signifies the size and caliber of the gun if you do not hit your adversary?"

Acting Master Francis Josselyn, U.S.S. Commodore Hull, landed with a party of sailors at Edenton, North Carolina, under orders from Commander Macomb to break up a court session being held there. Josselyn described the unique expedition: "I landed with a detachment of men this afternoon at Edenton and adjourned sine die a county court which was in session in the court house at that place under so-called Confederate authority. This court, the first that has been held at Edenton since the breaking out of the war, the authorities had the impertinence to hold under my very guns.

C.S.S. Shenandoah, Lieutenant Waddell, captured and burned bark D. Godfrey southwest of the Cape Verde Islands with cargo of beef and pork.

9 U.S.S. Stepping Stones, Acting Lieutenant Daniel A. Campbell, captured blockade running sloops Reliance and Little Elmer in Mobjack Bay, Virginia.

10 Rear Admiral Dahlgren wrote to Secretary Welles regarding plans for another joint attack on Charleston. Dahlgren well understood the great advantage in mobility and supply enjoyed by the Union through its strong control of the sea: "Part of the troops could be landed at Bull's Bay, whence there is a good road for some 15 miles; part would enter the inlet seaward of Sulli-van's Island, seize Long Island, and with the aid of the Navy, land in the rear of Sullivan's Island, join the force coming from Bull's Bay, and occupy Mount Pleasant. This operation would require 30,000 to 50,000 good men, because it is reasonable to admit that the present small force of the rebels would receive large additions. Still, we have the unquestioned advantage of being able to bring here additional forces more promptly in the present position of the main armies. Hood must pass around Sherman in order to give any aid, and General Grant equally obstructs the road from Richmond."

C.S.S. Shenandoah, Lieutenant Waddell, captured and scuttled brig Susan at sea southwest of the Cape Verde Islands with cargo of coal. Waddell recalled later; "She leaked badly and was the dullest sailor I had ever seen; really she moved so slowly that barnacles grew to her bottom, and it was simply impossible for her crew to pump her out as fast as the water made."

11 Commander Henry K. Davenport, U.S.S. Lancaster, captured Confederates on board steamer Salvador, bound from Panama to California, after having been informed that they intended to seize the ship at sea and convert her into a raider. Salvador's captain had warned naval authorities at Panama Bay that the attempt was to be made, and Davenport and his men arranged to search the baggage of the passengers after the vessel passed the territorial limits of Panama. The search revealed guns and ammunition, along with a commission from Secretary Mallory for the capture; the Confederates were promptly taken into custody. This daring party, led by Acting Master Thomas E. Hogg, CSN, was one of many attempting to seize Union steamers and convert them into commerce raiders, especially with a view toward capturing the gold shipments from Cali-fornia. Union warships usually convoyed the California ships to prevent their capture.

U.S.S. Wachusett, Commander Collins, arrived at Hampton Roads with the captured commerce raider C.S.S. Florida.

12 A boat expedition from U.S.S. Hendrick Hudson, Acting Lieutenant Charles H. Rockwell, and U.S.S. Nita, Acting Lieutenant Robert B. Smith, attempted to destroy Confederate salt works on a reconnaissance near Tampa Bay, Florida, but the sailors were driven back to their boats by Southern cavalry.

C.S.S. Shenandoah, Lieutenant Waddell, seized and bonded clipper ship Kate Prince and brig Adelaide in mid-Atlantic near the equator.

13 C.S.S. Shenandoah, Lieutenant Waddell, captured and burned schooner Lizzie M. Stacey in mid-Atlantic near the equator with cargo of pinesalt and iron. Lizzie's mate, an unabashed Irish-man, told Waddell: ". my hearty, if we'd had ten guns aboard her, you wouldn't have got us without a bit of a shindy, or if the breeze had been a bit stiffer, we'd given her the square sail, and all hell wouldn't have caught her.'' Two of the schooner's seamen joined Shenandoah's crew voluntarily and another was impressed. She was the last prize the raider would take for some three weeks.

14-15 Acting Master Lothrop Wight and Acting Ensign Frederick W. Mintzer reconnoitered Con-federate naval dispositions above Dutch Gap on the James River, Virginia. Work was going ahead rapidly on the Dutch Gap Canal, which would allow Union gunboats to bypass the obstructions at Trent's Reach, and the work of Wight and Minter provided valuable information regarding the positions of Confederate ships and troops.

15 Governor William A. Buckingham of Connecticut wrote Secretary Welles of the ''defenseless condition of Stonington." The citizens of the city, he reported, "feel that the Tallahassee having been near them, that or some other vessel may make them a piratical visit at any hour, and urge that an ironclad be stationed in their harbor not only for their protection, but for the protection of other towns on the sound and of the sound steamers." The Governor's letter typified the grave concern caused by the infrequent but devastating Confederate raids near Northern seaports.

17 Side-wheelers U.S.S. Otsego, Lieutenant Commander Arnold, and U.S.S. Ceres, Acting Master Foster, ascended the Roanoke River to Jamesville, North Carolina, on a reconnaissance. The smaller Ceres continued upriver to Williamston. Although Confederates had been reported in the area, no batteries or troops were encountered.

19 C.S.S. Chickamauga, Lieutenant Wilkinson, ran the blockade into Wilmington under cover of heavy fog. He has miscalculated his position the day before and successfully run through the blockade to Masonboro Inlet instead of New Inlet. Wilkinson dropped down the coast and early in the morning of the 19th anchored under the guns of Fort Fisher to await high tide when Chick-amauga could cross the bar and stand up Cape Fear River to Wilmington. As the fog lifted, blockaders U.S.S. Kansas, Wilderness, Cherokee, and Clematis opened on what they at first took to be a grounded blockade runner. Chickamauga broke the Confederate flag and returned the fire, joined by the heavy guns of Fort Fisher. Fog and the range of the Fort's guns thwarted efforts to destroy the cruiser; by mid-morning Chickamauga was safely in the river and nearing Wilmington.

20 Edward La Croix of Selma, Alabama, writing Secretary Welles from Detroit, reported that a torpedo boat had been constructed at Selma for use against the Union forces in Mobile Bay. He described her: "Length, about 30 feet; has water-tight compartments; can be sunk or raised as desired; is propelled by a very small engine, and will just stow in 5 men. It has some arrange-ment of machinery that times the explosions of torpedoes, to enable the operators to retire to a safe distance. The boat proves to be a good sailer on the river and has gone to Mobile to make last preparations for trying its efficacy on the Federal vessels.'' La Croix was referring to the submersible torpedo boat Saint Patrick built by John P. Halligan who was also her first commander, Saint Patrick, was a source of concern to Federal naval officers in the vicinity of Mobile and early in the following year, under command of a Confederate naval officer, she did attempt to destroy a blockader.

Rear Admiral Porter directed Commander Macomb to send U.S.S. Louisiana to Beaufort, North Carolina. Louisiana was to become the powder ship with which Porter and General Butler hoped to level Fort Fisher and obviate the necessity of a direct attack. Early in December she was taken to Hampton Roads, where she was partially stripped and loaded with explosives.

21 Boats from U.S.S. Avenger, Acting Lieutenant Charles A. Wright, captured a large quantity of supplies on the Mississippi River near Bruinsburg, Mississippi, after a brief engagement. Union gunboats maintained a vigilant patrol to prevent Confederate supplies from crossing the Mississippi River for the armies in Alabama and Tennessee.

U.S.S. Iosco, Commander John Guest, captured blockage running schooner Sybil with cargo of cotton, at sea off the North Carolina coast.

23 Constantly alert to the need to strengthen his squadron for the difficult work of convoying and patrolling on the Western Rivers, Rear Admiral Lee this date detached Lieutenant Commander Greer, Acting Naval Constructor Charles F. Kendall, Acting Fleet Engineer Samuel Bickerstaff, and Paymaster Calvin C. Jackson to proceed on a confidential mission to Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, and to other places if necessary, for the purpose of purchasing ten sound, strong, and swift light-draft steamers, to be converted into gunboats." Ten were subsequently bought, converted, and added to the Mississippi Squadron in early 1865.

24 Lieutenant James McC. Baker's preparations for the capture of Fort Pickens at Pensacola were terminated by Secretary Mallory: "Major-General Maury having withdrawn his men from the enterprise to the command of which you were assigned, its prosecution became impracticable." It was a bitter blow to the daring young Confederate naval officer who had first undertaken the scheme in April and had fought persuasively for months to bring it off. By mid-August, still unable to obtain authorization from the local command to proceed with the plan, the bold lieutenant wrote Mallory outlining his scheme to seize Fort Pickens: "Not dreaming that we have any designs upon it, and deluding themselves with the idea that its isolated position renders it safe from attack, they have become exceedingly careless, having only two sentinels on duty. ." Baker proposed to take a landing force of sailors and soldiers in small boats and, ". pulling down the eastern shore of the bay into Bon Secours, and, hauling the boats across a narrow strip of land into Little Lagoon, I would enter the Gulf at a point 20 miles east of Fort Morgan and be within seven hours' pull of Fort Pickens, with nothing to interrupt our progress." A month later, after having conferred with President Davis and General Braxton Bragg, Mallory ordered Baker to proceed with the mission. On 25 October Baker departed Mobile with a number of sailors on steamer Dick Keys and rendezvoused with 100 soldiers from General Dabney Maury's command that night at Blakely, Alabama. As the daring group was preparing to get underway, Maury ordered a temporary delay because of information received which reported that Union forces had landed at the Pensacola Navy Yard near Fort Pickens. By the 30th this intelligence was demonstrated to be inaccurate, but Maury still was reluctant to go ahead with the operation. Concerned that the Northerners now had knowledge of the planned attempt, he suggested that the soldiers return to their companies to give the appearance of having had the expedition called off. At a future date they could be ordered back to Blakely suddenly, as Baker reported, "when the expedition might proceed, he thought, with more secrecy and certainty of success." This date, 24 November, Mallory reluctantly advised the intrepid Baker: "I regret that circumstances beyond the control of the Department or yourself should have thus terminated an enterprise which seemed to promise good results."

U.S.S. Chocura, Lieutenant Commander Meade, sighted schooner Louisa and chased her ashore on the bar off San Bernard River, Texas. A heavy gale totally destroyed the schooner before she could be boarded.

27 An explosion and fire destroyed General Butler's headquarters steamer Greyhound, on the James River, Virginia, and narrowly missed killing Butler, Major General Schenck, and Rear Admiral Porter, on board for a conference on the forthcoming Fort Fisher expedition. Because of the nature of the explosion, it is likely that one of the deadly Confederate coal torpedoes had been planted in Greyhound's boiler. "The furnace door blew open," recalled Butler, "and scattered coals throughout the room." The so-called "coal torpedo" was a finely turned piece of cast iron containing ten pounds of powder and made to resemble closely a lump of coal, and was capable of being used with devastating effect. As Admiral Porter later described the incident: ''We had left Bermuda Hundred five or six miles behind us when suddenly an explosion forward startled us, and in a moment large volumes of smoke poured out of the engine-room." The Admiral went on to marvel at the ingenuity which nearly cost him his life: ''In devices for blowing up vessels the Confederates were far ahead of us, putting Yankee ingenuity to shame." This device was sus-pected of being the cause of several unexplained explosions during the war.

Blockade running British steamer Beatrice was captured by picket boats under Acting Master Gifford of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, off Charleston. The prize crew accidentally grounded Beatrice near Morris Island and she was soon a total wreck 1n reporting the capture to Secretary Welles, Rear Admiral Dahlgren noted the fact that the blockade runner was captured by small boats and not by seagoing vessels, adding: "The duty is severe beyond what is imagined. In the launches the men may be said to live in the boats, and all of them are, in these long nights, exposed to every hardship of sea, wind, and weather; in the stormiest nights they are cruising around close in to the rebel batteries." The Federal Navy spared no efforts to tighten the block-ade now that final victory was coming in sight.

Ram U.S.S. Vindicator, Acting Lieutenant Gorringe, and small stern-wheeler U.S.S. Prairie Bird, Acting Master Burns, transported and covered a successful Union cavalry attack on Confederate communications in western Mississippi. Thirty miles of track and the important railroad bridge over the Big Black River, east of Vicksburg, were destroyed. Major General Dana praised the part of the gunboats in the expedition: ''The assistance of the vessels of the Sixth Division Mis-sissippi Squadron rendered the expedition a complete success.

U.S.S. Princess Royal, Commander Woolsey, seized blockade running British schooner Flash in the Gulf of Mexico off Brazos Santiago with cargo of cotton. Later in the day, Princess Royal also captured blockade running schooner Neptune. Woolsey reported: "The vessel was empty, having just lost a cargo of salt, said salt having, according to the master's statement, 'dissolved in her hold.'

U.S.S. Metacomet, Lieutenant Commander Jouett, captured blockade running steamer Susanna in the Gulf of Mexico off Campeche Banks. Half her cargo of cotton was thrown overboard in the chase. Rear Admiral Farragut had regarded Susanna as "their fastest steamer."

29 Double-turret monitor U.S.S. Onondaga, Commander William A Parker, and single-turret monitor U.S.S. Mahopac, Lieutenant Commander Edward E. Potter, engaged Howlett's Battery, on the James River, Virginia, for three hours. This was part of the continuing action below Richmond.

As Major Francis W. Smith, CSA, remarked, "I think the monitors (although they retired under our fire below Dutch Gap) will probably return. ."

A ship's boat under the command of Acting Ensign A. Rich from U.S.S. Elk, Acting Lieutenant Nicholas Kirby, captured an unidentified small craft with cargo of whiskey and opium near Mande-ville, Louisiana.

30 Naval Brigade composed of 350 sailors and 150 Marines from ships of the South Atlantic Block-ading Squadron and commanded by Commander George H. Preble joined in an Army action at Honey Hill, near Grahamville, South Carolina. In order to aid General Sherman in his march toward Savannah, Major General Foster had proposed to Rear Admiral Dahlgren a campaign up the Broad River to cut the Charleston-Savannah Railway and establish contact with Sherman. Preble organized an artillery and two naval infantry battalions to operate with the Army, and they were landed at Boyd's Landing on Broad River on 29 November. Sailors and Marines played a vital role in the ensuing battle of Honey Hill on 30 November, after which they entrenched on the Grahamville Road. General Foster then decided with Dahlgren, who accompanied his Brigade as far as Boyd's Landing, that the main thrust should come up the Tulifinny River toward Pocotaligo.

Boat expedition under the command of Acting Master Charles H. Cadieu, U.S.S. Midnight, landed at St. Andrew's Bay, Florida, destroyed a salt work and took prisoners.

U.S.S. Itasca, Lieutenant Commander George Brown, seized blockade running British schooner Carrie Mair off Pass Cavallo, Texas.

30–4 December Acting on intelligence that Union prisoners were attempting to reach the blockading vessels after having escaped from a prisoner train en route to Savannah, Acting Master Isaac Pennell, with 5 boats and nearly 100 men from U.S.S. Ethan Allen and Dai Ching, scoured the South Altamaha River, South Carolina, without finding any of the reported escapees. After encounter-ing and engaging a considerable Confederate force, Pennell was compelled to withdraw to the ships.


Civil War Naval History November 1864 - History

The ironclad CSS Virginia rammed and sank Cumberland on March 8, 1862 on the first day of the Battle of Hampton Roads. Shortly after being brought back from Brazil under tow, Florida sank just a few hundred yards away from Cumberland in 1864 under mysterious circumstances.

Both wrecks under the protection of Federal law and artifacts from both vessels can be seen at the Hampton Roads Naval Museum.


Rev. James Dannelly Anthony was one of the great Methodist ministers of Nineteenth Century Georgia. He was dubbed “The Bishop of the Wiregrass” for his conversion of thirty thousand South Georgians to the Methodist faith. His father, Rev. Whitfield Anthony, was a leader of the Methodist Church in South Carolina.

His son, Bascom Anthony, was a minister in the Methodist Church for more than fifty years and a former District Superintendent of the Dublin District from 1912 to 1915.

Rev. J.D. Anthony served as Presiding Elder of the Dublin District from 1879 to 1880. He also served in that capacity in the Eastman District from 1881 to 1882 and 1891 to 1894. Rev. Anthony died on January 26, 1899. The South Carolina-born minister was first licensed to preach on October 24, 1846, twelve days after his twenty-first birthday. He spent seventeen years in North Georgia. While in North Georgia, he preached the gospel, farmed his land, and taught school. During the darkest days of the Civil War in 1863, Rev. Anthony and his family were transferred to Sandersville, Georgia. After the war, Rev. Anthony would serve as editor of Sandersville newspaper, “The Central Georgian.”

It was November 25th, 1864. The left wing of General W.T. Sherman’s Union army was approaching Sandersville with its two corps and sixty thousand men. The other wing was only a few miles away below Tennille. Reports of explosions at Milledgeville, twenty-seven miles away, could be heard. Judge Hook presided over a meeting of all the town’s white males. With no defense against the oncoming hoard, the men decided it would be in the best interest of the town to surrender Sandersville to Sherman and beg for his mercy. One by one, those appointed to be chairman of the committee to meet the Union Army, came up with an excuse to leave. Rev. Anthony’s name was called. He announced that he would remain in town, mainly on account of his invalid wife and his small children. Anthony stated his acceptance of the mission was not out of bravery or foolishness, but because his wife was unable to feed herself or turn over in bed without his help. Anthony became a committee of one. A few hours later, a portion of Gen. Joseph Wheeler’s Confederate cavalry rode into town. That afternoon, Wheeler’s horsemen skirmished with Union cavalry three miles west of town. Thirteen Federal prisoners were brought into town. During the night all but one of the prisoners were sent away.

The sole Union prisoner was a cavalry lieutenant [Maybe of the Illinois 9th (Mounted)] who had his forearm broken by a mini ball. Captain Harlow told Rev. Anthony that the wounded prisoner would be shot on the outskirts of town. Anthony plead for the life of the man. A Confederate surgeon released the Union officer, who sprang to his feet and ran to Rev. Anthony. Anthony took the man to the church parsonage. The town doctor came by to comfort the lieutenant. At that moment, Wheeler’s cavalry formed a line with two thousand soldiers near the parsonage. After one volley, they galloped away.

Union forces fired back after a few minutes. The parsonage was struck several times, but the inhabitants were unharmed. In another few minutes, Union soldiers were swarming around the town and parsonage area. As soon as they entered the home, the wounded lieutenant ordered them not to harm anyone or anything in the house.

The man’s colonel obliged and placed an armed guard around the home. Word spread throughout the Union ranks of the rebel preacher’s deeds of kindness.

Union officers came in one by one to check on the wounded Illinois man. One was an officer by the name of Thomas Morris. Anthony told him he knew a Thomas Morris who was a former Methodist bishop. Morris was astonished. He knew of the other Morris, who was a cousin of his. Anthony said “ It always pays to do right. I was actuated by Christian principles. The good Lord blessed that act to the good of my myself, my family, and my town.”

Late that afternoon, a division commander told Rev. Anthony of the plans to burn the town at sunrise. The general suggested that Anthony go directly to Gen. Sherman’s headquarters to beg him to save the town. “Your house won’t be burned, because you saved Lt. Deason,” the general assured Anthony. Sherman had been wrongly informed that the musketry fire came from local citizens. The wounded man was carried away, telling Anthony of his eternal gratitude and promising to see him again. Anthony never heard from Lt. Deason. He presumed that he died of his wounds.

The general sent an escort to take Rev. Anthony to Sherman’s headquarters. Anthony met Sherman and Generals Logan and Davis two hundred yards from Sherman’s tent. Anthony was introduced as “the Rebel parson who saved one of our men from being shot.” The Reverend handed the bearded Sherman his credentials as a minister of the gospel. Sherman couldn’t decipher them, but took the authorization papers from the town government. “Why didn’t you show me this before we entered the town? I would have marched my men through the town and nothing would have been injured,” Sherman replied. Anthony, a little befuddled at Sherman’s question, told the General that it was impossible for him to ride out and meet the charging cavalry. Anthony asked Sherman if he planned to burn the town.

Sherman responded affirmatively. Anthony asked if all of the towns in the path of the Union army were burned. Sherman said, “no.” “Then why treat us more differently than others,” Rev. Anthony said. Sherman said that he had been informed that rebel citizens fired upon his men, a fact that was immediately denied by Anthony who stated, “There are only, besides me, four adult white males in town, three of which are old men.” Sherman intently stared the Reverend in the face.

Anthony stared back, trying to find a tender spot in the warrior’s heart. Anthony told of the hardships to the women and children that a fire would bring. Anthony tried to put Sherman in his place. Sherman chastised Anthony and other Southern ministers for not seeking an early end to the war. Anthony responded “that in the South, we ministers leave the politicians alone and preach the Gospel and the teachings of Jesus Christ.” Anthony begged again for the women and children, stating that the Federals had already taken all food in the town.

Anthony pleaded for Sherman to save the town for a fellow Mason. Members of the Masonic brotherhood rarely harmed the private property of other Masons unless in times of combat. The three Generals conferred in secret. Sherman said to Anthony, “Sir, upon your assurance that your citizens did not fire on my men, I will revoke the order to burn the town, but we will burn these two public buildings, viz., the courthouse and the jail.” Anthony, silently thanking God, told the feared and dreaded Union general, “Since you spare our dwellings, I ask no more.” Anthony left for home.

The next morning the elegant courthouse was torched and reduced to rubble by fire and artillery shells. It had served as a firing platform when the Federal forces first entered the town. Flames shot high the air. Buildings near the jail caught fire from the flying sparks. An Irish Federal soldier aided the townspeople in saving the buildings. Anthony’s relief soon turned into fear. Reports were coming in that former slaves and army stragglers would be following the Union army through town.

All of the buried guns were dug up. The town’s five remaining men and young boys formed a small army. They had twenty guns and patrolled the streets all night.

Foragers were sent out to recently vacated Federal camps to look for scraps of food. The looting and burning never came. Sandersville and its few remaining citizens were saved. According to Anthony, it was not by anything he did, but by the grace of God.” Posted by Scott Thompson at 5:42 PM

The original road from Sandersville to Milledgeville ran through the cemetery by the side of the Church or its location until 1912. The old roadbed is marked and can still be seen. Major Henry Hitchcock, a member of General William Tecumseh Sherman's staff, in Marching with Sherman (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1927) states:

"Sandersville, Georgia In Camp, In open field Saturday, Nov 26, 1864 11th day out

Left camp by 6 1/2 AM--Wheeler's cavalry in our front, undertook to skirmish. Slocum's 1st Brigade advanced skirmishers and before long we heard their firing.

General and staff rode forward -- road narrow for some distance and through pine woods and across low ground through which ran through creek. Road full of troops, wagons, camp followers, had to go slow. Rode with General and Slocum in ploughed field on right. Road full of advancing troops, in column by the flank. Ahead a quarter mile off at first one brigade deployed and advancing rapidly in line of battle. Ahead of them our skirmishers pressing forward at double quick with loud cheers to and into and through the town, pursuing Wheeler's men, and constant firing by skirmishers. It was not a battle, only skirmish firing, but that pretty rapid and constant for twenty or thirty minutes. We followed them into town, rebs not attempting to make stand. After driving them out of town our men halted there and at same moment entered it by N. road. As we entered town passed Church with "Grecian Front" and from a distance. cross road, saw a dead rebel lying on the portico. Learned after entering town that rebs fired from street corners, from behind houses, and from second story parapet front of brick Court House, which made quite a good fortification. All our loss I could learn was one killed, eleven wounded."

The cavalry skirmishing referred to took place in the cemetery and in the short half-block between it and the Courthouse square. The Union soldier listed as killed was identified in the August 22, 1966, issue of The Central Georgian, the Sandersville paper:

"In an editorial the ladies told of a Yankee soldier buried "under the eaves of the house" (old Methodist Church). His name, left by his brother, was John P. Brunson, 4th Tenn. Cavalry. It was suggested having his grave overbuilt with either brick or stone. There was a letter from his widow of Pulaski, Tenn., written Aug. 9, 1866 . I am thankful to the ladies for planting box around his grave, a soldier 400 miles from home. (Signed) Mary C. Brunson.'

This was later disputed by Brunson's family who was much incensed that a fine Confederate soldier had been called a Yankee.

This grave is believed to be one of the brick cradles.

Major Hitchcock also records that Sherman burned the Courthouse in Sandersville and a few other buildings but no dwellings. Destroyed were early records of Washington County (Courthouse fires occurred in 1854 and 1855 also.)

Sherman spent the night of Nov. 26, 1864 in this home, Brown House Museum 268 N Harris, Sandersville GA 31082, 478-552-1965.

-------------------------- Regiments. Service men in Washington County, Georgia Genealogy served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (within a regiment) that originated in their county. Listed below are companies that were specifically formed in and organized in Washington County, Georgia, and served in Virginia, the West, Georgia, and home defense.

    , Capt. S.A.H. Jones, 144 men. (See below).
  1. 28th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company A, Irwin Volunteers, Capt. Tull Graybill, 76 men.
  2. 28th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company B, Sandersville Volunteers, Capt. T.J. Warthen, 127 men.
  3. 28th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company H, Ohoopee Guards, Capt. Johnson, 89 men.
  4. 32nd Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company E
  5. 49th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company C, Washington Guards, Capt. William Wooten Carter, 86 men. (First military company in the county, organized 1821). , Capt. Newsome, 84 men.
  6. 59th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company B, Jackson Guards, Capt. Collins, 110 men.
  7. Martin's Battery, Capt. Evan P. Howell, 132 men.
  8. 12th Battalion, Georgia Infantry, Company B and F, Capt. George W. Peacock, 126 men.
  9. 12th Battalion, Georgia Light Artillery, Reorganized Companies B and E, Possibly Company D, Capt. H.N. Hollifield, 115 men.
  10. Washington County Cavalry, Company B, Capt. Thomas E. Brown (C.S.A. Markerऒ/20/1820-12/6/1888, Row 7), 54 men. (Part of 7th Battalion Georgia Cavalry, State Guards. This battalion was organized in August 1863 to serve for six months as local defense within the limits of the State.)
  11. 8th Regiment, Georgia Volunteer Cavalry, Company F, Capt. S. B. Jones. *
  12. Wayne Guards, Capt. Thomas F. Wells, 60 men.
  13. 2nd Regiment Georgia, Infantry, State Troops, Co. H., Capt. Beverly D. Evans (Colonel Beverly Daniel Evans,‘st GA Infantry, Co. E, 2/6/1826-3/21/1897, Row 5, Lot 20), 77 men.
  14. Rudisill Artillery, Capt. John Wiery Rudisill, 139 men.
  15. 57th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company G, Mount Vernon Rifles, Capt. J.P. Jordan, 83 men.
  16. 59th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company D, Bullard Guards
  17. 62nd Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company F *

(* outside Washington County?)

This totals 1,502, but possibly some 150 names were repeated, as some companies were merged into others, or when time of service expired were transferred into other regiments. However, this proves that it is evident that no other section can show a better record. (Signed) M. Newman, Ordinary.

To these might be added Washington County boys, members of the Georgia Cadets, college boys who were in a military school at Marietta.

The Forty-ninth Infantry Regiment of Georgia Volunteers was organized under a call for volunteers, by Governor Joseph E. Brown, on March 4, 1862, and was composed of the following companies:


Franklin

The scale of the Confederate charge at Franklin rivaled that of Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg. The action resulted in a disastrous defeat for the South and failed to prevent the Union army from advancing to Nashville.

HOW IT ENDED

Union victory. The devastating defeat of Gen. John Bell Hood’s Confederate troops in an ill-fated charge at Franklin, resulted in the loss of more than 6,000 Confederates, along with six generals and many other top commanders. The fighting force of the South’s Army of Tennessee was severely diminished, but Hood continued to chase victorious Union general John M. Schofield to Nashville.

After the fall of Atlanta on September 1, 1864, Gen. John Bell Hood and his 30,000-man army raced into Tennessee, hoping to divert Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s attention by threatening his supply base at Nashville. Sherman did not take the bait, and instead dispatched Maj. Gen. John Schofield’s Army of the Ohio, 30,000 strong, to protect Nashville while the rest of Sherman’s army simply left their supply line behind and marched to the Atlantic coast, forcibly securing whatever they needed to sustain themselves from the Confederate citizens in their path. Twenty-five thousand Union soldiers under Maj. Gen. George Thomas were entrenched in Nashville. If Schofield could reach them before Hood, he would command a numerical advantage on the battlefield. Hood’s hopes for a successful campaign rested on defeating Schofield before the two forces joined.

After a missed opportunity at the Battle of Spring Hill on November 29, Hood pursued Schofield to the town of Franklin, where the Confederate general led an assault on November 30 that cost him 20 percent of his men and allowed Schofield to progress toward Nashville.

On November 28, after a month of sparring along the Tennessee and the Duck rivers, Hood manages to divide Schofield’s army and surround a portion of it in the riverside town of Columbia, Tennessee. But miscommunication and confusion in the Confederate ranks result in the escape of Schofield’s forces. After what becomes known as the Battle of Spring Hill, Schofield withdraws his soldiers to Franklin, mostly unscathed. The catastrophic mistake infuriates Hood. He orders a pursuit to Franklin, where he will have one more chance to attack the Federals before they reach Nashville.

But Franklin does not offer the same possibilities as Spring Hill. Instead of fighting a surrounded and outnumbered enemy, the 20,000 Confederates at Franklin face a frontal assault over two miles of open ground against a roughly equal foe entrenched behind three lines of breastworks and abatis. Unmoved by his lieutenants’ objections, Hood orders the charge.

November 30. The two-mile-long Confederate line steps off at 4:00 p.m. The advance is immediately torn by scores of Union cannon. Hood has only one battery positioned to counter the enemy fire. Nevertheless, the line sweeps forward and quickly overlaps and overwhelms two brigades of Brig. Gen. George Wagner’s division, which holds a doubtful position half a mile in front of the main line. Charging and yelling mere yards behind Wagner’s broken men, the Confederates in the center are able to cross the last half mile of their assault largely unopposed by the riflemen behind the breastworks, who are unwilling to shoot their friends amidst their enemies. As a result, the Confederates slam into the Union center with full momentum and splinter the defenders around the Carter House.

Thousands of men surge into a deadly vortex of combat with shovels, bayonets, sabers, and pistols in the Carter gardens. The Union line might break completely if not for the quick reaction of Col. Emerson Opdycke of Wagner’s division, who disobeys orders to join the first exposed line and instead deploys his men about 200 yards behind the Carter House. He hurls his command forward into the breach and prevents full-scale disaster.

Meanwhile, Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest forces a crossing of the Harpeth River at Hughes’s Ford and threatens to turn the Union left flank. Union cavalry commander Brig. Gen. James Wilson reacts quickly and sends his horsemen pounding toward the ford to confront the Rebels. After a brief dismounted firefight, Wilson’s troopers charge, covered by a hail of repeating rifle fire. Although Forrest’s men outnumbered the Federals, they are outgunned by the seven-shot Spencers. They withdraw back across the Harpeth.


American Civil War October 1864

In October 1864, the Confederate General Hood believed that the only way to fight Sherman was to confront him. In this he was supported by Jefferson Davis. Hood knew that constant retreating was demoralising his men. Hood’s approach won the admiration and respect of the man he was trying to defeat – Sherman.

October 1 st : The body of Rose O’Neal Greenhow was found on a beach near Wilmington, North Carolina. She was one of the foremost Confederate spies in Washington DC and passed onto General Beauregard the plans of General McDowell on the eve of what became known as the Battle of Bull Run. Fearing her ship might be boarded on her return from Europe, Greenhow took to a small boat to row ashore but it must have overturned and she drowned.

General Hood decided that an offensive campaign was the only way ahead for him against Sherman. Hood decided that Sherman’s supply lines were too long and therefore were vulnerable to attack.

October 2 nd : Confederate troops cut the Western and Atlantic Railroad – an important part of Sherman’s lines of communication.

October 3 rd : Jefferson Davis made a speech at Columbia, South Carolina, declaring that if everyone supported the work of Hood, he was confident that Sherman would be defeated.

Hood’s men broke the track of the Chattanooga-Atlanta railroad, a further blow to Sherman.

October 4 th : Hood’s men destroy fifteen miles of railway near Marietta.

October 5 th : Hood’s men attacked Union positions that defended the railroad pass at Allatoona. The Confederate attack was defeated. Such was the importance of this victory, that Sherman sent a personal message of thanks to Major General J M Corse who commanded the Union troops at Allatoona.

October 6 th : General Thomas Rosser led a Confederate cavalry force against General George Custer at Brock’s Gap. It failed.

October 9 th : Generals Custer and Lomax led a successful cavalry attack against Confederate positions in the Shenandoah Valley.

October 13 th : Maryland voted to abolish slavery within the state.

A Confederate force destroyed twenty miles of railway near Resaca.

October 18 th : General Early decided to attack General Sheridan’s army despite being heavily outnumbered. He knew that he could not simply just move and then move on still more. Not only could he not adequately feed his army, he knew that such a tactic was demoralising his men.

October 19 th : Early 10,000 men attacked Sheridan’s 30,000 troops at Cedar Creek. Early’s advance was disguised by fog and his attack achieved near total surprise. However, the early Confederate successes could not be sustained and by midday the exhausted Confederates withdrew. Early’s army lost 3,000 men in total. The Union lost over 5,550 men in total but Sheridan’s army could sustain this.

October 20 th : Sheridan decided not to pursue Early as he no longer considered them to be a sustainable fighting force.

October 22 nd : Hood continued with his aggressive campaign against Sherman. However, he was aware that lack of supplies was becoming a major issue.

October 23 rd : The South suffered a defeat at Brush Creek in Missouri. Both sides lost about 1,500 men.

October 26 th : Sherman recognised that his opponent, Hood, was a highly able commander. He said of him: “He can turn and twist like a fox and wear out my army in pursuit.”

Bloody Bill Anderson was killed in an ambush at Richmond, Missouri.

The last Confederate offensive in Missouri ended.

October 27 th : General Grant launched an attack against Confederate positions in Petersburg but it was beaten back.

October 31 st : Hood’s attempt to draw Sherman away from Atlanta failed. Hood’s army was heading in one direction while Sherman’s was heading further into the Confederacy.


Civil War, November 1864: The March to the Sea

As Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s armies prepared to leave Atlanta and embark on their march to Savannah in early November 1864, a Federal captain wrote of the efforts to extinguish anything of military value to the South. He especially observed Federal engineers “detailed to destroy the depots and public buildings in Atlanta.”

Moving toward the city, Sherman’s forces tore up the rails of the Western and Atlantic Railroad. Since Sherman planned to break from his supply line and live off the land, he no longer needed the rails.

Along the W&A from Dalton to Atlanta, today’s I-75 corridor, any structure deemed of military value received the torch — like a large part of Marietta’s square, which burned on Nov. 13. Coining a phrase that he would repeat during the advance on Savannah, Sherman — while watching the buildings of Marietta burn — told one of his aides, “I never ordered burning of any dwelling – didn’t order this, but can’t be helped. I say Jeff. Davis burnt them.”

The Nov. 14 demolition of the architectural pride of Atlanta – her railroad passenger depot, the “Car Shed” – marked one of the final acts before the blue-clad soldiers began filtering out of the city the following day. No one knew their exact destination save Sherman, and he would keep this information to himself for a while to keep Confederate officials guessing as to his actual target.

The Army of Tennessee under Gen. John Bell Hood was continuing its northward movement into the Volunteer State, leaving Maj. Gen. Joe Wheeler’s cavalry as the primary Confederate element in Georgia to impede the Northerners — about 3,000 mounted troopers to oppose a force of seasoned veterans some 62,000 strong.

The Federals moved forward in two wings. Maj. Gen. Henry Slocum led the left or northern route of the march. Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard commanded the right wing. Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick’s cavalry would screen Howard during the initial stages of the campaign.

Macon seemed a logical first target, especially for Howard and Kilpatrick’s force, as the city hosted a Confederate armory, arsenal and laboratory and lay in the path of the advance. Confederate Maj. Gen. Howell Cobb commanded around 2,000 militia and home guard troops there. On Nov. 20, Kilpatrick’s troopers feinted toward Macon and skirmished with its defenders, but the blue coats veered off and rejoined the bulk of Howard’s force heading east.

The major engagement of the Savannah Campaign took place Nov. 22 at Griswoldville, where Brig. Gen. Pleasant Philips threw his 2,400 soldiers, mostly militia and local defense troops, against a fortified position of Brig. Gen. Charles Walcutt. When the smoke cleared, 650 Southerners — teenagers and old men — lay dead or wounded on the field.

Entering Milledgeville, the wartime capital of Georgia, also on Nov. 22, Federal troops in the left wing destroyed books in the state library and held a mock session of the Legislature.

Three days later, Confederate Lt. Gen. William Hardee arrived in Savannah and on Nov. 26 wrote to officials in Richmond of his belief that Savannah was Sherman’s target. As both Federal wings continued their thrust into the state, Confederate officials acted quickly to remove the Northern prisoners of war from Camp Lawton near Millen, and to relocate the irreplaceable equipment of the Powder Works out of Augusta.

Officials in Richmond also tried, as best they could, to send seasoned officers to Georgia in hopes their martial skills might somehow overcome Sherman’s forces. The South mustered plenty of chiefs but lacked enough soldiers to repulse the blue tide rolling across the state.

Sherman, equipped with a map of Georgia containing information from the 1860 Census on livestock and agricultural production from each county, knew the regions in his path had previously escaped the damages of war and could feed his army. The 2,520 wagons and 5,500 head of cattle in tow would provide rations once they arrived at Savannah additionally, a Federal naval force awaited them offshore.

Wheeler and his horsemen constantly struck at Sherman’s troops in attempts to slow their progress and damage their supply wagons. A skirmish took place near Buck Head Creek northwest of Millen on Nov. 28, when Wheeler attacked and almost captured Kilpatrick. Wheeler suffered 600 casualties — men he could ill afford to lose — and reported, “We fought General Kilpatrick all night and all day, charging him at every opportunity.” Kilpatrick called the Southern attack “the most desperate cavalry charge I have ever witnessed.”

November ended with the two Federal wings combined. Sherman moved over to Howard’s force on Nov. 28 near Tennille, and from this point on in the campaign, the wings operated close to each other.

Meanwhile, on the final day of the month at Franklin, Tenn., Hood launched a frontal attack against strongly entrenched Federals his army suffered tremendous casualties, including the loss of Maj. Gen. Pat Cleburne and five other general officers.


90th Infantry Regiment

Mustered in: September to December 1861
Mustered out: February 9, 1866

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
The Hancock Guards, recruited by Col. Louis W. Tinelli, under authority from the War Department, dated August 19, 1861, were consolidated with the McClellan Rifles, recruited " by Col. J. S. DeAgreda, with L. W. Tinelli, as Colonel. Company C of the McClellan Rifles was formed of the British Volunteers, recruited by Col. R. E. A. Hampson. The Secretary of War granted authority to Lieut-Col. Robert B. Clark, 13th Militia, to recruit a regiment this authority was later transferred to Col. Joseph S. Morgan, who under it recruited the McClellan Chasseurs. The State authorities organized the 90th Regiment at New York city November 20, 1861, by the consolidation of these two incomplete organizations, with J. S. Morgan as Colonel, L. W. Tinelli as Lieutenant Colonel, and J. S. DeAgreda as Major. The McClellan Rifles formed Companies A to E, and the McClellan Chasseurs F to K. The regiment was mustered in the service of the United States for three years between September and December, 1861. April 6, 1863, Companies H and I, and in fall, 1864, Company B, were consolidated with the other companies. At the expiration of its term of enlistment the men entitled thereto were discharged, December 10, 15 and 17, 1864, at New York city, and the regiment, which had returned from its veteran furlough in September, 1864, with new Companies B, H and I, mustered in for one year, was retained in service, but, November 28, 1864, consolidated into a battalion of six companies, A, B, C, D, E and F. June 3, 1865, it received, by transfer, the men of the 114th, 116th and 133d Infantry, not mustered out with their respective regiments.
The companies were recruited principally: A, B and C at New York city D at Clyde E at Unadilla, Nineveh and Otego F, I and K at Brooklyn, East New York and Long Island G at Brooklyn and New York city H at Brooklyn, Dunkirk and New York city the second Companies B at Norwich H in Chautauqua county and I at Medina, Ridgway and Shelby.
The regiment left the State January 5, 1862 served at Key West, Fla., and in the Department of the South, and unassigned in 10th Corps, from January, 1862 in 19th Corps, from April, 1863 in 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 19th Corps, from May, 1863 in 2d Brigade, 2d Division, 19th Corps, from February, 1864 in the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 19th Corps, from March, 1864 the nonveterans, while the regiment was on veteran furlough, with the 160th N. Y. Volunteers in August and September, 1864 the regiment in the Army of the Shenandoah from October, 1864 in 1st Brigade, Dwight's Division, Washington, D. C., from April, 1865 in same brigade and division, Department of the South, at Savannah, Ga., from June, 1865 in 3d Brigade, 1st Division, Department of Georgia, at Hawkinsville, Ga., from July, 1865 and at Savannah, Ga., in January, 1866, where it was honorably discharged and mustered out, under Col. Nelson Shaurman, February 9, 1866.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 2 officers, 33 enlisted men of wounds received in action, 25 enlisted men of disease and other causes, 8 officers, 183 enlisted men total, 10 officers, 241 enlisted men aggregate, 251 of whom 14 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Ninetieth Infantry.&mdashCols., Joseph S. Morgan, Nelson Shaurman Lieut.-Cols., Lewis W Tinelli, Nelson Shaurman, John C. Smart, Henry De La Paturelle Majs., Joseph S. D. Agreda, Nelson Shaur-man, John C. Swart, Henry De La Paturelle. This regiment, known as the Hancock Guard, was recruited mainly in New York city and vicinity and was mustered into the U. S. service at New York from Sept. to Dec., 1861, for a three years' term. It embarked on Jan. 5, 1862, for Key West, Fla., where it performed garrison duty for some months. Early in 1863 it was ordered to join the 19th corps in Louisiana and was assigned to the 1st brigade, 4th division. From New Orleans the regiment moved to Port Hudson, where it took an active part in the siege, losing 50 killed, wounded or missing. It was also closely engaged at Bayou La Four.che, with the loss of 71, and in March, 1864, shared in the Red River campaign. The reenlisted men received their veteran furlough in Aug. and Sept., 1864, and the remainder of the regiment served in their absence with the 160th N. Y. infantry. The veteran regiment was ordered to Virginia early in September and joined the Army of the Shenandoah while it was conducting the campaign against Gen. Early. The 90th fought at the Opequan, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek, losing 73 in killed, wounded and missing in the last named engagement. The original members not reenlisted were mustered out during Dec., 1864, and the regiment was consolidated into a battalion of six companies, which received in June, 1865, the members of the 114th, 116th and 133d N. Y. infantry. The regiment served in the 1st brigade of Dwight's division at Washington from April to June, 1865, and at Savannah, Ga., from June to July. It was then ordered to Hawkinsville, Ga., for a time and concluded its term of service at Savannah, where it was mustered out on Feb. 9, 1866. It lost 60 by death from wounds and 190 from other causes.

NYSMM Online Resources

Other Resources

This is meant to be a comprehensive list. If, however, you know of a resource that is not listed below, please send an email to [email protected] with the name of the resource and where it is located. This can include photographs, letters, articles and other non-book materials. Also, if you have any materials in your possession that you would like to donate, the museum is always looking for items specific to New York's military heritage. Thank you.

Crydenwise, Henry M. and Sarah Crydenwise (ed.). Henry M. Crydenwise letters, 1861-1866.
165 items. This collection consists of 165 items, most of which were written by Henry Crydenwise to his family. One third of the letters were written from Key West, Florida, and the remainder from Louisiana and Alabama. The Louisiana letters give full description of the siege of Port Hudson and the duties and emotions involved in leading a black company. Bio/History: Henry M. Crydenwise was a Union soldier from Otsego County, New York. Organization: Arranged chronologically./ Preferred citation: Henry M. Crydenwise letters, Special Collections Department, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Emory University./ Unpublished finding aid available in repository.
Located at Emory University.

Crydenwise, Henry M. Papers, 1861-1867.
Description: 43 items.
Abstract: Letters describing Civil War experiences in Florida and South Carolina with the 90th New York Infantry Regiment, subsequent service in the 96th United States Regiment (Colored), and post-war employment as an overseer on a large plantation near Vicksburg, Miss.
Located at Duke Univsersity.

Geety, William W. HCWRTColl-GeetyColl
(Regimental newspapers, The New Era, Apr 5-May 23, 1862)
Located at the Military History Institute in Carlisle, PA.

Howell, David. The David Howell collection, 1861-1865.
1 box.
Contains the following type of materials: correspondence. Contains information pertaining to the following war: Civil War. Contains information pertaining to the following military units: 14th Indiana Infantry Regiment, 13th New York Heavy Artillery Regiment, 1st New York Engineer Regiment, 90th New York Infantry Regiment. General description of the collection: David Howell collection includes typescript letters of four Civil War soldiers, each collection fairly small.
Located at the Military History Institute in Carlisle, PA.

Locke, Richard B. (ed.) New Era. 1862-1863
"Published every Saturday morning, at the Camp of the 90th Reg't, N.Y. Volunteers."
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 1, no. 37 (Feb. 14, 1863).

M'Cann, Thomas H. The campaigns of the Civil war in the United States of America, 1861-1865, by Thomas H. M'Cann, Sergeant of Company "C," Ninetieth regiment, New York. [Hoboken, N. J: Hudson Observer job print, 1915].

Olivett, John M. "A New Yorker in Florida in 1862: war letters of John M. Olivett to his sister in Dutchess county." Edited by James P. Jones. New York history LXII (1961) 169-76.

Veteran Volunteer Association of Brooklyn. Ninetieth Regiment. 1862-1892.
3 linear in.
Minutes of meetings, reports, correspondence, programs, tickets, news clippings, and other memorabilia of the regimental association.
Owned by the Long Island Historical Society.


1864 November 5: The Battle of Allatoona

The Battle of Allatoona, or Allatoona Pass, took place on October 5, 1864, as part of the Franklin-Nashville Campaign. A Confederate division under Major General Samuel G. French attacked a Union garrison under Brigadier General John M. Corse,¹ but was unable to dislodge it from its fortified position protecting the railroad through Allatoona Pass in Georgia. This report is from the November 5, 1864, issue of The Prescott Journal.

Battle of Allatoona, Ga.

A letter from Allatoona, Ga., dated the 18th, by a member of the 18th [Wisconsin] Regiment, gives another account of the rebel attack on Allatoona, its heroic defense and the disastrous repulse of the attacking party. It does not differ materially from the account already published. The writer, E. T. CHAMBERLIN,² of Co. H, however, gives some interesting items about the affair.

He says our pickets were attacked on the 4th, and during that night the sound of wagons and artillery was heard, apparently moving toward the post, so the attack was expected. It was understood the rebels had a large force and were determined on capturing the place, but its defenders made up their minds that it should not be done, at least, not without desperate fighting. The 12th [Wisconsin] Battery opened the ball and a very sharp artillery contest ensued. When this lulled, a yell from thousands of voices showed that the rebels had moved round to our left, where the ground was most favorable, and were about to make a charge. The 18th was then ordered to fall back to some forts on an eminence of about 100 feet. Though exposed to a severe fire of artillery and musketry, this was accomplished with little loss. The enemy came on and the battle raged furiously, our forces holding their position only with great difficulty. Some of the rebels reached the first rifle pits, but there found the fire so hot that they could neither advance or retreat, but sheltered themselves as best they could, till our fire slackened about the middle of the afternoon, when they crawled off and retreated in all directions.

Our correspondent says the field in front of our works presented a most sicking sight and was covered with the dead and wounded, many of the men begging for aid. He relates the following incident :

“One old man, shot through both hips and in a dying condition, called out to me as I was passing around among the dead and wounded and asked me for a drink of water, which I happened to have with me and gave him. He remarked as follows : ‘Boys you are fighting in a just and noble cause,—one that will win. I was opposed to seceding, and tried always to escape fighting for the rebellion but at last they got me, and here I am without firing a gun.'”

This correspondent estimates the rebel loss at 1,200 or 1,500, and says our men picked up about that number of small arms and buried some 300 dead rebels. An Adjutant General and several Colonels were included in the killed. Out of some 1,600 or 1,700 engaged the Union forces lost 120 killed, 150 prisoners, and in all about 700, which shows the desperate nature of the contest. The rebel force was a division of infantry under Gen. FRENCH, with part of three batteries.—Prisoners were taken from 16 different regiments, showing that the force of the enemy was largely superior, yet the victory over them was complete.

“Battle of Allatoona Pass,” by Thure de Thulstrup, from the Library of Congress³

A correspondent of the New York Evening Post gives a highly interesting account of the fighting in defense of Allatoona, which he says “will be celebrated in the history of war as one of the bravest, nobles struggles in all the record.” Speaking of the value of Allatoona he says :

In view of the future possibilities, there was concentrated a million and a half of rations at Allatoona. It now appears that some women in the place learned this and gave information to the enemy. So General Hood [John Bell Hood] sent from Dallas French’s division of Stewart’s corps to surprise and capture the place. Here was a prize of priceless value to Hood with but seven days’ rations, and encamped in a barren country. If he could have occupied Allatoona with ten thousand men, such was the strength of the position, he could have held ten times his force at bay so long as the supplies held out. This might have necessitated the evacuation of Atlanta, and the costly fruit of the ablest campaign of this war, if not of all time, would have been wrested from our grasp.

SHERMAN [William T. Sherman] however had taken the necessary precautions to thwart the rebel designs and was moving heavy columns of troops north. At noon on the 5th he ascended Kenesaw [sic] mountain, and from that place, by signals, directed the movement of the different columns of troops. Early in the afternoon a fog which had hid the Allatoona mountains cleared away, and puffs of white smoke were seen, from one and another fort defending the town, gradually slackening till it was confined to a single redoubt, finally ceasing in that, and followed by a column of black from the position where Pumpkin Vine creek was know to be. There was a time of great anxiety. No answer could be obtained to the constant call from Kenesaw [sic] signal station, but SHERMAN expressed his confidence that CORSE, who had been ordered by signal to Allatoona with reinforcements would hold out to the last. And so it proved. He refused the rebel summons to surrender, and kept the flag flying, stoutly resisting the rebel attack, fighting with desparation [sic] , and sending back shot and shell for that rained on him by the rebels, meeting bayonet with bayonet, till the rebels, with terrible loss, were forced to withdraw. The Post’s correspondent concludes :

We lost some six hundred killed, wounded, and prisoners out of a force of seventeen hundred men, consisting of infantry and one six-gun battery. It was a hard-fought battle, with severe losses on both sides. In an entrenchment opposite the main fort, after the fight, there were found amongst the dead both Union and rebel soldiers with bayonets transfixed in each other. The town was destroyed by shot and shell. All the cavalry and artillery horses were killed, but the valuable stores were saved, the fort and the pass were held.

The regiments engaged were the 4th Minnesota, 18th Wisconsin, 93d, 9th and 50th Illinois, 39th Iowa, and 12th Wisconsin battery.

All honor to the dead who died no doubtful death, conscious that liberty and their country owe them and eternal debt of glory ! Brave General Corse ! Brave soldiers who survive who survive the battle, to receive from their fellow men the laurel wreath of fame !

The Sentinel has a private letter from an officer in SHERMAN’s army in regard to this heroic defence, in which Wisconsin troops performed so prominent a part. The only guns in the fort defending the town were those of the 12th Wisconsin battery, under command of Lieut. AMSDEN. 4 The officer says : “Poor AMSDEN, of the 12th, who was mortally wounded, fought like a hero, although it was almost certain death to serve the guns in the miserable fortifications in which they at last held the rebels at bay.

“The 18th Wisconsin infantry were distinguished by the steadiness and bravery with which they withstood the rebel attack. They fought like tigers, although many of them had served out their time. Gen. SHERMAN, in speaking of the conduct of our Wisconsin boys in the defence of the place, said he ‘had no better troops in his army than the Wisconsin soldiers,’ and that ‘he always depended on them in the trying times.” A high compliment from the taciturn SHERMAN, and one richly merited.”

A nation’s thanks are richly due to those who saved SHERMAN’s army and the country from serious disaster.

1. John Murray Corse (1835-1893) attended West Point for two years, leaving in 1855 to attend law school. He then returned to Iowa and was nominated as the Democratic candidate for lieutenant governor. In 1860 he ran, unsuccessfully, for secretary of state for Iowa. Corse joined the 6th Iowa Infantry as its major in July 1861. He was a staff officer during the liberation of the Upper Mississippi, and then served in the front line at Corinth and Vicksburg, being promoted to brigadier general of Volunteers in August of 1863. Corse participated in the Chattanooga Campaign, and after recuperating from an injury suffered at Missionary Ridge, Corse returned to active duty on General Sherman’s staff. He is chiefly remembered for his stubborn defence of the Allatoona Pass (October 1864) against superior numbers, despite being seriously wounded. Corse later participated in Sherman’s March to the Sea and the Siege of Savannah. In the final months of the War, he led his division during the Carolinas Campaign.
2. Edgar T. Chamberlain, from Berlin, Wisconsin, enlisted November 5, 1861, in Company H of the 18th Wisconsin Infantry.
3. “Battle of Allatoona Pass,” by Thure de Thulstrup (Boston: L. Prang, c1887). From the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.
4. Marcus Amsden (abt. 1830-1864), from Janesville, enlisted in the 12th Battery Wisconsin Light Artillery on August 18, 1862. He was promoted to corporal and then senior 2nd lieutenant on February 22, 1864, he was promoted to junior 1st lieutenant. He died October 9, 1864, from wounds received at the Battle of Allatoona on October 5.


1st Cavalry Regiment

Mustered in: July 16 to August 31,1861
Mustered out: June 27,1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.

This regiment was organized in New York city by Col. Carl Schurz, succeeded by Col. Andrew T. McReynolds (June 15, 1861), under special authority from the President, dated May 1, 1861, and was mustered into the United States service between July 16 and August 31, 1861, for a service of three years.

Companies A, B, D, E, G, H, I, L and M, were recruited principally in New York city, four of them being composed of Germans, Hungarians and Poles Company C, Boyd's Company C, Cavalry, Pa. Vols., at Philadelphia F, at Syracuse and K, Michigan Company, at Grand Rapids, Mich.

The regiment left the State by detachments Company C, the first in the field, leaving July 22, 1861 by September 10, 1861, the regiment was all in the field it served at and near Washington, D. C., from July, 1861 in Franklin's and Heintzelman's Divisions, Army of Potomac, from October 4, 1861 in 1st Division, 1st Corps, Army of Potomac, from March 24, 1862 with the 6th Corps, Army of Potomac, from May, 1862 in 1st Cavalry Brigade, Army of Potomac, from July 8, 1862 in 4th Brigade, Cavalry Division, Army of Potomac, from September, 1862 in Averill's Cavalry Division, 8th Corps, Middle Department, from October, 1862 with the forces for the defense of the Upper Potomac, 8th Corps, Middle Department, from November, 1862 in the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 8th Corps, from March, 1863 in the Department of the Susquehanna, from June, 1863 in the Department of W. Va., from August, 1863 in the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry, Army of W. Va., from November, 1863 in the 2d Brigade, 2d Division, Army of W. Va., from August 27, 1864 in the Army of the Shenandoah, from October, 1864, and in the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, Cavalry, Army of the Shenandoah, from December, 1864, and with the Army of the Potomac, from March, 1865.

At the expiration of its term of service, those entitled thereto were discharged, and the regiment, composed of veterans and recruits, continued in the service until June 27, 1865, when, commanded by Col. Alonzo W. Adams, it was mustered out at Alexandria, Va.

During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 3 officers, 22 enlisted men died of wounds received in action, 2 officers, 21 enlisted men died of disease and other causes, 2 officers, 118 enlisted men total, 7 officers, and 161 enlisted men aggregate, 168 of whom 44 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers, Volume II: New York, Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908.

First Cavalry.&mdashCols., Andrew T. McReynolds, Alonzo W. Adams Lieut.-Cols., Frederick Van Schickfass, Alonzo W. Adams, Jenyns C. Battersby Majs., Charles H. Agle, Timothy Quinn, Franklin G. Martindale, Alonzo W. Adams, William H. Boyd, Joseph K. Stearns, Franz Passager, August Haurand, Daniel H. Haskins, Jenyns C. Battersby, Ezra H. Bailey. This regiment, known as the Lincoln cavalry, was organized in New York city soon after the outbreak of the war and was mustered into the U. S. service from July 16 to Aug. 31, 1861, for a term of three years. The commission for the regiment was originally given to Col. Carl Schurz, who was soon thereafter appoined minister to Spain. The companies organized by him were thereupon turned over to his successor. Col. Andrew T. Mc- Reynolds, of Grand Rapids, Mich., who had held a captain's commission in the regular army. Nine of the companies, A, B, D, E, G, H, I, L and M, were from New York city, nearly one half the recruits being Germans, Hungarians and Poles. Co. C was recruited at Philadelphia, F at Syracuse, and K, a Michigan company, at Grand Rapids, Mich. The regiment, about 1,400 strong, left the state by detachments between July 21, 1861, and Sept. 10, 1861. During its four years of service the ist cavalry was stationed near Washington to Oct. 4, 1861 then in Franklin's and Heintzelman's divisions to March 24, 1862 in ist division, ist corps, Army of the Potomac, to May, 1862 with the 6th corps, to July 8, 1862 in ist cavalry brigade, to September in 4th brigade, cavalry division, until October in Averell's cavalry division, 8th corps about a month with the forces for the defense of the Upper Potomac in various commands to June, 1863 then in the Department of the Susquehanna, until August in the Department of West Virginia, in different commands to Oct., 1864 in the Army of the Shenandoah till March, 1865, and with the Army of the Potomac for the rest of its term. At the expiration of its original term of service those entitled thereto were mustered out and returned home, the remainder of the regiment, composed of recruits with unexpired terms and veterans who had reenlisted, remaining in the field under the command of Col. Adams. It participated in the final campaign in 1865 up to the surfender of Gen. Lee at Appomattox and was finally mustered out at Alexandria, Va., June 27, 1865. The regiment had served in many of the greatest battles of the war, and under such cavalry commanders as Stoneman, Pleasonton, Sheridan, Kilpatrick, Crook and Averell, had repeatedly distinguished itself. From its first engagement at Pohick Church, Va., in Aug., 1861, to the surrender at Appomattox, all, or part of the regiment, participated in nearly 230 battles and skirmishes. Some of the heaviest casualties of the regiment were incurred at Strasburg, Va., where it lost 17 killed, wounded and missing at Winchester, where it lost 63 killed, wounded and missing at New Market, where its loss was 99 killed, wounded and missing and at Piedmont, where it lost 26 killed, wounded and missing. Among the many noteworthy services of the regiment, were the recapture by 100 men of the command, assisted by an equal number of the 12th Pa., at Greencastle, July 5, 1863, of 700 prisoners, two 12-pounder howitzers and 108 wagons, taken by Lee in the Gettysburg campaign the brilliant charge, led by Col. Adams, on the enemy under Maj.-Gen. Lomax, at the battle of Nineveh in Nov., 1864, capturing many guns and battleflags, and some 200 prisoners the charge of the regiment at Cacapon bridge, in Oct., 1862, under the command of Capt. William H. Boyd of Co. C, breaking Imboden's cavalry the splendid charges at Piedmont and Lynchburg, in 1864. led lay the gallant Maj. Quinn the magnificent charges at Mt. Crawford and Waynesboro, Va., commanded by Lieut.-Col. Battersby, which drove and dispersed the entire command of Gen. Early. At the engagement of Rude's hill. Col. Adams was complimented on the field by Gen. Powell for coolness and daring and for the discipline of the regiment when under fire. It is the boast of this regiment that it captured more prisoners (over 400) and property than any other cavalry regiment in the service. During its entire period of service the ist cavalry lost 5 officers and 41 enlisted men killed and died of wounds i officer and 119 enlisted men died of disease, accident, in prison, etc., a total of 166.

1st Regiment Cavalry, NY Volunteers | Flank Markers | Civil War

The 1st Regiment Cavalry, NY Volunteers mustered into service for three years between July 16 and August 31, 1861. When the term expired, those…


18 thoughts on &ldquo U.S. Civil War left a Legacy on P.E.I. Marine History &rdquo

Almost looks like something is being dumped or pumped over the port side forward of the wheelhouse.

Could be ashes from the boiler?

Could be, looks kind of smokydusty and blowing around. I guess dumping over the side would be the way they’d dispose of ashes and pretty much everything else lol.

Another great story
Thanks Harry.

The ship was the wartime blockade runner Chicora, also known as Let Her Be, she was built in Liverpool in 1864 and owned by the Chicora Importing Company. The photo shows her in Canada post war when she had another deck added to her hull to increase her capacity as a commercial vessel. A painting of her exists in her wartime blockade runner role and I have a copy in my collection plus other information on her career should anyone be interested .

I do not agree. The Chicora ended up on the Great Lakes in 1868 and there are a number of photo showing her in that location. This is most certainly the Bat with the building and ownership information and changes noted above. A photo of the Chicora can be seen at http://images.maritimehistoryofthegreatlakes.ca/1014/data and there are many differences between her and the Bat/Miramichi. To my knowledge the Chicora never visited Charlottetown although she stopped in Halifax on her way to the lakes in 1868. In order to pass through the locks she had to be cut into two sections and re-assembled above the locks. She never came into salt water again and the photo in Charlottetown dates from the 1890s.

The vessel is certainly Chicora, the picture I have in my collection was made by the English marine artist Edward James shows her as she appeared in Bermuda in 1864 and she is in every respect identical to the picture you have except that another deck had been added. The funnels are the same the guards are the same the hull lines and bow are the same but the clinching evidence is the double fret paddle boxes which were a trademark of all vessels produced by the Merseyside shipbuilders Jones Quiggin and their subcontractors, William C Miller and Son of Toxteth and Bowdler Chaffer of Seacombe .
There is a picture of Bat taken after the war when she was in commercial service and the photograph shows that the paddle box frets were of a different pattern to the picture above and also to other Jones Quiggen vessels but she still had the distinctive rounded guards that appeared on all succeeding Quiggen’s paddle steamers.
There is no doubt in my mind that the vessel is a Jones Quiggen vessel, she has the same paddle box pattern that can be seen on PS Hope, Col Lamb and Dream of which I have several pictures and photographs. I have an extensive collection of pictures of blockade runners built on Merseyside, Clydeside and on the Thames and it is easy to distinguish the hull lines, paddle boxes and guards of Quiggen’s designs from every other ship builder.
Now we come to the controversial part, the date on the photograph is 1893, it is not certain that this was when the picture was taken as I have seen dates written on photos in US collections that could not be correct because that type of blockade runner was not being built in 1862 .
I agree with you that Chicora was used on the great lakes in 1868 as I also have three photographs in my collection showing her in this service. Unfortunately, although there is no doubt that her hull is the same, in every other respect she had changed significantly from her wartime service and her distinctive double fret paddle boxes had been covered over with strange fret-less paddle guards that never appeared on any blockade runner design. I conclude that in the three years between 1865 and 1868 the Chicora entered commercial service as a cargo vessel and was unsuccessful causing her to be sold for passenger service on the lakes .

Dear Mr. Ireson
I think we may be in violent agreement on several points. There is no question in my mind that this is indeed a Jones, Quiggen vessel and so note in the article. I defer to your knowledge of the paddle box design. I also agree that the Great Lakes pictures of the Chicora are of no assistance as it was greatly modified when cut apart to transit the lock and then re-built. I have depended to great measure on the information included in the entry for the Bat in Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Bat Normally I am suspicious of the validity of Wikipedia sources but this one seems to be well grounded in other research including the U.S. Naval and Heritage Command page at https://www.history.navy.mil/content/history/nhhc/research/histories/ship-histories/confederate_ships/bat.html
If I understand your concern correctly it is that the image in question does not match to one of the Bat which you have seen and which Erick Hayl many have used as the basis for his sketch. It is not surprising to me that there may be confusion between the several Jones, Quiggen vessels operating out of Bermuda in 1864. The Bat had several sister ships and I suspect that the design of the Chicora may not have been greatly different from them. Owing to the clandestine character of the trade it may have been an advantage to sow confusion as to which ship was which.
The Bat – Teaser – Miramichi history is recounted in the Charlottetown Daily Examiner (reprinting an article in the Montreal Star) for 1 June 1895 p. 2, available at the islandnewspapers.ca website. This article is not without errors and it incorrectly identifies the builder and site but it does have the advantage of being written within 30 years of the events noted and within the memory of the ships owners and officers.
Finally, as former Archivist of PEI I have direct knowledge of the David Stirling photo album in which the photo as found. The pictures in this album are all original images and are taken within the span of a few years bridging the 1893 date. The building behind the paddle steamer was located on the wharf used by the Quebec and Gulf Ports Steamship Company (after 1880 the Quebec Steamship Company). The structure does not appear on an 1878 bird’s eye view of Charlottetown or on a detailed 1880 map pf the city which shows the buildings. While its exact date of construction is not know it was most certainly after 1880 and the steamer could therefore not have been the Chicora which was by that time land-locked in the Great Lakes.
I would be very interested is seeing both the Edward James image of the Chicora and the photo of the Bat so I can better understand the differences of which you speak.
Thank you for your questions. I certainly strive to have accurate information and depend to great measure on the knowledge of experts to ensure that Sailstrait does not contribute to the increasing problem of “not quite right” statements in on-line sources.

Your dating of the buildings on the wharf in Charlottetown seems pretty conclusive so we still seem to have a mystery on our hands which I am sure we will get to the bottom of eventually. Out of interest if you send me a private email I will share my photographic evidence with you off forum then I will give this problem some more thought. We both seem to agree that the ship was built by Quiggens but which ship is it? I will go through my database and see if I can come up with some other ideas regarding her identity.

I have located a good picture of the Teazer for you to study and you will see the difference in the paddle box that I referred to. Teazer, formerly Bat was one of several in her class built by Jones Quiggens for the blockade and she had the later pattern rounded guards for and aft of her paddle boxes (the aft one is missing in the photo) . If you contact me I could also send a second picture of Bat and a good one of Chicora as well. The picture of the vessel in Charlottetown has definitely got a Jones Quiggen double fret paddle box but which vessel she was is still in doubt .

My Great grandfather Captain Annibal Baquet was captain of the Miramichi for nearly 20 years, When she was replaced by the SS Campana, he took command of this latter one with all the crew of the Miramichi. He probably was in command of the Campana for 2 years since he passed away on May 30th 1897. I would like to think that the ship in the photo is really the Miramichi !

Thank you for your note concerning Capt. Baquet. He took command of the Campana in July of 1895. I have added this information to the article. As you will note there is some disagreement regarding the identity of the vessel pictured. But on the basis of further research, including newspapers from Quebec and Montreal I am now prepared to state without hesitation that the steamer in the photograph is indeed the S.S. Miramichi, much modified in its appearance from the vessel which was active in the American civil war period.

Thank you for your reply, the photo will go in my Family Tree attached to my GGrandfather Captain Annibal Baquet.
Louise

There is no doubt that the ship in the picture at Charlottetown was built by Jones Quiggins of Merseyside or one of her sub contractors , William Miller, WH Potter’s and Bowdler Chaffer, the vessel has the unmistakable double fret paddle box pattern that was only seen on most Quiggins designs.
There were at least four Quiggin’s designed vessels known to have remained in US or Canadian waters post war, these were the Chicora, the sisterships Bat and Stag and the Secret, we are fortunate to have pictures of all of these vessels post war.
Chicora was built by William Miller’s in 1864 and survived the war, she was bought by North American interests and taken from Halifax to Montreal where she was cut in half to fit through the locks after which she served as an excursion steamer on the Great Lakes. During this time her appearance changed and she lost her original paddle box design, probable after her reassembly in Buffalo New York . The short timeline between her leaving the eastern seaboard and moving to the Great Lakes puts her out of the picture as the Charlottetown vessel.

The Stag was built by Bowdler Chaffer as a blockade runner, she was sold to a US company 1865 and renamed Zenobia, she was later sold on to foreign interests in 1888. The photograph of this vessel post war shows she underwent a conversion but her paddle box design was still recognisable, she is not however the vessel in the photograph as her upper works are different.

The Bat 1864 built by Jones Quiggin as a blockade runner, captured and sold to a US private shipping concern in 1865 where she was renamed Teaser. She was sold on again to the Quebec Steamship Company in 1872 and renamed Miriamichi and in 1897 she was sold to the Ontario Navigation Company. She was known to be a regular visitor to Charlottetown as the port records suggest but a post war picture of her as Teazer in this article shows that she did not have the typical double fret paddle box pattern associated with Quiggin’s vessels. We can surmise that either.
A/ as she one of two sisters built by Jones Quiggin’s, the parent company she was built with a different pattern paddle box from her sisters Stag and Deer that were built by subcontractors Bowdler Chaffer and WH Potter’s respectively , or

B/ The paddle box pattern was changed post war in a refit of this vessel.

If “A” is true then it is not likely that the picture of the Charlottetown vessel was Miramachi as the picture shows a double fret paddle box pattern which is undoubtedly the vessels original design.
Alternative “B” is even less likely as the picture of Teaser appears to have been taken just after the war as the vessel is still in her blockade runner form and is still painted light grey. If she was the ship in the picture then why would she feature a double fret paddle box pattern after the upper deck conversion work had taken place. I am not saying that Miramachi was not converted in this way, it’s just that she would not have a had a double fret paddle box pattern if she had .

The Secret was built by Bowdler Chaffer as a blockade runner but she never ran the blockade, she was bought by the Quebec Steamship Company 1867 so was also known to have made appearances in Charlottetown post war and was sold on to foreign interests in 1888. This vessel in my mind is the strongest candidate for the steamer in the picture, not only did she retain her distinctive paddle box design but she is identical in every respect to the two pictures I have of her post war, one of which shows her bearing the name “Secret” painted on her paddle box.

If I understand your reasoning correctly you rely on the paddlebox fretwork for the identification. Given that the Charlottetown photograph was taken in or about 1893, almost 30 years after the original building of the vessel, to me it seems entirely possible that the original design could have been altered during modifications in Quebec to prepare the vessel for the Gulf service or in later rebuilding or refurbishment. While double frets appear to have been uncommon the original builders had no exclusive right to the design.
Quebec sources confirm that the Miramichi was in regular service to Charlottetown up until early 1895. There are no port records showing visits by the Secret after 1878 and it is probable that she was no longer in service anywhere after 1889 and it is almost certain that she did not visit Charlottetown during the time that the photograph was taken. I continue to search for images of the Quebec and Gulf Ports steamers from Montreal and Quebec sources, but to date have only the single photo of the vessel which I have posted at the beginning of the Sailstrait entry above.


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