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Battle of Ashingdon, 18 October 1016

Battle of Ashingdon, 18 October 1016

Battle of Ashingdon, 18 October 1016

Cnut, king of Denmark, heavily defeated Edmund Ironside, king of England. Edmund was forced to partition the country, giving the north to Cnut. However, Ironside was killed before the agreement came into force, and Cnut became king of England. For a brief period, England was thus part of a larger Scandinavian kingdom, but this fell apart after the death of Cnut and the failure of his son Harthacnut.

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Battle of Assandune

It was St Luke’s day 1016. In a quiet, picturesque area stretching from Ashingdon hill across the valley to Canewdon hill, it was to become the site of the bloodiest battle in the history of our country. Edmund Ironside (son of Ethelred the unready) was on Ashingdon Hill with his army, Canute King of Denmark was on Canewdon Hill with his. As the sun began to rise both armies were in full view of each other across the valley. The English army was split into two sections, the first was led by Ironside himself, the other section was led by Ederic the traitor. At 9am Ironside, full of confidence after his many victories against Canute, gave the order to attack. Ironside dashed down Ashingdon hill at the ahead of his division believing Ederic to be following closely, but Ederic was lagging behind, the closer to the enemy they got the greater the distance became between the two divisions. By the time Ironside reached Hyde Wood Ederic was almost a thousand yards behind, still on Ashingdon hill. Without waiting for Ederic and the other division to catch up. Ironside engaged the enemy full on. Ederic, instead of speeding up and joining the battle halted his men and stood and watched as the Danes were slaughtering the single division of the English army. Ederic took his division and circled the battlefield to join the Danes in finishing off what remained of the English. The battle was horrific Ironside and the remains of his army fought until sunset and then under the cover of darkness limped back up Ashingdon hill and on to the West Country to round up more men. The Danes were to exhausted to chase after them. The next day Canute and his army followed Ironside to Olney near Tewkesbury where he met with Ironside and they agreed to divide the country between them. At least the English still ruled half the country, but not for long. On the 30th November 1016 Edmund Ironside, diseased and exhausted died in Oxford, Canute, king of the Denmark and Norway, was then acknowledged King of England, wholly and completely. As tribute to those who lost their lives during the great battle of Assandune, Canute built the church on Ashingdon Hill.

Edmund Ironside d. 1016, king of the English (1016), son of Æthelred the Unready. Contrary to the wishes of his father, he married (1015) the widow of Siferth, a Danish thane, and was accepted as ruler of the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw. When Canute invaded England in 1015, Edmund led the fighting against him. However, the people apparently felt that he was a rebel against his father, for he found it hard to gain a following without his father’s aid. At Æthelred’s death (Apr., 1016) Edmund was proclaimed king in London, but most of the nobles gave their support to Canute. Edmund continued the struggle with great courage (which earned him the appellation Ironside) and considerable success until he was defeated in the disastrous battle of Assandun (Oct. 18, 1016). He and Canute agreed to partition the country, but Edmund died the following month.


18 October 1016

The Saxons are defeated by the Danes in the Battle of Assandun.

The Battle of Assandun was fought on 18 October 1016. There is dispute over whether Assandun may actually be Ashdon near Saffron Walden in north Essex, or the long-supposed Ashingdon near Rochford in southeast Essex, England. It was a victory for the Danes, led by Canute the Great, who triumphed over the English army led by King Edmund II. The battle was the conclusion to the Danish reconquest of England.

King Canute was accustomed to building a church, chapel or holy site after winning a battle to commemorate the soldiers who died in battle. A few years later saw the completion of construction in 1020 of the memorial church known as Ashingdon Minster, located on the hill next to the presumed site of the Battle in Ashingdon. The church still stands to this day. King Canute attended the dedication of Ashingdon Minster with his bishops and he appointed his personal priest Stigand to be the priest there. The church is now dedicated to Saint Andrew, but it is believed that it was dedicated earlier to Saint Michael who was considered to be a military saint and churches dedicated to him are frequently located on a hill.


Famous People Died In This Year In History

Apr 23 On this day in history aethelbred II "the Unready", king of England (979-1016), dies

Nov 30 In the year 1016 edmund II, Ironsides, King of Saxons (1016), dies at 27


Battle of Ashingdon, 18 October 1016 - History

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle notes that Æthelred died on St George's day (April 23), and that after that Edmund was chosen as king by all the counsellors who were in London. The allegiance of the rest of the country is not discussed in the Chronicle, but John of Worcester in the 12th century explains that the chief nobles of the rest of the country renounced the line of Æthelred and concluded a peace with Cnut at Southampton. The facts that in the Chronicle's account the Vikings could besiege Edmund in London with impunity, and that Edmund had to re-take possession of Wessex, tend to support John of Worcester's statement.

Edmund did break out of London and take back Wessex, and receive the submission of the West Saxons. Shortly afterwards he fought Cnut's army at Penselwood near Gillingham, and then again after midsummer at Sherston -- the Chronicle notes that in the battle of Sherston Eadric Streona and Ælfmær Darling were supporting the Danes. Edmund then gathered the West Saxon army and took them to London and relieved the siege and sent the Danes back to their ships. Two days later, Edmund fought the Danes at Brentford and put them to flight, and then he returned to Wessex and collected his army.

Once Edmund had left the Danes besieged London again, but they were successfully repulsed, and went instead into Mercia, and ravaged there, and gathered again in the Medway. Edmund brought his army to Kent, and fought the Danes at Otford according to John of Worcester, and the Danes fled to Sheppey. Eadric switched back to Edmund's side at Aylesford, and the Chronicle records Edmund's acceptance with the doleful comment, "no greater folly was ever agreed to than that was". The Danes meanwhile went back inland into Essex. Edmund overtook them in Essex at the hill called Ashingdon, and fought them there on October 18.

The fate of the other members of Æthelred's family after his death in April 1016 is less certain. A contemporary German observer, Thietmar of Merseburg, records that Emma and her two sons were in besieged London, and that the Danes offered Emma peace if she would give up her sons and pay an appropriate ransome. Thietmar adds that after long deliberation Emma agreed to this, but in the confusion the two brothers slipped away. Later Norse sources credit Edward (the future Confessor) with fighting alongside Edmund Ironside in the battles of 1016, though his presence was probably only symbolic (he can have been no more than 13 years old, since his parents were married in 1002). Edward makes no impression on the contemporary English sources, and a charter he witnesses at Ghent at Christmas 1016 suggests that he was in Flanders by the end of 1016, perhaps on his way back to Normandy after Edmund's death and Cnut's triumph in November 1016. It is uncertain where the other children of Æthelred and Emma (Alfred and Godgifu) were in the course of 1016, but all three of them were in Normandy after 1016 (see further entry on 1033/4).

F. Barlow, Edward the Confessor, 2nd edn (London: 1997)

S. Keynes, "The Æthelings in Normandy", Anglo-Norman Studies 13 (1991), pp.173-205

October 18, 1016. Battle of Ashingdon: Cnut defeats EdmundTerms at Alney: Edmund keeps Wessex, Cnut takes everything else

On October 18, Edmund's army overtook Cnut's at Ashingdon in Essex and they fought there. Eadric betrayed the English by starting a rout with the Magonsæte (the people of Herefordshire), and the Chronicle notes that he thereby "betrayed his liege lord and all the people of England". Cnut won the victory and casualties on the English side were heavy -- the Chronicle names a bishop, an abbot, three ealdorman (Ælfric of Hampshire, Godwine of Lindsey, Ulfcytel of East Anglia), and continues "all the nobility of England were there destroyed".

Edmund survived, and Cnut followed him with his army to Gloucester. Eadric and other counsellors advised that the kings should be reconciled, so hostages were exchanged and a meeting took place at Alney, at which the kings established their friendship with an oath, fixed the payment for the Danish army, and divided the kingdom so that Edmund would succeed to Wessex and Cnut to Mercia (and presumably the rest of England).

Then the Danish army went to their ships, and the Londoners came to terms with them and bought peace from them, and the Danish army took up winter quarters in London.

In 1020, Cnut and Archbishop Wulfstan and Earl Thorkell and many bishops returned to witness the consecration of a minster at Ashingdon, commemorating the site of the victory much as William would later establish the abbey at Battle.

November 30, 1016. Edmund diesCnut becomes king of all England

The Chronicle records Edmund's death on St Andrew's day (November 30), and adds that he was buried at Glastonbury. Cnut then succeeded to the whole of England.

1017. Cnut consolidates his position (A wedding and four funerals)July, 1017. Cnut marries Emma, Æthelred's widowDecember 25 (?), 1017. Cnut orders four executions

The Chronicle records that after Cnut succeeded to all England he divided it into four, keeping Wessex (the traditional royal power base) for himself, giving East Anglia to Thorkell (who had come as a viking raider in 1009 and sworn allegiance to Æthelred in 1012), Mercia to Eadric (effectively reinstating him as ealdorman of Mercia), and Northumbria to Erik (confirming his appointment of 1016). It adds that several people were killed in that year, including Eadric, Northman the son of Ealdorman Leofwine, Æthelweard the son of Ealdorman Æthelmær the Stout, and Brihtric the son of Ælfheah of Devonshire. John of Worcester, writing in the 12th century, dates these four executions to Christmas. The Chronicle also notes that Cnut had the ætheling Eadwig (son of Æthelred) exiled and later killed, and that before 1 August he ordered the widow of King Æthelred, Richard's daughter, to be fetched as his wife.

Eadric's execution, after his multiple betrayals in 1015-6, would doubtless have been widely applauded by Danes and English alike one manuscript of the Chronicle notes that he was killed "very rightly", and John of Worcester reports the killing of the "perfidious ealdorman" in London and adds that Cnut ordered the body be thrown over the city wall and left unburied. We know less about the other three executed nobles. Cnut may have feared that they would betray him if an English prince appeared and tried to win back the kingdom. Cnut then did his best to ensure that there would be no such English pretenders, exiling and killing Eadwig, who seems to have been the only surviving son of Æthelred's first marriage to Ælfgifu, and also exiling Edmund Ironside's two young sons (see the note on Edward the Exile's return in 1057). This left Æthelred's sons by his second marriage to Emma, in exile in Normandy and out of Cnut's reach, and it was probably partly to neutralize them that Cnut married Emma in turn. The Encomium Emmae Reginae, written at Emma's behest in 1041/2, records that Emma refused to marry Cnut unless he agreed that he would never set up the son of any other wife to rule after him, if they had a son (II.16) presumably it was also part of the deal that Emma renounced the claim of her sons by her earlier marriage.

S. Keynes, "Introduction to the 1998 Reprint" of Alistair Campbell (ed.), Encomium Emmae Reginae (Cambridge: 1998)

1018. Tribute payment to Vikings: ?72,000, plus ?10,500 from LondonMost of Viking fleet returns to DenmarkAgreement at Oxford

A. G. Kennedy, "Cnut's Law Code of 1018", Anglo-Saxon England 11 (1983), 57-81

1019/20. Cnut winters in Denmark

1021. Cnut outlaws Earl Thorkell

1022/3. Cnut winters in Denmark

1023. Cnut reconciled with Thorkell

June 8, 1023. Translation of St Ælfheah to Canterbury

1026/7. Cnut to Denmark, then on to Rome

1028/9. Cnut to NorwayCnut drives out King Olaf (of Norway) and takes over Norway

1033/4. Normans plan to invade England in support of Edward the Confessor?

Simon Keynes discusses the fate of "The Æthelings in Normandy" (the children of Æthelred and Emma: Edward the Confessor, Alfred, and Godgifu) in his article of the same name. Godgifu married Drogo, the count of the Vexin, shortly after their arrival in 1016, and Edward and Alfred witness Norman charters in the 1030s, in the reign of Duke Robert of Normandy (1027-35). In two of these charters, discussed by Keynes, Edward attests as "King Edward", and even "Edward, by the grace of God King of the English". There seems then to have been a feeling at the Norman court that Edward, and not Cnut, was the rightful king of the English.

William of Jumi?ges, a Norman writing in the 1060s, records that Duke Robert sent envoys to Cnut, complaining of the long exile of Edward and Alfred and demanding that they be restored, and that when Cnut would do nothing the Norman duke launched an expedition against England. A fleet assembled at F?camp in Normandy, but was blown off course and ended up ravaging Brittany instead. William of Jumi?ges reports that in his final illness Cnut sent envoys to Robert, offering to restore half of the kingdom to the sons of Æthelred to establish peace for his lifetime (perhaps mirroring the earlier settlement between Cnut and Edmund of 1016), but nothing came of it, and both Cnut and Robert died in 1035.

S. Keynes, "The Æthelings in Normandy", Anglo-Norman Studies 13 (1991), pp.173-205

November 12, 1035. Cnut dies

Assembly at Oxford: "joint rule" of Cnut's sons Harthacnut and Harold Harefoot

The Chronicle notes that at Cnut's death there was a divided succession. The two candidates were Harthacnut, the son of Cnut and Emma, who was then ruling in Denmark, and Harold, apparently a son of Cnut and Ælfgifu of Northampton, an earl's daughter, though the Chronicle records doubts about Harold's parentage. At an assembly at Oxford, Earl Leofric of Mercia and most of the nobles north of the Thames (the Mercians and Northumbrians) and the shipmen of London wanted Harold to rule, as a regent for himself and his absent brother Harthacnut. Earl Godwine of Wessex and the nobles of Wessex opposed this as long as they could, because they wanted Harthacnut to succeed, but could not prevent it. It was determined that Emma should stay in Winchester with Harthacnut's housecarls and keep Wessex for Harthacnut, and Godwine was her most loyal supporter. However, the Chronicle continues, Harold was full king over all England, and he had seized many of Emma's treasures into the bargain.

1036 (?). Emma switches allegiance from Harthacnut to the æthelings in NormandyGodwine switches allegiance from Harthacnut to HaroldEdward and Alfred return to England Edward repulsed at Southampton, Alfred capturedFebruary 5, 1037. Alfred, Æthelred's son, dies at Ely

Things might have been very different if Harthacnut had returned to England immediately after Cnut's death in 1035. Unfortunately, Harthacnut's position in Denmark was threatened by Magnus of Norway, and he did not in the end leave until 1039. It seems that Harthacnut's continued absence made Emma realise her position as regent for Harthacnut (her son by Cnut) was untenable, and so she shifted her allegiance to Edward and Alfred (her sons by Æthelred), inviting them to return to England. This however would be a threat to Godwine, who owed his position to Cnut's favour and might expect less advancement under a son of the previous ruler than under Cnut's son Harthacnut, so Godwine seems to have shifted his allegiance to Harold.

The reasoning is conjecture, but both Edward and Alfred did return from Normandy to England in 1036. Edward's return is not recorded in English sources, but Norman sources note that he arrived at Southampton with a (Norman) fleet of forty ships, and was repulsed (presumably by English forces loyal to Harthacnut or Harold), and returned quickly to Normandy. Alfred, according to one version of the Chronicle, came to the country wanting to visit his mother in Winchester, but Godwine would not allow it, because feeling was veering towards Harold. Godwine captured Alfred, killed most of his companions in gruesome ways, blinded Alfred and set him down at Ely, where he dwelt until he died. (One manuscript of the Chronicle is written from a pro-Godwine viewpoint, and does not mention the death of Alfred at all.)

The Chronicle's note that feeling was veering towards Harold, "although that was not right", is corroborated by a letter written in July or August 1036 from one continental cleric to another, which mentions reports from English messengers to Harthacnut's sister Gunnhild, that Ælfgifu of Northampton and her son Harold are trying to corrupt the English by entreaty and bribery so that they will swear oaths to support Harold, and that one of the nobles so approached was so incensed that he sent messengers off to Harthacnut, urging him to return quickly. The process of the suborning of the southwest can also be followed in the coinage. In the first year of the joint rule (1035-6), coins were being minted in the name of Harthacnut south of the Thames (i.e. in Wessex), and in the name of Harold north of the Thames (i.e. in Mercia and Northumbria), with mints on the Thames operating apparently for both Harold and Harthacnut. However, over the course of the second year of the joint rule (1036-7), more and more of the coinage was being issued in Harold's name, and mints south of the Thames (in "Harthacnut's" territory) also began operating for Harold. It was perhaps the beginnings of this process that convinced both Emma and Godwine that waiting for Harthacnut was a losing tactic, and more desperate measures were needed.

S. Keynes, "Introduction to the 1998 Reprint" of Alistair Campbell (ed.), Encomium Emmae Reginae (Cambridge: 1998), at pp.xxx-xxxiv

1037. Harold Harefoot becomes king of all England

With the Norman æthelings killed or repulsed and Harthacnut still away in Denmark, Harold was finally chosen as king over the whole country, and Emma was driven into exile, and fetched up at the court of Count Baldwin of Flanders.

March 17, 1040. Death of Harold HarefootHarthacnut becomes king of all England

When Harold died, the English counsellors sent to Flanders for Harthacnut, and he returned to rule England, with his mother Emma. The Chronicle has nothing good to say about his reign, noting that he started by imposing a very severe tax, and went on to have the body of his dead half-brother Harold dug up and thrown into a fen. His ravaging of Worcestershire the following year (q.v.) cannot have increased his popularity, nor his betrayal of a safe-conduct that same year, and it was probably in order to protect his reign from open revolt that he invited Edward the Confessor to return from Normandy and share the rule with him (q.v.). Shortly after this (in 1041/2) the Encomium Emmae Reginae was commissioned and written, as another strand of a campaign to engage public support and sympathy for Emma and Harthacnut.

1041. Harthacnut orders the ravaging of Worcestershire

The Chronicle records that this ravaging of all Worcestershire was ordered because two of Harthacnut's housecarls, who had been in charge of exacting that "severe tax", had been killed by the citizens of Worcester.

1041. Harthacnut invites Edward the Confessor to share rule

It was soon after the ravaging of Worcestershire, probably as a face-saving exercise, that Edward the Confessor, who the Chronicle notes was Harthacnut's brother on his mother's side (i.e., another son of Emma), returned to England. The Chronicle adds that he was sworn in as king in its entry under 1041, and the Encomium Emmae notes that Harthacnut invited Edward to come and share the rule of the kingdom with him.

June 8, 1042. Harthacnut diesEdward the Confessor becomes king of all EnglandEaster (April 3), 1043. Edward consecrated king at Winchester

A more detailed account of Edward the Confessor's reign will be provided in a later edition. For the moment, in addition to the skeletal notes presented here, see the primary sources (conveniently collected in EHD II) and the other items on the bibliography note especially the Life of King Edward, which was written 1065-6 and commissioned by Edward's queen Edith.

The two main points of Edward's reign are perhaps the rival importances of the House of Godwine and of the Normans.

The Godwines (Godwine, earl since 1018, and his daughter Edith, who married the king, and sons Swein, Harold, Tostig, Gyrth, Leofwine, and Wulfnoth) at times controlled much of the country. A guarded Biblical allusion in the Life of King Edward suggests that they were quite determined to provide Edward's successor, either as a child of Edward and Edith or (when that marriage was childless) more directly by providing the next king on Edward's death. Edward was not fond of the Godwines, and exiled the whole lot of them in 1051 when he had the chance, but they were too strong and came back the following year.

Edward's support for the Normans, bewailed by later patriotic historians, is probably the natural result of his having been exiled to Normandy during Cnut's reign and apparently beat back there when he tried to return to England in 1036. Especially if Godwine was directly responsible for the death of Edward's brother Alfred in 1036/7, it would be hard for Edward to avoid the conclusion that the Normans were his friends and supporters and the House of Godwine was powerful and unfortunately inescapable (after he tried and failed to oust them in 1051/2), but nonetheless nothing but trouble.

D. Douglas and G. Greenaway (eds), English Historical Documents II: 1042-1189 (London: 1953)

F. Barlow, Edward the Confessor, 2nd edn (London: 1997)

F. Barlow (ed.), The Life of King Edward Who Rests at Westminster, 2nd edn (Oxford: 1992)

S. Keynes, "The Æthelings in Normandy", Anglo-Norman Studies 13 (1991), pp.173-205

November 16, 1043. Edward seizes Emma's lands and property

The three variant strands of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle note that King Edward seized his mother Emma's lands and treasures because she had withheld them too firmly from him. The most detailed version (D) notes that the seizure took place after the king took advice, that he rode from Gloucester with the Earls Leofric and Godwine and Siward and came upon Emma by surprise at Winchester, and that the seizures were made because Emma had formerly been very hard on Edward, and had done less for him than he wished both before and after he became king. Another version (C) adds the detail that Stigand, appointed bishop of East Anglia earlier in 1043, was deprived of his see because he was belived to be one of Emma's closest advisors, but Stigand was reinstated in 1044.

Edward's disenchantment with Emma can be understood in terms of her apparent abandonment of him to the Danes in 1016, her willingness to abandon his claim to that of a future child of her marriage with Cnut in 1017, the fact that she seems not to have considered him for the succession in 1035, or until her preferred candidate, Harthacnut, would clearly not be able to keep the throne, and the fact that there was not enough support on his arrival in 1036 to enable him to stay. Not all of these may have been Emma's fault, but they are enough to explain why Edward would have preferred, after his accession, to limit Emma's influence over English affairs, just as Cnut had had very little time for Eadric Streona. A late 11th-century Canterbury source even records a rumour that Emma was plotting to have Magnus of Norway invade and supplant Edward. While this was perhaps a scare-story concocted to force Edward to act against his mother, on Emma's previous record it is not entirely implausible.

January 23, 1045. Edward marries Edith, Godwine's daughter

October 29, 1050. Death of Eadsige, archbishop of Canterbury

On the death of Eadsige there arose a dispute over the succession to Canterbury. The monks at Canterbury, according to the Life of King Edward, elected to the office a monk of their community called Æthelric, a kinsman of Earl Godwine's. In Lent of 1051, however, the king appointed one of his Norman friends to the archbishopric, Robert of Jumi?ges, previously the bishop of London. This decision probably brought forward the showdown between Edward and Godwine that erupted later in 1051.

1051. Eustace of Boulogne in a fight at DoverEdward orders Godwine to ravage Dover

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eustace of Boulogne and his men got into a fight at Dover by trying to get lodgings by force, and there were killings on both side which escalated out of control. Then Eustace went to king Edward and told him what had happened, and according to one version of the Chronicle Edward ordered Godwine to ravage Dover because Eustace told him that the fight was the fault of the townspeople. Godwine refused to ravage Dover at the king's command, and this seems to have triggered the showdown between Edward and Godwine.


October 18th

707 – John VII ends his reign as Catholic Pope
1009 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church’s foundations down to bedrock.
1016 – Danes defeat Saxons at Battle of Assandun (Ashingdon)
1081 – Battle at Durazzo/Durres: Normans under Robert Guiscard beat Byzantine
1267 – Battle at Marienholz: Henry III, Otto II van Gelre beat Keuls archbishop Engelbert III
1356 – Basel earthquake, the most significant historic seismological event north of the Alps, destroyed the town of Basel, Switzerland.
1386 – Opening of the University of Heidelberg
1534 – New pursuit of French protestants
1561 – Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima — Takeda Shingen defeats Uesugi Kenshin in the climax of their ongoing conflicts.
1564 – John Hawkins begins 2nd trip to America
1572 – Spanish troops attack Maastricht
1622 – French King Louis XIII & Huguenots sign treaty of Montpellier
1648 – 1st labor organization forms in North American colonies (Boston Shoemakers)
1667 – English fleet plunders Suriname plantations
1672 – Poland & Turkey sign Peace of Buczacz
The Sun King of France Louis XIV

1685 – French King Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes cancelling rights of French Protestants
1748 – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ends War of Austrian Succession
1752 – Premiere of Rousseau’s opera “Le Devin du Village”
1767 – Boundary between MD & PA, Mason Dixon line, agreed upon
1775 – African-American poet Phillis Wheatley freed from slavery.
1776 – In a NY bar decorated with bird tail, customer orders “cock tail”
1776 – Battle of Pelham: Col John Glover & Marblehead regiment meet British Forces in Bronx
1855 – Franz Liszt’s “Prometheus,” premieres
1860 – The Second Opium War finally ends at the Convention of Peking with the ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin, an unequal treaty.
1862 – Morgan’s raiders capture federal garrison at Lexington, KY
1863 – Battle of Charlestown, WV
Composer/Pianist Franz Liszt

1867 – US takes formal possession of Alaska from Russia ($7.2 million)
1869 – Henrik Ibsen’s “De Unges Forbund,” premieres in Christiania (Oslo)
1873 – 1st football game between Toronto Argonauts & Hamilton Tigers
1873 – Columbia Princeton Rutgers & Yale set rules for collegiate football
1878 – Edison makes electricity available for household use
1887 – Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure “A Case of Identity” (BG)
1889 – 1st all NYC World Series NY Giants (NL) play Bkln (AA)
1890 – John Owen is 1st man to run 100 yd dash in under 10 seconds
1891 – 1st international 6-day bicycle race in US (Madison Square Garden, NYC) begins
1892 – 1st commercial long-distance phone line opens (Chicago-NY)
1898 – American flag raised in Puerto Rico
1900 – Count Bernard von Bulow becomes Chancellor of Germany, famous for first referring to Germany’s need for ‘place in the sun’ and global empire
1901 – Belgium’s Louise of den Plas begins activities towards women rights
1902 – 7th Iron Bowl: Auburn beats Alabama 23-0 in Birmingham
1904 – Gustav Mahler’s 5th symphony premieres in Cologne
1908 – Belgium annexes Congo Free State
1909 – Comte de Lambert of France sets airplane altitude record of 300 m
Writer and Novelist E. M. Forster

1910 – E. M. Forster publishes “Howards End”
1912 – The First Balkan War breaks out, with Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece opposed to Turkey
1912 – The Treaty of Lausanne ends the Tripolitan War between Turkey and Italy
1913 – Austrian-Hungary demands that Serbia & Albania leave
1914 – The Schoenstatt Movement is founded in Germany.
1915 – 3rd Italians offensive at Isonzo
1918 – Czechoslovakia declares Independence from Austro-Hungarian Empire
1918 – NHL’s Quebec Bulldogs sold to a Toronto businessman P J Quinn
1918 – Russian 10th Army drives out White armies of Tsaritsyn (Stalingrad)
1921 – Biding its time, Soviet Russia agrees to independence for the Crimea
1922 – British Broadcasting Company (BBC) founded (later called British Broadcasting Corporation)
1924 – Harold “Red” Grange, finest collegiate football game (4 long TD runs)
NFL halfback Red Grange

1924 – Notre Dame beats Army 13-7, NY Hearld Tribune dubs them (4 Horsemen)
1925 – -20] French Gen Sarrail bombs Damascus
1925 – Salt Lake City (PCL) Tony Lazzeri hits his 60th HR of the season
1926 – Frankfurter Zeitung publishes Lenin’s political testament
1929 – Women are considered “Persons” under Canadian law.
1930 – Joseph Sylvester becomes 1st jockey to win 7 races in 1 day
1932 – Belgium government of Renkin falls
1939 – R Rodgers & Lorenz Harts “Too Many Girls,” premieres in NYC
1940 – Kaufman & Harts “George Washington Slept Here,” premieres in NYC
1941 – Spy Richard Sorge arrested in Tokyo
1942 – Hitler orders captured allied commandos to be killed
1943 – US bombing of Bougainville, Solomon Island
1944 – Eisenhower, Bradley & Montgomery confer in Brussels
34th US President & WWII General Dwight D. Eisenhower

1944 – Soviet troops invade Czechoslovakia during WW II
1945 – Paul Robeson wins Spingarn Medal for singing & acting achievements
1946 – Aaron Copland’s 3rd Symphony premieres
1948 – Operation 10 Plagues – Israeli offensive against Egyptian army
1950 – Connie Mack retires as manager of A’s after 50 years
1951 – USSR performs nuclear test
1952 – “Buttrio Square” closes at New Century Theater NYC after 7 perfs
1952 – Vinoo Mankad takes 13 Pakistan wkts to win 1st India-Pak clash
1952 – 14th College Football Crab Bowl Classic: Maryland beats Navy 38-7 in College Park
1953 – WLJT TV channel 11 in Lexington, TN (PBS) begins broadcasting
1953 – WTVK TV channel 26 in Knoxville, TN (NBC) begins broadcasting
1953 – Willie Thrower becomes 1st black NFL quarterback in modern times
1954 – Hurricane Hazel (3rd of 1954) becomes most severe to hit US
Baseball Legend Connie Mack

1954 – WBTW TV channel 13 in Florence, SC (CBS/ABC) begins broadcasting
1954 – WNBC radio changes call letters to WRCA (NYC)
1954 – Texas Instruments Inc. announces the first transistor radio.
1955 – Track & Field names Jesse Owens all-time track athelete
1955 – University of California discovers anti-proton
1960 – Casey Stengel retired by NY Yankees (won 10 pennants in 12 years)
1960 – In Britain, News Chronicle & Daily Mail merge, & London Evening Star merges with Evening News
1961 – Emergency crisis proclaimed in South Vietnam due to communist attack
1961 – “West Side Story”, the film adaptation of the 1957 Broadway musical, starring Natalie Wood, is released (Best Picture 1962)
1962 – JFK meets Soviet minister of foreign affairs Andrei Gromyko
1962 – Tony Sheridan & Beat Brothers record “Let’s Dance”
Singer-Songwriter and and Guitarist Tony Sheridan

1962 – US launches Ranger 5 for lunar impact misses Moon
1962 – US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Johnston Island
1962 – Dr Watson (US) & Drs Crick & Wilkins (Britain) win Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in determining structure of DNA
1963 – IOC votes Mexico City to host 1968 Olympics
1964 – Marlene Hagge wins LPGA Mickey Wright Golf Invitational
1966 – “Apple Tree” opens at Shubert Theater NYC for 463 performances
1967 – Nobel prize for physics awarded to Hans A Bethe
1967 – Soviet Venera 4 becomes 1st probe to send data back from Venus
1967 – Walt Disney’s “Jungle Book” is released
1967 – AL votes to allow Athletics to move from KC to Oakland & expand league to 12 teams in 1971 with KC & Seattle teams
1968 – Bob Beamon of USA sets long jump record (29 ft. 2½ in.) in Mexico City
1968 – Circus Circus opens in Las Vegas
Molecular biologist Francis Crick

1968 – John Lennon & Yoko One fined £150 for marijuana possession
1968 – Lee Evans sets world record of 43.8 seconds in 400 meter dash
1968 – Police find 219 grains of cannabis resin in John & Yoko’s apt
1968 – US Olympic Committee suspends Tommie Smith & John Carlos for giving “black power” salute as a protest during victory ceremony
1969 – Federal government bans use of cyclamates artificial sweeteners
1969 – Jefferson Airplane’s Paul Kanter arrested for marijuana possession
1969 – Rod Stewart joins Small Faces
1969 – Soyuz 8 returns to Earth
1970 – Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Quality Chekd Golf Classic
1970 – Sachio Kinugasa begins 2,215 cons game streak for Hiroshima Carp
1973 – “Raisin” opens at 46th St Theater NYC for 847 performances
1973 – Congress authorizes bi-centennial quarter, half-dollar & dollar coin
1973 – Judd Woldon & Robert Brittens musical “Raisin,” premieres in NYC
LPGA Golfer Kathy Whitworth

1973 – Nobel prize for economy awarded to Wassily Leontief
1974 – 1st NBA game at Market Square Arena – Pacers beat Spurs 129-121
1974 – Andre van de Louw appointed mayor of Rotterdam
1974 – Wings (Country Hams) release “Walking in the Park with Eloise”
1974 – Chicago Bull Nate Thurmond becomes 1st in NBA to complete a quadruple double-22 pts, 14 rebounds, 13 assists & 12 blocks
1975 – Simon & Garfunkel reunite on “Saturday Night Live”, sing “My Little Town”
1975 – USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
1976 – Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to William N Lipscomb Jr
1977 – 1st Islander 0-0 tie-Kings at Nassau-25th time shutout-Resch’s 15th
1977 – NY Yankees win their 21st World Championship, 4 games
1977 – W German commandos liberate Boeing 737, 86 hostages at Mogadishu
MLB Right Fielder Reggie Jackson

1977 – Reggie Jackson hits 3 consecutive homers tying Ruth’s series record
1977 – Yanks beat Dodgers 8-4 for 21st world championship, 1st in 15 years
1978 – 1st daughter Susan Ford announces engagement to Charles F Vance
1978 – NY Islanders 1st scoreless tie, vs LA Kings
1979 – “Beatlemania” opens in London
1979 – Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini orders mass executions to stop
1979 – USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
1979 – USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1980 – Brooke Alexander, 18, of Hawaii, crowned Miss World USA
1980 – Detroit blocks 21 Atlanta shots setting NBA record (double OT)
1981 – Andreas Papandreous’ PASOK wins Greek elections
1981 – NY Giant Joe Danelo ties NFL record of 6 field goals in a game
1981 – Poland General Jaruzelski elected party leader
1984 – Discovery moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 51A mission
Supreme Leader of Iran Ayatollah Khomeini

1984 – USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1988 – Israel’s supreme court uphold’s ban on Kahane`s Kach Party as racist
1988 – USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1989 – East German state/party leader Erich Honecker, resigns
1989 – Hungary revises constitution
1989 – US 62nd manned space mission STS 34 (Atlantis 5) launches into orbit
1990 – “Once on this Island” opens at Booth Theater NYC for 469 performances
1991 – “Most Happy Fella” closes at NY State Theater NYC
1991 – US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1992 – “Oba Oba 󈨡” closes at Marquis Theater NYC after 22 performances
1992 – 1st non-US team to win a World Series Game Toronto 5, Atlanta 4
1992 – 6.6 earthquake hits Colombia with no fatalities
1992 – Phila Eagle Randall Cunningham sets NFL QB scramble record of 3,683
1992 – Start of Zimbabwe’s 1st Test match, v India at Harare
1993 – STS-58 (Columbia) launches into orbit
1995 – NHL Winnipeg Jets sold to Americans who plan to move them to Phoenix
1999 – MLB American League Championship: New York Yankees beat Boston Red Sox, 4 games to 1
2001 – Crude Oil for November delivery falls to its lowest level since August 1999 on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX)
2003 – Bolivian Gas War: President Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, is forced to resign and leave Bolivia.
Pakistani Politician Benazir Bhutto

2007 – After 8 years in exile, Benazir Bhutto returns to her homeland Pakistan. The same night, suicide attackers blow themselves up near Bhutto’s convoy, killing over 100 in the cheering crowd, including 20 police officers. Bhutto escaped uninjured.
2009 – QB Tom Brady throws five second quarter touchdowns against the Tennessee Titans, an NFL record for touchdown passes in one quarter
2011 – Gilad Shalit is released.
2012 – Syrian military airstrikes kill 40 people in Maaret al-Numan
2012 – Google stock trading is suspended after a premature release of a quarterly report indicating a 20% drop in profits and a 9% fall in share price
2012 – MLB American League Championship: Detroit Tigers beat New York Yankees, 4 games to 0
2013 – Saudi Arabia becomes the first country to turn down a seat on the UN Security Council in protest over Syria
NFL Quarterback Tom Brady

2013 – MLB National League Championship: St. Louis Cardinals beat Los Angeles Dodgers, 4 games to 2

BIRTHDAYS

1127 – Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan (d. 1192)
1239 – Stefanus V, prince of Transylvania/king of Hungary (1270-72)
1405 – Pius II, [Aenea S Piccolomini], Italian pope (1458-64) (Cynthia)
1517 – Manoel da Nóbrega, Portuguese Jesuit in Brazil (d. 1570)
1547 – Justus Lipsius, [Joost Lips], Dutch classic philologist/historian
1569 – Giambattista Marini, Italian poet (d. 1625)
1595 – Edward Winslow, Plymouth Colony founder (d. 1655)
1611 – Valentin Strobel, composer
1634 – Luca Giordano, Italian artist (d. 1705)
1638 – Lars Johnstown, [Lasse Lucidor], Swedish poet
1653 – Abraham van Riebeeck, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (d. 1713)
1662 – Matthew Henry, English non-conformist minister (d. 1714)
1663 – Prince Eugene of Savoy, Paris France, famous military commander for the Habsburg Monarchy against the Ottomans and the French
1668 – Johan Georg IV, elector of Saxony (1691-94)
1668 – Wierich PL earl von Daun, Austrian prince of Thiano/fieldmarshall
1679 – Ann Putnam, Jr., American accuser in the Salem Witch Trials (d. 1716)
1697 – Giovanni Canaletto, Venetian painter (Venicei Regatta on Grand Canal)
1701 – Charles le Beau, French historian (d. 1778)
1706 – Baldassare Galuppi, Italian composer (opera’s buffa)
1712 – Jeremias van Riemsdijk, gov-general of Dutch Indies (1775-77)
1741 – Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French general and author (d. 1803)
1774 – Adolfs Muller, writer
1777 – Heinrich von Kleist, Germany, dramatist/poet (Penthesilea)
1785 – Thomas Love Peacock, English author (Headlong Hall)
1789 – Giovanni Tadolini, composer
1794 – Ferdinand Lukas Schubert, composer
1804 – Rama IV, [Phra Chomklao Chaoyuhua], king of Thailand (1851-68)
1806 – John Breckinridge Grayson, Brig Genl (Confederate Army), (d. 1861)
1811 – Hugh Thompson Reid, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1874)
1818 – Edward Otho Cresap Ord, Major General (Union volunteers), (d. 1883)
1829 – Charles Sidney Winder, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1862)
1829 – Lucius Marshall Walker, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1863)
1831 – Frederik III NK of Hohenzollern, German Kaiser/king of Prussia
1833 – Johannes Habert, composer
1837 – Friedrich W Mengelberg, German sculptor/painter
1844 – Emille-Louis-Victor Mathieu, composer
1850 – Francis Thome, composer
1854 – Bill Murdoch, cricketer (great pioneer of Australian Test cricket)
1854 – Solomon A Andree, Swedish engineer/balloonist/Artic explorer
1859 – Henri Bergson, France, philosopher (Creative Evolution-Nobel 1927)
1859 – Paolo Orsi, Rovereto, Italian Archaeologist (Sicilian excavations)
1865 – Arie de Jong, Dutch linguist (d. 1957)
1865 – Logan Pearsall Smith, American essayist and critic (d. 1946)
1868 – Ernst Didring, Swedish author (d. 1931)
1870 – D T Suzuki, Kanazawa Japan, Zen Buddhist scholar
1871 – Louis de Vries, Dutch actor (Ghetto)
1872 – Josephine CMA, princess of Belgium/nun
1873 – Ivanoe Bonomi, Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1951)
1875 – James E K Aggrey, Ghana, US theologian/educationalist
1875 – Len Braund, cricketer (great England all-rounder in 23 Tests 1901-08)
1877 – Florence Dahl Walrath, humanitarian, founded Cradle society
1878 – James Truslow Adams, historian (Pul-1921, Founding of New England)
1879 – Grzegorz Fitelberg, Polish composer
1882 – Lucien Petit-Breton, Argentine-French cyclist (d. 1917)
1889 – Fannie Hurst, novelist (Anatomy of Me)
1890 – [Agathe] Henriette [M de Beaufort], Dutch author (Rembrandt)
1891 – Vaclav Kalik, composer
1892 – Leo G Carroll, Weedon England, actor (Topper, Man From Uncle)
1893 – Roy Del Ruth, DE, director (About Face, Babe Ruth Story, Star Show)
1893 – Sidney Holland, NZ, PM of NZ (1949-57)
1893 – Georges Ohsawa, Japanese founder of Macrobiotics (d. 1966)
1894 – H. L. Davis, American author (d. 1960)
1895 – Raymond Brulez, Flemish author (Appearance at Kallista)
1897 – Isabel Briggs Myers, American psychological theorist (d. 1980)
1898 – George Cuzon, Amersham England, actor (Hooded Terror)
1898 – Lotte Lenya [Karoline Wilhelmine Charlotte Blamauer], Austrian singer and actress (The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone, From Russia with Love)
1898 – Raymond Glenn, Frankfort KY, actor (Raisin in the Sun, Carmen Jones)
1901 – Vladimir Grigor’yevich Zakharov, composer
1902 – Miriam Hopkins, Bainbridge GA, actress (Becky Sharp, These Three)
1902 – Pascual Jordan, German physicist (d. 1980)
1903 – Ambrose Thibodeaux, cajun accordionist
1903 – Emile Enthoven, composer
1904 – A. J. Liebling, American journalist (d. 1963)
1905 – Felix Houphouet-Boigny, pres of Ivory coast (1960-93)
1906 – James Brooks, US mural painter (Acquisition of Long Island)
1907 – Alexander Hardie Williamson, artist
1909 – Norberto Bobbio, Italian philosopher and legal theorist (d. 2004)
1910 – Albertus “Bert” Botterman, actor (Bridge Too Far)
1910 – Vojislav Vuckovic, composer
1913 – Robert Gilruth, American aviation and space pioneer (d. 2000)
1915 – Victor Sen Yung, actor (Hop Sing-Bonanza, Bachelor Family), born in San Franciso, California
1916 – Peter Shepherd, English contractor/multi-millionaire
1918 – Bobby Troup, Harrisburg Pa, pianist/actor (Emergency, Acapulco)
1918 – James Cameron Tudor, politician
1918 – Konstantinos Mitsottakis, premier of Greece (1990- )
1918 – Willem J “Molly” Geertsema, Dutch liberal/interior minister)
1919 – Pierre Elliott Trudeau, (L) 15th Canadian PM (1968-79, 1980-84)
1919 – Anita O’Day (born Anita Belle Colton), jazz singer , born in Chicago, Illinois
1919 – Ric Nordman, Canadian politician (d. 1996)
1919 – Camilla Williams, Danville, Virginia, operatic soprano, (d. 2012)
Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Trudeau (1919)

1919 – Pierre Trudeau, 15th Prime Minister of Canada, born in Montreal, Quebec
1920 – Melina Mercouri, Greek actress and political activist (d. 1994)
1921 – Jesse Helms, (Sen-D/R-North Carolina, 1973- )
1922 – Camillo Togni, composer
1922 – Little Orphan Annie, comic strip character
1922 – Richard Stankiewicz, US sculptor (1974 Akston Award, 1966 Brandeis)
1923 – Suzanne Perlman, Hungarian/Dutch Antilian painter
1924 – Allyn Ferguson, orchestra leader (Andy Williams Show), born in San Jose, California
1924 – Egil Hovland, composer
1924 – Frank Liedel, [Leo van Assche], Flemish writer (Kaperbrief)
1924 – Hugh Allan “Buddy” MacMaster, Canadian musician
1925 – Wim van Gennep, Dutch singer/keyboardist (Heikrekels)
1925 – Ramiz Alia, political leader of Albania
1926 – Chuck Berry, St Louis, rocker (Roll over Beethoven)
1926 – Klaus Kinski, [Nikolas Naksynski], Poland, actor (Little Drummer Girl)
1926 – Thomas Millar, historian
1927 – George C. Scott, Wise, Virginia, American actor/director (Patton, Dr. Strangelove)
1927 – Ramesh Divecha, cricketer (eleven wickets for India in early 50’s)
1928 – Keith Jackson, Carrolton Ga, sportscaster (ABC Monday Night Football)
1928 – R H “Deepak” Shodhan, cricketer (century on Test debut for India)
1929 – Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, president of Nicaragua (1990- )
1930 – Frank Carlucci, National Security Adviser/Sec of Defense (1987-89)
1931 – Catharina I “Ien” Dales, Dutch Internal minister (1989-94)
1932 – Vytautas Landsbergis, Lithuanian politician
1933 – Forrest Gregg, NFL tackle (Green Bay Packers, Dallas Cowboys)
1934 – Inger Stevens, Stockholm Sweden, actress (Katy-Farmer’s Daughter)
1934 – Calvin Lockhart, Bahamian actor (d. 2007)
1934 – Chuck Swindoll, American evangelist
1935 – John B Coleman, hotel magnate (Ritz Carlton), born in Boston, Massachusetts
1935 – Jorge Cervello, composer
Actor Peter Boyle (1935)

1935 – Peter Boyle, American actor (Joe, Candidate, Everybody Loves Raymond), born in Norristown, Pennsylvania
1938 – Ronnie Bright, rocker (Coasters)
1938 – Dawn Wells, American actress
1939 – Lee Harvey Oswald, assassin (JFK), born in New Orleans, Louisiana (d. 1963)
1939 – Mike Ditka, Carnegie Pennsylvania, NFL coach/tight-end (Bears, Cowboys, NFL rookie year 1961)
1939 – Flavio Cotti, member of the Swiss Federal Council
1940 – Cynthia Weil, New York NY, American songwriter
1941 – William “Billy” Cox, Guitarist (performed with Jimi Hendrix), born in Wheeling, West Virginia
1942 – Willie Horton, baseball slugger (Detroit Tigers)
NFL Head Coach Mike Ditka(1939)

1942 – Larry Pickering, Australian newspaper cartoonist
1943 – Russ Giguere, Portsmouth NH, rock guitarist/vocalist (Association)
1943 – Birthe Rønn Hornbech, Danish politician
1944 – Katherine Kurtz, UK, sci-fi author (Deryni Rising, Saint Camber)
1945 – Christopher Shays, (Rep-R-Connecticut)
1945 – Huell Howser, American TV host
1945 – Yıldo, Turkish famous showman and football player
1946 – James Robert Baker, American novelist, screenwriter
1946 – Howard Shore, Canadian film composer
1947 – Joe Morton, actor (Hal-Grady, Abel Marsh-Another World), born in NYC, New York
1947 – John Johnson, NBA (Seattle SuperSonic)
1947 – Laura Nyro, singer/songwriter (Eli’s Coming, Stoney End), born in The Bronx, New York
1947 – Luc Journet, Belgian physician (Order of Zonnetempel)
1947 – Job Cohen, Dutch politician, mayor of Amsterdam
1947 – Paul Chuckle, British comedian
1948 – Isabel E Allen, biostatician
1948 – Ntozake Shange, American author
1949 – Gary Richrath, guitarist and songwriter (REO Speedwagon), born in Peoria Illinois, (d. 2015)
1949 – Joe Egan, British musician (Stealers Wheel)
1949 – George Hendrick, baseball player
1950 – Merry Martin, Camden Mich, actress (Leslie-Peter Loves Mary)
1950 – Patrick L Swindall, (Rep-R-GA, 1985- )
1950 – Sheila White, actress (I Claudius), born in London, England
1950 – Om Puri, Indian actor
1950 – Wendy Wasserstein, American playwright (d. 2006)
1951 – Pam Dawber, actress (Mindy-Mork & Mindy, My Sister Sam), born in Detroit, Michigan
1951 – Terry McMillan, American author
1952 – Roy Dias, cricketer (pioneering Sri Lankan Test batsman)
1952 – Bảo Ninh, Vietnamese novelist
1952 – Jerry Royster, American baseball player
1954 – Liz Burch, Australian actress
1955 – Timmy Mallett, British TV presenter
1955 – David Twohy, American movie director and screenwriter
1955 – Rita Verdonk, Dutch politician
Tennis Player Martina Navratilova (1956)

1956 – Martina Navratilova, Revnice Czech, tennis (Wimbledon 1989,79,82-87)
1956 – Craig Bartlett, American animator
1956 – Jim Talent, Des Peres, Missouri, American politician (Rep-R-Missouri)
1957 – Jon Lindstrom, Medford Ore, actor (Kevin Collins-General Hospital)
1957 – Doug Isaacson, Alaskan politician
1958 – Hal Haenel, St Louis Mo, star yachter (Olympics-8th-1988, 92, 96)
1958 – Kjell Samuelsson, Tyngsryd Swe, NHL defenseman (Phila Flyers)
1958 – Corinne Bohrer, American actress
1958 – Thomas Hearns, American boxer
1959 – Kirby Chambliss, Aerobatic pilot and Red Bull Air Racer
1959 – Milčo Mančevski, Macedonian film director and screenwriter
1959 – John Nord, former American pro wrestler
1959 – Steve Swayne, Dartmouth Professor
1960 – Doug Lidster, Kamloops, NHL defenseman (NY Rangers)
1960 – Emily Arth, Evanston Ill, playmate (Jun, 1988)
1960 – Erin Moran, Burbank, California, American actress (Happy Days, Joanie Loves Chachi)
Actor Jean-Claude Van Damme (1960)

1960 – Jean-Claude Van Damme, Brussels Belgian, actor (Kickboxer, No Retreat)
1961 – Eric Jespersen, Port Alberni BC, star yachter (Olympics-bronze-92, 96)
1961 – Gladstone Small, English cricketer, born in St. George, Barbados
1961 – Wynton Marsalis, jazz trumpeter (Grammy 1983), born in New Orleans, Louisiana
1962 – Jody Anschutz, Minneapolis, LPGA golfer (1987 du Maurier Ltd Classic)
1962 – Vincent Spano, actor (Alphabet City, Maria’s Lovers), born in Brooklyn, New York
1964 – Etsuko Inoue, Japan, tennis star
1964 – George Ferris, cricketer (Leewards fast bowler)
1965 – Fayette Purser, Australian golfer (NSW State Rep 1987-88), born in Sydney, New South Wales
1965 – Curtis Stigers, American jazz vocalist and saxophonist
1966 – Alan Mills, Lakeland Florida, pitcher (Baltimore Orioles)
1966 – Angela Visser, Neth, Miss Universe (1989)
1966 – Denise Philbrick, LPGA golfer
1966 – Jerod Swallow, Ann Arbor Mich, American ice skater (1997 Nationals)
1966 – Kristine Middeler, Felicity Oh, WPVA volleyballer (US Open-13th-1994)
1967 – Gary John Anderson, Wanganui NZ, cyclist (Olympics-96)
1968 – Denisa Szabova, Bratislava Czech, tennis star (1987 Futures-GER)
1968 – Michael Stich, Germany, tennis star
1968 – Narendra Hirwani, cricketer (Ind leggie 16 wickets v WI on debut 1988)
1968 – Stuart Law, cricketer (prolific Queensland batsman, Australia 1995)
1969 – Anthony Avent, NBA forward (Vancouver Grizzlies)
1969 – Nelson Vivas, Argentine former footballer
1970 – Bob Kennedy, Bloomington Indiana, 5k runner
1970 – Camille Spitaleri, Mountain View Ca, female infielder (Silver Bullets)
1970 – Mark Schenning, Dutch soccer player (Go Ahead Eagles)
1970 – Shane Bonham, NFL defensive linesman (Detroit Lions)
1970 – José Padilla, American former gang member and alleged supporter of terrorism
1971 – Bob Whitfield, NFL tackle (Atlanta Falcons)
1971 – Emmett Waldron, WLAF linebacker (Scottish Claymores)
1971 – Karen J McNenny, Missoula Montana, Miss Montana-America (1991)
1971 – Tammy Harris, Williamstown NY, Miss America-New York State (1997)
1972 – Angie Marzetta, Norfolk Virginia, female outfielder (Silver Bullets)
1972 – James Stream Thurmond Jr, son of US senator Strom Thurmond
1972 – Alex Tagliani, Quebec racing driver
1972 – Jake Farrow, actor
1973 – Demetrious Maxie, CFL defensive end (Toronto Argonauts)
1973 – John Baldwin Jr, figure skater (1996 SW Pacific Sr champ), born in Dallas, Texas
1973 – Michalis Kapsis, Greek footballer
1974 – Robbie Savage, Welsh footballer
1974 – Peter Svensson, Swedish musician (The Cardigans)
1974 – Zhou Xun, Quzhou, Zhejiang, Chinese actress and singer (Suzhou River, Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress)
1975 – Rebeca Tamez, Miss Mexico Universe (1997)
1975 – Alex Cora, Puerto Rican baseball player
1977 – Chris McKenna, actor (Joey-One Live to Live), born in Queens, New York
1977 – Ryan Nelsen, New Zealand footballer
1977 – David Vuillemin, Pro Motocross Rider
1978 – Wesley Jonathan, American actor
1978 – Mike Tindall, English rugby union player
1979 – Ne-Yo [Shaffer Chimere Smith, Jr], Camden, Arkansas, American pop and R&B singer and songwriter
1981 – Richard Vuu, actor (Last Emperor)
1984 – Lindsey Vonn, American alpine skier
1987 – Zac Efron, American actor (High School Musical, 17 Again), born in San Luis Obispo, California,
1987 – Freja Beha Erichsen, Danish model
1990 – Carly Schroeder, American actress
1991 – Tyler Posey, American actor
1998 – Julia Wróblewska, Polish actress
2001 – Annelise Manojlovic, English actress

WEDDINGS

1869 – Sardinia king Victor Emmanuel II (49) weds his mistress Rosa Vercellana (36) in Italy
1926 – Communist revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh (36) weds midwife Zeng Xueming (21) in Guangzhou
1952 – Latin actress Maria Felix (38) weds actor and singer Jorge Negreta (40) in Mexico
1970 – Actor Lee Marvin (46) weds radio producer Pamela Marvin (40)
1986 – “Fleetwood Mac” member Christine McVie (43) weds keyboardist Eduardo Quintela
2008 – Tennis player Michael Chang (35) weds fellow tennis player Amber Liu (24) at Lake Hills Community Church in Laguna Hills, California
Tennis Player and French Open Champion Michael Chang (2008)

2011 – Actress, model and singer Bijou Phillips (32) weds actor and disc jockey Danny Masterson (36) at a private castle in Ireland
2014 – “Glee” star Matthew Morrison (35) weds Renee Puente at a private home on the island of Maui
2014 – “The Vampire Diaries” actress Candice Accola (27) weds “The Fray” guitarist Joe King (34) in New Orleans, Louisiana

DIVORCES

2000 – Actress Demi Moore (37) divorces actor Bruce Willis (45) due to irreconcilable differences after 13 years of marriage

DEATHS

707 – John VII, Catholic Pope (705-07), of Greek ancestry, dies
1035 – Sancho III of Navarre
1101 – Hugh of Vermandois, son of Henry I of France (b. 1053)
1141 – Margrave Leopold IV of Austria
1340 – Henry Henricus of Friemar, Augustine philosopher, dies
1382 – James Butler, 2nd Earl of Ormonde (b. 1331)
1417 – Pope Gregory XII [Angelo Correr], Pope (1406-15), dies
1459 – Jan of Heinsberg, bishop of Luik (1419-56), dies
1503 – Pius III, [Francesco Todeschini], Pope (9/22-10/18/1503), dies
1541 – Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland (b. 1489)
1545 – John Taverner, English composer (Western Wynde), dies at about 55
1558 – Maria, queen of Hungary/guardian of Neth (1531-55), dies at 53
1564 – Johannes Acronius Frisius, German physician and mathematician (b. 1520)
1570 – Manoel da Nóbrega, Portuguese Jesuit in Brazil (b. 1517)
1589 – Adolf van Nieuwenaar & Meurs, viceroy of Utrecht, dies in battle
1604 – Igram van Achelen, Dutch statesman (b. 1528)
1634 – Pierre De La Barre, composer, dies at 42
1646 – Isaac Jogues, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1607)
1667 – Fasilides, Emperor of Ethiopia
1669 – Abraham Willaerts, painter (Brazil), dies
1676 – Nathaniel Bacon, rallied against Virginian government, killed at 29
1678 – Cornelis Galle II, Flemish engraver/illustrator, dies at 63
1678 – Jacob Jordaens, Flemish barok painter, dies at 85
1708 – Henry Van Nassau, stable master/fieldmarshal, dies at 67
1739 – Antônio José da Silva, Brazilian-born dramatist (b. 1705)
1744 – Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, close friend of Queen Anne of Great Britain (b. 1660)
1767 – Joseph Paul Ziegler, composer, dies at 45
1770 – John Manners, Marquess of Granby, British soldier (b. 1721)
1771 – Robert Praelisauer, composer, dies at 62
1775 – Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian (b. 1715)
1788 – Jean-Guillain Cardon, composer, dies at 56
1817 – Etienne-Nicolas Méhul, French composer (b. 1763)
1830 – Peter I Petrovic Njegos, bishop (Montenegro), dies
1832 – Othon Joseph Vandenbroek, composer, dies at 73
1839 – French Jozef Kinsoen, Flemish portrait painter, dies at 68
1862 – James Creighton, amateur American baseball player, dies of ruptured bladder from hitting home run on Oct 14th
1864 – David Bell Birney, US lawyer/Union general-major, dies at 39
1864 – Jacques Francois Gallay, composer, dies at 68
1865 – Lord Henry JT Palmerston, English Minister of Foreign affairs, dies at 80
1876 – Francis Preston Blair, newspaper editor (Washington Globe), dies at 85
1886 – Philipp Franz von Siebold, German physician (b. 1796)
1889 – Antonio Meucci, Italian inventor (b. 1808)
1893 – Charles F Gounod, French composer (La reine the Saba), dies at 75
1893 – Lucy [Blackwell-]Stone, US abolitionist/feminist, dies
1909 – Alfredo Oriani, Italian writer (La rivolta ideal), dies
1921 – King Ludwig III of Bavaria (b. 1845)
Inventor Thomas Edison(1931)

1931 – Thomas Edison, inventor who lit up your life (held 1200 patents), dies at 84
1932 – Ioannis Chrysafis, Greek gymnast (b. 1873)
1938 – Karl J Kautsky, Austrian marxist/socialist, dies
1940 – Suze Groeneweg, 1st woman in Dutch 2nd Chamber (1918-37), dies at 65
1941 – Dirk Fock, governor-general van/of Neth-Indies 1921-6, dies at 83
1941 – Manuel Teixeira Gomes, 7th President of Portugal (b. 1860)
1942 – Mikhail Nesterov, Russian painter (b. 1862)
1943 – Adrianus M de Young, writer (Merijntje Gijzen’s Youth), dies at 55
1943 – Benedictus H Dancer, botanist, dies at 52
1948 – [Heinrich A H] Walther von Brauchitsch, German fieldmarshal, dies
1953 – Douwe Kalma, Fries literature/christian-socialist, dies at 57
1953 – Federico Gerdes, composer, dies at 80
1955 – Jose Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher, dies at 72
1959 – Boughera El Ouafi, Algerian athlete (b. 1898)
1961 – Tsuru Aoki, Japanese-born American actress (b. 1892)
1963 – Claudio Carneyro, composer, dies at 68
1965 – Frank Hutchens, composer, dies at 73
1965 – Henry Travers, actor (Bells of St Mary, High Sierra), dies at 91
1966 – Bill Nestell, US actor (Dangerous Venture), dies of heart attack at 73
1966 – Sebastian S. Kresge, American merchant (Kmart) (b. 1867)
1968 – Lee Tracy, actor (Doctor X, Bombshell, Best Man), dies of cancer at 70
1972 – Ken Wishart, cricketer (WI opening batsman in one Test 1935), dies
1973 – Crane Wilbur, dir/writer (Bat, Canon City, Yellow Cargo), dies at 86
1973 – Frank Knight, TV announcer (Chronoscope), dies at 79
1973 – Walt Kelly, US comic strip artist (Pogo), dies at 60
1973 – Margaret Caroline Anderson, American magazine publisher (b. 1886)
1975 – Al Lettieri, actor (Beautiful but Deadly, Don is Dead), dies at 47
1976 – Kavi Samrat Viswanatha Satyanarayana, Telugu writer (b. 1895)
1977 – Rolph Grant, cricketer (West Indian capt on 1939 England tour), dies
1977 – Andreas Baader (b. 1943)
1977 – Gudrun Ensslin (b. 1940)
1977 – Jan-Carl Raspe (b. 1944)
1978 – Frank Woolley, cricketer (58,969 1st-class runs), dies
1978 – Jacques Mornard, [Ramon Mercader], murderer of Trotsky, dies at 64
US First Lady Bess Truman(1982)

1982 – Bess Truman, 1st lady (1945-53), dies in Independence, Mo at 97
1982 – Maurice Gilliams, Flemish literary (Sources of Insomnia), dies at 82
1982 – Pierre Mendès-France, French Premier (1954-55), dies at 75
1982 – Dwain Esper, American film director (b. 1892)
1982 – John Robarts, Canadian politician, Premier of Ontario (b. 1917)
1983 – Vijay Manjrekar, cricketer (55 Tests for India), dies
1983 – Diego Abad de Santillán, Spanish anarchist (b. 1897)
1984 – Florence Rinard, TV panelist (20 Questions), dies at 82
1984 – Jon-Erik Hexum, actor (Bear), dies by a gun loaded with blanks at 26
1985 – Benjamin Moloisi, South African poet/Anc’er, hanged at 30
1987 – Theodore Brameld, author (Use of Explosive Ideas), dies at 83
1988 – Dimitri Frenkel Frank, writer/director (Hadimassa), dies at 60
1993 – Dionisio Herrero, Spanish air force general, murdered at 63
1993 – Lois Kibbee, American actress (Edge of Night), dies of a brain tumor at 71
1993 – Smail Yefsah, Algerian TV journalist, murdered at 31
1994 – Lee Allen, saxophonist, dies at 68
1994 – Richard A Garland, artist photographer, dies at 60
1994 – WIlliam Faure, producer, dies at 45
1995 – Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher, lawyer, dies at 67
1995 – Bryan Johnson, singer/actor, dies at 69
1995 – Iri Maruki, artist, dies at 94
1995 – John Gardener, boatbuilder/writer, dies at 90
1995 – Thomas Lyttle, paramilitary, dies at 56
1996 – Guiseppe Panini, industrialist, dies at 71
1996 – Hugh Willatt, solicitor/public servant, dies at 91
1997 – Bill Rotsler, cartoonist/writer, dies of cancer at 62
1997 – Nancy Dickerson, 1st female news correspondent (CBS), dies at 70
1997 – Roberto C Goizueta, CEO (Coca-Cola), dies of lung cancer at 65
2000 – Julie London, American singer and actress (b. 1926)
2000 – Gwen Verdon, American dancer and actress (b. 1925)
2001 – Micheline Ostermeyer, French athlete and musician (b. 1922)
2002 – Nikolai Rukavishnikov, cosmonaut (b. 1932)
2002 – Roman Tam, Hong Kong singer (b. 1950)
2003 – Preston Smith, Governor of Texas (b. 1912)
2003 – Manuel Vázquez Montalbán, Spanish writer (b. 1939)
2004 – Veerappan, Indian bandit and smuggler (b. 1945)
2005 – John Hollis, British actor (b. 1931)
2005 – Bill King, American sports broadcaster (b. 1927)
2005 – Johnny Haynes, English footballer (b. 1934)
2006 – Mario Francesco Cardinal Pompedda (b. 1929)
2006 – Anna Russell, English music satirist (b. 1911)
2007 – Alan Coren, English writer and satirist (b. 1938)
2007 – William J. Crowe, American admiral and ambassador (b. 1925)
2007 – Vincent DeDomenico, American entrepreneur (b. 1915)
2007 – Lucky Dube, South African musician (b. 1964)
2008 – Dee Dee Warwick, American soul singer (b. 1945)
2009 – Nancy Spero, American feminist artist dies aged 83
2010 – Marion Brown, American jazz musician (b. 1931)
2012 – David Spencer Ware, American free jazz saxophonist, dies at 62
2013 – Bill Young, American politician, dies from complications from a back injury at 82
2013 – Allan Stanley, Canadian ice hockey player, dies at 87
2013 – Tom Foley, American politician, dies from complications from a stroke at 84


Aftermath

The first major battle that involved US ground forces, Ia Drang saw them suffer 96 killed and 121 wounded at X-Ray and 155 killed and 124 wounded at Albany. Estimates for North Vietnamese losses are around 800 killed at X-Ray and minimum of 403 killed at Albany. For his actions in leading the defense of X-Ray, Moore was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.

Pilots Major Bruce Crandall and Captain Ed Freeman were later (2007) awarded the Medal of Honor for making volunteer flights under heavy fire to and from X-Ray. During these flights, they delivered much-needed supplies while evacuating wounded soldiers. The fighting at Ia Drang set the tone for the conflict as American forces continued to rely on air mobility and heavy fire support to achieve victory. Conversely, the North Vietnamese learned that the latter could be neutralized by quickly closing with the enemy and fighting at close range.


Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England

EADMUND, son of ÆTHELRED II King of England & his first wife Ælfl๭ ([990]-30 Nov 1016, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset[1871]). Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1872]. Roger of Wendover records the birth in 981 of "rex Ethelredus𠉯ilium�mundum"[1873], but this date is probably inaccurate if it is correct (as shown above) that Eadmund was his father´s third son, given King Æthelred´s birth in [966]. "Eadmundus filius regis/clito/ætheling" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 993 and 1015, the last dated 1015 being signed "Eadmund regie indolis soboles"[1874]. His name was listed after his brother Ecgberht, before the latter's disappearance from the records in 1005, consistent with Edmund being the third son. He subscribed his father's charter dated 1002 which granted land at Codicote, Hertfordshire to Ælthelm, signing third among the brothers[1875], and "Eadmundus clito" subscribed his father's 1006 charter making grants to St Alban's, also signing third[1876]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made bequests to "…my brother Eadmund, my brother Eadwig…"[1877]. After the murder of the brothers Sigeferth and Morcar, leading thegns in northern England, Edmund abducted and married Sigeferth's widow against his father's wishes. In Sep 1015, he proceeded north to retake the properties of his wife's first husband which had been confiscated by the king[1878]. In early 1016, Edmund devastated northwest Mercia in alliance with Uhtred Earl of Northumbria, but returned to London to rejoin his father shortly before he died. He was immediately proclaimed king on his father's death in 1016 by an assembly of northern notables and burghers of London[1879], succeeding as EDMUND "Ironside" King of England, crowned at Old St Paul's Cathedral in Apr 1016. The Witan had offered the throne to Knud of Denmark, to whom a group of nobles and church dignitaries from southern England swore allegiance at Southampton[1880]. King Edmund reconquered Wessex from Danish forces, and relieved London from the siege imposed by a Danish fleet. The Danes turned their attention to Mercia, Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" defecting back to King Edmund's forces at Aylesford only to betray him again at Ashingdon in Essex where Danish forces finally defeated King Edmund in Oct 1016[1881]. At Alney, near Deerhurst, Edmund agreed a compromise division of the country with Canute, Edmund taking Wessex and Canute the north, but King Edmund died before this could be implemented. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Andrew's day 1016 of King Edmund and his burial at Glastonbury[1882]. According to Henry of Huntingdon, King Edmund was murdered by the son of Eadric Streona[1883].

m (Malmesbury, Wiltshire [Jun/Aug] 1015) as her second husband, ÆLDGYTH, widow of SIGEFERTH, daughter of --- . The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "prince Edmund�ucted [Siferth's widow] against the king's will and made her his wife" but does not name her[1884]. Simeon of Durham records that Edmund married "Algitha widow of Sigeferth" in 1015[1885]. According to Ronay, she was the daughter of Olof "Skotkonung" King of Sweden and his concubine Edla of Vindland, but the author cites no primary source to support this suggestion[1886]. If the assertion is correct, it is surprising that Ældgyth is not mentioned with the Swedish king's other children in the Saga of Olaf Haraldson[1887]. In addition, there would be no explanation for Ældgyth's first marriage to an obscure Northumbrian nobleman, especially as King Olof's two known daughters made high-profile marriages with the Grand Prince of Kiev and the king of Norway. Simeon of Durham records that, after Ældgyth's first husband was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia, Ældgyth was arrested and brought to Malmesbury on the orders of King Æthelred II who had confiscated her husband's properties in the north of England[1888]. She was abducted and married, against the king's wishes, by her second husband who proceeded to take possession of her first husband's properties. No mention has been found of Queen Ældgyth after the death of her second husband.

King Edmund "Ironside" & his wife had two sons:

1. EDMUND ([1016/17]-before 1054). Edmund was the older of King Edward's sons according to William of Malmesbury[1889]. However, the brothers may have been twins as there is barely sufficient time between the king's marriage in Summer 1015 and his death in Nov 1016 for two children to have been conceived, the second son inevitably having been born posthumously if the births were separate. After his father's death, Edmund and his brother were smuggled out of England and ultimately found their way to Hungary. The sources are contradictory about the exact route of their flight and the chronology of each step. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Canute "banished [them] into Hungary"[1890]. Orderic Vitalis names "Edward et Edmund" as the two sons of king Edmund II, specifying that King Canute sent them to Denmark to be killed but that his brother "Suenon [error for Harald] roi de Danemark" sent them "comme ses neveux en otage au roi des Huns" where Edmund died prematurely[1891]. Florence of Worcester specifies that the infants were first "sent to the king of the Swedes to be killed [but the latter] sent them to Solomon King of Hungary to spare their lives and have them brought up at his court"[1892]. Roger of Wendover, presumably copying Florence of Worcester, records that "filios…regis Eadmundi, Eadwinum [error for "Eadmundus"] et Eadwardum" were sent "ad regem Suanorum" and from there to "Salomonem, Hungariæ regem"[1893]. Adam of Bremen records that the sons of "Emund" (whom he mistakenly calls "frater Adelradi") were "in Ruzziam exilio dampnati"[1894]. Geoffrey Gaimar (in an altogether confusing account) names "Li uns�gar…li alters�lret" as the children of King Edmund, recounting that they were sent first to Denmark and later to "Russie [Susie], e vint en terre de Hungrie"[1895]. While the precise details may not at first sight appear important, as will be seen below the exact timing and location of each stage of their journey is highly significant in attempting to resolve the even more controversial issue of the identities of the wives of the two brothers. It is probably best to tackle the problem in reverse chronological order. We know that the younger brother Edward was recalled to England from Hungary with his young family in the mid-1050s (see below). Given the turbulent history of Hungary over the previous twenty years, with four changes of regime brought about by revolution and civil war between the competing religious and political factions[1896], it is unlikely that the two immigrant princes could have enjoyed continuity of favour with the country's different leaders throughout this period. The most likely case is that the English princes arrived in Hungary from Kiev in 1046 with King András I, when the latter was recalled to his native country after at least ten years' exile. It is not impossible that the princes had lived in Hungary in earlier years and accompanied András into exile, but this is unlikely. Prince András's father and brothers represented the traditional, tribal and heathen element in the Hungarian royal family, their banishment being due to clashes with the Catholic pro-western faction. If the English princes had been in Hungary in the 1030s, it seems improbable that, as Christians from western Europe, they would have been drawn to the heathen rather than the Catholic element. The more likely hypothesis is that they were already living in Kiev when András arrived there and that their ties with him were formed there. Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev married a Swedish princess in 1019. Assuming that the princes did journey through Sweden as reported by Florence of Worcester, the court at Kiev would have been a more obvious destination than Hungary for the young princes. The children may even have been part of the retinue of Ingigerd of Sweden when she travelled to Russia for her marriage. Whether the first leg of the brothers' journey from England was to Denmark or to Sweden is probably irrelevant for present purposes. According to William of Malmesbury, Edmund later died in Hungary[1897]. He must have died before his brother Edward was invited back to England, there being no mention of Edmund at that time. According to Weir[1898], he must have lived "at least into his teens", this assessment being based presumably on the fact of his supposed marriage (which is undated in Weir).

[m [HEDWIG] of Hungary, daughter of --- King of Hungary & his wife ---. Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edmundo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "Hungariorum regem𠉯iliam suam"[1899]. Geoffrey Gaimar recounts that "Edgar" (older of the two children of King Edmund whom he names incorrectly in an earlier passage) made "la fille al rei [de Hungrie]" pregnant, was married to her and appointed heir by her father, but adding confusingly that they were parents of "Margarete" who married "rei Malcolom"[1900]. The basis for this story, and whether there is any element of truth hidden somewhere in it, is unknown. Edmund's wife is named Hedwig in Burke's Guide to the Royal Family[1901], although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. In the absence of further information, the accuracy of these reports must be considered dubious as none of the Hungarian kings during the first half of the 11th century provides an obvious match. In the case of King István, it is likely that all his daughters predeceased their father in view of the accession of his nephew, King Péter, when he died. In any case, his daughters would have been beyond child-bearing age when the ætheling Edmund arrived in Hungary, assuming that this arrival took place in [1046] as explained above. As the ætheling brothers were closely linked to King András I, it is unlikely that Edmund would have married a daughter of either of his disgraced predecessors King Péter or King Samuel Aba, and any daughters of the former at least would have been too young for such a marriage. Finally, any daughters of King András himself would certainly have been too young for the marriage. There is therefore considerable doubt about the historical authenticity of this Hungarian princess or her marriage to Edmund.]

2. EDWARD ([1016/17]-London 19 Apr 1057, bur London St Paul's). Maybe twin with his brother Edmund or, as noted above, born posthumously. He is the first prince in the Wessex royal family to have been named after his father, which suggests that he may have been born posthumously which could have justified this departure from the normal naming practice. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Canute "banished [him] into Hungary … [where] he grew up to be a good man"[1902]. Orderic Vitalis names "Edward et Edmund" as the two sons of king Edmund II, specifying that King Canute sent them to Denmark to be killed but that his brother "Suenon [error for Harald] roi de Danemark" sent them "comme ses neveux en otage au roi des Huns" where Edward "épousa la fille du roi et regna sur les Huns"[1903]. Florence of Worcester specifies that the infants were first "sent to the king of the Swedes to be killed [but the latter] sent them to Solomon King of Hungary to spare their lives and have them brought up at his court"[1904]. According to Adam of Bremen, the two brothers were "condemned to exile in Russia"[1905]. Geoffrey Gaimar (in an altogether confusing account) names "Li uns�gar…li alters�lret" as the children of King Edmund, recounting that they were sent first to Denmark and later to "Russie [Susie], e vint en terre de Hungrie"[1906]. Edward´s life in exile is discussed in detail by Ronay[1907]. Humphreys infers from the chronicles of Gaimar, Adam of Bremen and Roger of Hoveden that Edward spent some time at the court of Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev[1908]. Assuming he was in exile in Hungary from childhood, he may have left for Kiev in 1037 with András Prince of Hungary who fled Hungary after the 1037 disgrace of his father, although this is unlikely for the reasons explained above in relation to his brother Edmund. If this is correct, he would have returned with András in [1046/47] when the latter succeeded as András I King of Hungary after King Péter Orseolo was deposed. Aldred Bishop of Worcester, ambassador of King Edward "the Confessor", "proposed to the emperor to send envoys to Hungary to bring back Edward and have him conducted to England"[1909], according to Florence of Worcester to be groomed to succeed to the English throne[1910]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Edward died "at London soon after his arrival"[1911] before meeting his uncle the king and also states his burial place[1912]. m (Kiev[1913] [1040/45]%29 AGATHA, daughter of --- ([1025/35]-). Agatha is named as the wife of Edward in many sources[1914], but her origin has been the subject of lively debate for years. The early 12th century chronicles are contradictory. The assertion by Orderic Vitalis that she was "daughter of Solomon King of the Magyars"[1915] can be dismissed as impossible chronologically. One group of chroniclers suggest a German origin, saying that she was "the daughter of the brother of the Emperor Henry". This includes John of Worcester ("filia germani imperatoris henrici"[1916], in a passage which Humphreys speculates was written some time between 1120 and 1131 although possibly based on the earlier work of Marianus Scotus), Florence of Worcester ("daughter of the brother of Emperor Henry"[1917]), the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ("the emperor's kinswoman"[1918] and, in relation to her daughter Margaret, "descended from the emperor Henry who had dominion over Rome"[1919]). Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edwardo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "filiam germani sui Henrici imperatoris𠉪gatha"[1920]. Matthew of Paris calls Agatha "soror Henrici imperatoris Romani" when recounting the ancestry of Henry II King of England[1921]. A second group of chroniclers propose a Russian origin, suggesting that Agatha belonged to the family of Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev. For William of Malmesbury, she was "sister of the [Hungarian] queen", which from a chronological point of view could only refer to Anastasia Iaroslavna, wife of King András I. In a 13th century interpolation in one copy of the Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ (written in [1130]%29 she was "ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum"[1922]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agatham regine Hunorem sororem"[1923], the Hungarian Magyars frequently, though incorrectly, being referred to as "Huns" in many other sources. Lastly, Roger of Wendover records that "Eadwardus" married "reginæ Hungariæ sororem𠉪gatham"[1924]. In considering the German origin theory, the uterine half-brothers ("germani") of Emperor Heinrich III provide a likely candidate. These half-brothers were Liudolf von Braunschweig, Markgraf in Friesland (son of Gisela of Swabia, mother of Emperor Heinrich III, by her first marriage with Bruno Graf [von Braunschweig]), and Ernst von Babenberg Duke of Swabia and his younger brother Hermann IV Duke of Swabia (sons of Gisela by her second marriage). The latter, the Babenberg brothers, born in [1014/16], were both too young to have been Agatha's father so can be dismissed. Liudolf von Braunschweig was first proposed as Agatha's father in 1933[1925], and has been the preferred candidate for many historians since then[1926]. His birth date is estimated at [1003/05] (see BRUNSWICK) which is consistent with his having been Agatha's father. The marriage taking place in Kiev would not exclude a German origin, as contacts were reported between Kiev and the imperial court in 1040[1927], when Russia was aiming to create a tripartite alliance with England and Germany to weaken Denmark, and also in 1043[1928], when the situation required review following the accession of King Edward "the Confessor" in England. The major drawback to the German origin theory is the total absence of onomastic connections between the Braunschweig family and the descendants of Edward and Agatha, although this is not of course conclusive to prove or disprove the hypothesis. The Russian origin theory has also found considerable academic support[1929]. Edmund must have had contact with the Russian royal family during his period in Kiev, assuming it is correct, as suggested above, that he spent time there during his exile. There are numerous onomastic connections between the the extended family of Grand Prince Iaroslav and the descendants of Edward and Agatha. For example, the names of Edward and Agatha's own daughters, Margaret and Christina, were both used in the Swedish royal family, to which Grand Prince Iaroslav's wife belonged. In the next generation, among Queen Margaret's own children, the name David is one which seems only to have been used in the Kiev ruling family among all contemporary European royal dynasties. The major problem with the Russian origin theory is the complete failure to explain the source references to Agatha's family relationship with the emperor, which it is unwise to dismiss as completely meaningless. It is of course possible that neither of these theories is correct, and that Agatha belonged to a minor German, Russian or Hungarian noble family the importance of whose family connections were exaggerated in the sources. Edward's relationship to the kings of England may, at the time of his marriage, have seemed remote and unimportant in eastern Europe, especially as England was ruled by Danish kings whose position must then have seemed secure. He may not have provided a sufficiently attractive marriage prospect for a prominent European princess. In conclusion, therefore, there is no satisfactory way of deciding between each of the competing theories concerning Agatha's origin and it appears best to classify it as "unknown". It is unlikely that the mystery of Agatha's origin will ever be solved to the satisfaction of all. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, after the Norman conquest, Agatha left England with her children in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1930]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1931]. According to Weir, in old age, possibly after the death of her daughter Queen Margaret, she became a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne[1932], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. Edward & his wife had three children:

a) MARGARET ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][1933], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin, as discussed above. Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1934]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1935]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[1936]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret𠉭ied of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[1937]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[1938]. m (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) as his second wife, MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, son of DUNCAN I King of Scotland & his wife Sibylla of Northumbria (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid).

b) CHRISTINA ([in Hungary] [1050/53]-after 1090). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that she left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1939]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1940]. Florence of Worcester records that "clito Eadgarus…germana Christina" entered Romsey abbey as a nun in [1086][1941]. Eadmer of Canterbury (writing [1093]-[1122]%29 comments about the religious life of Christina and her strict control in the 1090s over her niece Edith, who later married to Henry I King of England[1942].

c) EDGAR ætheling ([1053/55]-after 1126). After King Harold II's defeat at Hastings 14 Oct 1066, Ealdred Archbishop of York, Earls Edwin and Morcar, and the citizens of London supported Edgar as successor to King Harold II[1943]. However, his support quickly collapsed and he swore allegiance to King William "the Conqueror" at Berkhamsted, before the latter made his way to London. Florence of Worcester records that "clitonem Edgarum" went with King William to Normandy 21 Feb [1067][1944]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Edgar left England with his mother and sisters in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1945]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1946]. He marched on York in 1069. He left for Flanders in exile, but returned to Scotland 8 Jul 1074. Florence of Worcester records that "clito Eadgarus" left Scotland for England in [1073], and went to Normandy where he made peace with King William[1947]. Florence of Worcester records that "clito Eadgarus" went to Apulia with 200 knights in [1086][1948]. Florence of Worcester records that Edgar lived in Scotland after being expelled from Normandy by King William I, but was invited back to England by Robert Comte de Mortain in 1091 in order to negotiate peace between Malcolm King of Scotland and King William II after King Malcolm invaded Northumberland[1949]. He led the army sent by King William II to Scotland in 1097 to expel King Duncan II and install his nephew Edgar as king[1950]. "�gari aederling…" subscribed the charter dated 30 Aug 1095 under which "Edgarus filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi"[1951]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[1952]. Forces under his command captured Latakia in Mar 1098 before handing it to Robert III Duke of Normandy, according to Orderic Vitalis who calls Edgar "indolent"[1953]. He supported Robert Duke of Normandy in his fight with his brother Henry I King of England in 1106, and was taken prisoner by the king at the battle of Tinchebrai but released soon after. The primary source which records that he was still alive in 1126 has not yet been identified. [Mistress (1): ---. No record has been found that Edgar ætheling ever married. However, the 1157 Pipe Roll entry quoted below suggests that he may have had descendants. If this is correct, it is probable that it was an illegitimate line as there is no record of their having claimed the throne. [Edgar had one [illegitimate] child by Mistress (1)]:

i) [---. This descent is completely speculative. However, the most obvious explanation for the 1157 Pipe Roll entry quoted below is that Edgar ætheling left descendants, presumably through an illegitimate child as there is no record of their having claimed the throne. m ---.] One child:

(a) [EDGAR "Ætheling" . The 1157 Pipe Roll records "Edgar Ætheling" in Northumberland[1954]. If his descent from Edgar ætheling is correct, it would be consistent from a chronological point of view if Edgar was the senior Edgar´s grandson.] Edmund was the: Second husband of Ealdgyth, widow of Sigefreth:

a) SIGEFERTH (-murdered Oxford summer 1015). Simeon of Durham records that "Sigeferth and Morkar the sons of Earngrim" were killed in 1015 on the orders of "duke Edric Streona" and that the king took possession of their estates[715]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made a bequest to "Sigeferth, an estate at Hockliffe"[716]. With his brother, he was one of the leading thegns of the northern Danelaw. He was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia[717].

m as her first husband, ÆLDGYTH, daughter of ---. After her husband was killed, she was arrested, but abducted against the wishes of King Æthelred II by his son Edmund, later Edmund "Ironsides" King of England, whom she married as her second husband. Simeon of Durham records that Edmund married "Algitha widow of Sigeferth" in 1015[718].

b) MORCAR (-murdered Oxford summer 1015). King Æthelred II granted land in Derbyshire to "Morcar minister" under a charter dated 1009[719]. With his brother, a leading thegn of the northern Danelaw. Simeon of Durham records that "Sigeferth and Morkar the sons of Earngrim" were killed in 1015 on the orders of "duke Edric Streona" and that the king took possession of their estates[720]. m EALDGYTH, daughter of ÆLFTHRYTH & his wife ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. Morcar & his wife had one child:

i) ÆLFGIFU. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. m as his first wife, ÆLFGAR Earl of Mercia, son of LEOFRIC Earl of Mercia & his wife Godgifu --- (-1062).

Edmund Ironside or Eadmund (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016), surnamed "Ironside" for his efforts to fend off the Danish invasion led by King Canute, was King of England from 23 April to 30 November 1016.

Family Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred II (also known as Ethelred the Unready) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of Northumbria. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ældgyth, from the nunnery where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Canute the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Canute, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Royal and military history Æthelred II, who had earlier been stricken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Canute. However, on 18 October Canute decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Canute held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should perish, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.

Death On 30 November 1016, King Edmund II died in Oxford or London and his territories were ceded to Canute who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes, while others suggest that he was assassinated Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown.

Heirs Edmund had two children by Ældgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Canute the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary. Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Canute, His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Canute, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

for more info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Cnut. His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy. Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ealdgyth, from Malmesbury Abbey where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Royal and military history

Æthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. However, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.[1]

On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London and his territories were ceded to Cnut who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown.

Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Cnut the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary.

Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Cnut. His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ealdgyth, from Malmesbury Abbey where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Royal and military history

Æthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. However, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.[1]

On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London and his territories were ceded to Cnut who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown.

Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Cnut the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary.

Edmund Ironside is also the name of an anonymous play in the Shakespeare Apocrypha, which has been attributed to Shakespeare on stylistic grounds.[4] Plays in the Shakespeare Apocrypha are not generally accepted as Shakespearean.[5]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England (1) M, #102185, b. between 988 and 993, d. 30 November 1016 Last Edited=5 Apr 2007 Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England was born between 988 and 993. (1) He was the son of Æthelred II 'the Unready', King of England and Ælgifu (?). (3) He married Ealdgyth (?) circa August 1015 at Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England. (1) He died on 30 November 1016 at Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, murdered. (4) He was buried at Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Somerset, England. (4)

Children of Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England and Ealdgyth (?) -1. Edward 'Atheling' (?)+ b. c 1016, d. 1057 (3) -2. Edmund (?) b. bt 1016 - 1017 (3)

Forrás: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102185 27th great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II Edmund II Ironside, King of England 1016 Regjeringstid: 23. april 1016�. november 1016 Fྍt: Ca. 989, Wessex Dྍ: 30. november 1016, - Foreldre: Ethelred II og Aelgifu Ektefelle‍(r): Ealdgyth Barn: Edward Aetheling, Edmund

Edmund II «Ironside» (fྍt ca. 989, dྍ 30. november 1016) var konge av England fra 23. april 1016 fram til sin dྍ et drøyt halvår senere. Han var sønn av Ethelred den r๝ville og Aelgifu av Northampton. Edvard Bekjenneren var hans halvbror. Han fikk tilnavnet «Ironside» («jernside») på grunn av sine militære bragder.

I 1015 giftet Edmund seg med Ealdgyth. Etter farens dྍ ble Edmund valgt til konge av befolkningen i London. Hans rival, Knut den store, hadde større støtte enn ham i resten av landet.

Han hadde to barn som er kjent for ettertiden:

Edvard Aetheling (1016�) Edmund (fྍt ca. 1017) Edmund ble slått av danene, men fikk lov av Knut den store til å beholde Wessex, mot at det var klart at den av dem som overlevde den andre skulle regjere over hele England. Kort tid etter at denne avtalen ble inngått d Edmund, og det antas at han ble myrdet. Ifølge tradisjonen ble han drept ved at en rྍglnde ildraker ble stukket opp i tarmene mens han satt på toalettet.

Han ble gravlagt i Glastonbury Abbey.

King Edmund II "Ironside" of England - was born about 0988, lived in Wessex, England and died in 1016 in Ross-on-Wye . He was the son of King Ethelred II "The Unready" of England and Queen Alfgifu of England. King Edmund married Queen Ealdgyth of England about Aug 1015 while living in London, Middlesex, England. Queen Ealdgyth was born about 0986, lived in Wessex, England. She is the daughter of Morcar of England and Edgitha of England.

King Edmund - Edmund was King of England for only a few months. After the death of his father, Æthelred II, in April 1016, Edmund led the defense of the city of London against the invading Knut Sveinsson (Canute), and was proclaimed king by the Londoners. Meanwhile, the Witan (Council), meeting at Southampton, chose Canute as King. After a series of inconclusive military engagements, in which Edmund performed brilliantly and earned the nickname "Ironside", he defeated the Danish forces at Oxford, Kent, but was routed by Canute's forces at Ashingdon, Essex. A subsequent peace agreement was made, with Edmund controlling Wessex and Canute controlling Mercia and Northumbria. It was also agreed that whoever survived the other would take control of the whole realm. Unfortunately for Edmund, he died in November, 1016, transferring the Kingship of All England completely to Canute.

Legend tells that Ross-on-Wye, England is the place where the Saxon king Edmund Ii died from traitors' wounds in 1016. Edmund is better known as Edmund 'Ironside', for his fierce defence of England against the huge invading army of the Danish king Canute. England was divided between the warring kings - Edmund held the west and Wessex while Canute ruled in the north and east. The story goes that one of Edmund's servants plotted to murder him for the reward that Canute might give. The servant secretly positioned a sharpened stake in the king's latrine at Minsterworth in Gloucestershire as Edmund lowered himself to use his toilet, the servant withdrew the candle and Edmund was impaled. The king was rushed from Minsterworth but died at Ross, probably on his way to a monastery near by in search of a cure. The servant soon presented himself at canute's court and claimed the murder as his Canute had him hanged, so legend tells, from the highest oak that he could find. Children: (Quick Family Chart) i. Prince Edward "Atheling" of England was born in 1016 in Wessex, England and died in 1057 in London, Middlesex, England . See #6. below.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Canute, His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Canute, who became "king of all England" upon Edmunds death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

Edmund was the second son of King Ethelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy. Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmundqzqs allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferthqzqs widow, Ealdgyth, from Malmesbury Abbey where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Canute the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Canute, Edmund was reconciled with his father. [edit]Royal and military history

Æthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Canute. However, on 18 October Canute decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Canute held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.[1] [edit]Death On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London and his territories were ceded to Canute who then became king of England. The cause of Edmundqzqs death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown. [edit]Heirs

Edmund had two children by Ældgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Canute the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary. [edit]Shakespearean play?

Edmund Ironside is also the name of an anonymous play in the Shakespeare Apocrypha, which has been attributed to Shakespeare on stylistic grounds.[4] Plays in the Shakespeare Apocrypha are not generally accepted as Shakespearean. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (Old English: Eadmund) (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Viking invasion led by Cnut the Great. His authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death.

Contents [hide] 1 Family 2 Royal and military history 2.1 Death 3 Heirs 4 Shakespearean play? 5 See also 6 Sources 7 References

[edit] Family Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder Æthelstan, and the younger two Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow Ealdgyth from Malmesbury Abbey, where she had been imprisoned, and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

[edit] Royal and military history

Arms of Edmund Ironside, as imagined by Matthew Paris in the first half of the 13th centuryÆthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him, he fought them to a standstill. He raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. But, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle, the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.[1]

[edit] Death On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London. His territories were ceded to Cnut, who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated by being stabbed 'up the bottom' with a dagger by a viking.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed. The location of his body is unknown.

[edit] Heirs Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund. Cnut the Great ordered them both sent to Sweden, to be murdered, but they were sent on to Kiev and ended up in Hungary.

18th-century portrait of EdmundEdmund Ironside is the name of an anonymous play in the Shakespeare Apocrypha, which has been attributed to Shakespeare on stylistic grounds.[4] Plays in the Shakespeare Apocrypha are not generally accepted as Shakespearean.[5]

[edit] See also House of Wessex family tree [edit] Sources Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Clemoes, Peter. The Anglo-Saxons: Studies Presented to Bruce Dickins, 1959 The History Channel - England history to 1485 [edit] References 1.^ Outline of the reign of Edmund II 'Ironside' 2.^ Encyclopedia Britannica entry on Edmund II 3.^ Sharon Turner, The History of the Anglo-Saxons from the Earliest Period to the Norman Conquest 4.^ Eric Sams. (1986). Shakespeare's "Edmund Ironside": The Lost Play. Wildwood Ho. ISBN 0-7045-0547-9 5.^ Two Tough Nuts to Crack: Did Shakespeare Write the Shakespeare Portions of Sir Thomas More and Edward III? By Ward E. Y. Elliott and Robert J. Valenza, Claremont McKenna College. Preceded by Æthelred the Unready King of the English 1016 Succeeded by Cnut the Great [hide]v • d • eEnglish monarchs

Kingdom of the English 886� Alfred the Great · Edward the Elder · Ælfweard · Athelstan the Glorious1 · Edmund the Magnificent1 · Eadred1 · Eadwig the Fair1 · Edgar the Peaceable1 · Edward the Martyr · Æthelred the Unready · Sweyn Forkbeard · Edmund Ironside · Cnut1 · Harold Harefoot · Harthacnut · Edward the Confessor · Harold Godwinson · Edgar the Ætheling

Kingdom of England 1066� William I · William II · Henry I · Stephen · Matilda · Henry II2 · Henry the Young King · Richard I · John2 · Henry III2 · Edward I2 · Edward II2 · Edward III2 · Richard II2 · Henry IV2 · Henry V2 · Henry VI2 · Edward IV2 · Edward V2 · Richard III2 · Henry VII2 · Henry VIII2 · Edward VI2 · Jane2 · Mary I2 with Philip2 · Elizabeth I2 · James I3 · Charles I3

Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland 1653� Oliver Cromwell4 · Richard Cromwell4

Kingdom of England 1660� Charles II3 · James II3 · William III and Mary II3 · Anne3

1Overlord of Britain. 2Also ruler of Ireland. 3Also ruler of Scotland. 4Lord Protector. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

Betrayed by ealdorman Edric when Canute invaded England, Edmund struggled unsuccessfully to reunite the country. Finally a division was arranged whereby Canute took the north and Edmund the south. He reigned only from his father's death 04-23-1016 to his own death (possibly by foul play) 11-30-1016. His wife, Ealgyth, was widow of Sigeferth, son of Earngrim.

Murdered by Edric Streon, Earl of Mercia, husband of Edgyth, daughter of Ethelred II the Unready

His two older brothers died before his father, so he was elected king by the Witan and crowned in London. He was known as "Ironside" for his courage. He devoted his short reign to defending his inheritence against the ravages of the Viking, Cnut. In this he was severly hampered by the ignoble behavior of one of his father's favorites, Edric Streona, "Grasper". On one battlefield Edric mounted a hill and held up a severed head, saying it was Edmund's. The King removed his helmet to show himself alive, and then violently hurled his spear at Edric, which, glancing off The son of King Ethelred II the Unready (reigned 978-1016), Edmund defied his father's orders by marrying (1015) the widow of one of the Danish lords then occupying English territory. Nevertheless, when Canute invaded England later in 1015, Edmund raised an army in northern England and ravaged regions that would not rally to his cause.

Upon Ethelred's death (April 1016), a small number of councillors and citizens of London proclaimed Edmund as their ruler, but a larger body of nobles at Southampton declared for Canute. Edmund then launched a series of offensives against his rival. He recovered Wessex and relieved London of a siege before being decisively defeated by Canute at Ashington, Essex, on October 18. In the ensuing peace settlement, Edmund retained Wessex, while Canute held the lands north of the River Thames. After Edmund died (probably of natural causes), Canute became sole ruler of England.

Edric's shield, pierced two soldiers standing beside him. Defeat at the Battle of Ashington, Essex, forced him to make terms with Cnut and they agreed to divide the kingdom between them, Cnut taking the north and Edmund the south. He was treasonably slain a few days later. He had gone to the outhouse in the middle of the night, where Edric's son, on his father's orders, had concealed himself in the pit. He stabbed the King twice from beneath, with a sharp dagger, and, leaving the weapon fixed in his bowels, made his escape. Thus the King perished after a reign of one year, and he was buried at Glastenbury, near his Grandfather Edgar. Edric then presented himself to Cnut, and saluted him , and said, "Hail, thou who art sole King of England!" and explained to him what had taken place. Cnut replied, "For this deed I will exalt you, as it merits, higher than all the nobles of England!" He then commanded that Edric should be beheaded and his head placed upon a pole on the highest battlement of the Tower of London.

Edmund was the second son of Athelred (II) and became the heir to the throne after the eldest son, Athelstan, fell in battle some time in 1014. Edmund had already done his share of fighting, and had proved himself valiant, but once the heir he became even more determined. Angered at the weakness of his father, who had already been expelled from England by Swein in 1013, only to return a few months later promising to rule strongly and wisely, Edmund carved out his own plan to recover England. There was some respite during 1014 when Cnut left England to gain the throne of Denmark, though Athelred used that time to exact retribution from those he believed had betrayed him. One of these was Sigeferth, a thane of East Anglia, who had been amongst the first to submit to Swein when he landed at Gainsborough in August 1013. Sigeferth was executed and his widow, Edith, imprisoned at Malmesbury. Edmund rescued Edith and married her. This action gained the support of the Danelaw of Mercia and the north, but divided Britain, with Athelred retaining support in the south. When Canute returned to England in September 10 15 only Edmund's army was prepared. Athelred's men would not fight unless led by the king but he was seldom available (he was increasingly ill) and his own ealdormen were always on the verge of desertion. Athelred died in April 1016 and Edmund was promptly declared king. There was no time for celebrations. Edmund and Canute's armies clashed at five major battles during the year. The outcome was rarely decisive, both sides claiming victory. Edmund succeeded in holding London against Canute's siege and he probably would have defeated the Danes at Sherstone had not one of his ealdormen (the ever-traitorous Eadric of Shropshire) tricked the Saxons into believing Edmund was dead. Canute defeated Edmund at Ashingdon, in Essex, on 18 October, but by this time both sides were battle-wear-y. One further engagement was fought near Deerhurst in Gloucester, at which point both parties agreed to negotiate. At the Treaty of Olney, signed at the end of October, Canute was granted Mercia and Northumbria, and Edmund remained in Wessex. Edmund returned to London. He had been seriously wounded at Ashingdon, and his continued fighting had not improved his health. Nevertheless his death, just one month later, still shocked the Saxon nation. There was talk of murder and the weight of evidence supports this. Later rumours of a particularly nasty disembowelling whilst on the privy have never been disproved. With his death Canute soon convinced the English to accept him as king. Edmund's sons were despatched from England, and other young Saxon princes were transferred to places of safety. Only one of them, Edmund's son Edward (the father of Edgar Atheling), would return.

Edmund Ironside From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Edmund Ironside or Eadmund (c. 988/993 – November 30, 1016), surnamed "Ironside" for his efforts to fend off the Danish invasion led by King Canute, was King of England from April 23 to November 30, 1016.

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred II (also known as Ethelred the Unready) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of Northumbria. He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan, and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy. Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ældgyth, from the nunnery where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Canute the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Canute, Edmund was reconciled with his father. [edit]Royal and military history

Æthelred II, who had earlier been stricken ill, died on April 23, 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Canute. However, on October 18 Canute decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Canute held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should perish, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living. [edit]Death On November 30, 1016, King Edmund II died in Oxford or London, either of illness or when he was stabbed by a soldier hiding inside a latrine[citation needed], and his territories were ceded to Canute who then became king of England. Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown. [edit]Heirs

Edmund had two children by Ældgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Canute the Great to Sweden, in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev, ending up in Hungary. [edit]Shakespearean play?

Edmund Ironside is also the name of an anonymous play in the Shakespeare Apocrypha, which has been attributed to Shakespeare on stylistic grounds.[1] Plays in the Shakespeare Apocrypha are not generally accepted as Shakespearean.[2] [edit]See also

House of Wessex family tree [edit]Sources

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Clemoes, Peter. The Anglo-Saxons: Studies Presented to Bruce Dickins, 1959 [edit]References

^ Eric Sams. (1986). Shakespeare's "Edmund Ironside": The Lost Play. Wildwood Ho. ISBN 0-7045-0547-9 ^ Two Tough Nuts to Crack: Did Shakespeare Write the Shakespeare Portions of Sir Thomas More and Edward III? By Ward E. Y. Elliott and Robert J. Valenza, Claremont McKenna College.

Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (Old English: Eadmund) (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Viking invasion led by Cnut the Great. His authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of the River Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death.

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder Æthelstan, and the younger two Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow Ealdgyth from Malmesbury Abbey, where she had been imprisoned, and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Arms of Edmund Ironside, as imagined by Matthew Paris in the first half of the 13th centuryÆthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him, he fought them to a standstill. He raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. But, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle, the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.

On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London. His territories were ceded to Cnut, who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes, while others suggest that he was assassinated by being stabbed 'up the bottom' with a dagger by a Viking. Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed. The location of his body is unknown.

Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund. Cnut the Great ordered them both sent to Sweden, to be murdered, but they were sent on to Kiev and ended up in Hungary.

Family Ealdgyth Children Edward 'Atheling'+ b. c 1016, d. 10573 Edmund b. bt 1016 - 10173

Citations [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 26. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family. [S130] Wikipedia, online www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia. [S52] G. S. P. Freeman-Grencville, The Queen's Lineage: from A.D. 495 to the Silver Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (London , U.K.: Rex Collings, 1977), page 6. Hereinafter cited as The Queen's Lineage. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 29. [S58] E. B. Fryde, D. E. Greenway, S. Porter and I. Roy, editors, Handbook of British Chronology, 3rd edition (London, U.K.: Royal Historical Society, 1986), page 28. Hereinafter cited as Handbook of British Chronology. [S1] S&N Genealogy Supplies, S&N Peerage CD., CD-ROM (Chilmark, Salisbury, U.K.: S&N Genealogy Supplies, no date (c. 1999)). Hereinafter cited as S&N Peerage CD.

Buried by his grandfather, King Edgar. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Canute, His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Canute, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

REF: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Ironside#Shakespearean_play.3F Acceded APR 1016 St Paul's Cathedral, London Note: Edmund Ironside 1016

Born: c 989. Titles: King of the English, Crowned: Old St Paul's Cathedral, April 1016. Ruled: April - November 1016 for 6 months. Married: August 1015, Edith, widow of Sigeferth, of East Anglia: 2 children. Died: (Murdered): London, 30 November 1016, aged 27. Buried: Glastonbury Abbey.

Edmund was the second son of Athelred (II) and became the heir to the throne after the eldest son, Athelstan, fell in battle some time in 1014. Edmund had already done his share of fighting, and had proved himself valiant, but once the heir he became even more determined. Angered at the weakness of his father, who had already been expelled from England by Swein in 1013, only to return a few months later promising to rule strongly and wisely, Edmund carved out his own plan to recover England. There was some respite during 1014 when Canute left England to gain the throne of Denmark, though Athelred used that time to exact retribution from those he believed had betrayed him. One of these was Sigeferth, a thane of East Anglia, who had been amongst the first to submit to Swein when he landed at Gainsborough in August 1013. Sigeferth was executed and his widow, Edith, imprisoned at Malmesbury. Edmund rescued Edith and married her. This action gained the support of the Danelaw of Mercia and the north, but divided Britain, with Athelred retaining support in the south. When Canute returned to England in September 1015 only Edmund's army was prepared. Athelred's men would not fight unless led by the king but he was seldom available (he was increasingly ill) and his own ealdormen were always on the verge of desertion. Athelred died in April 1016 and Edmund was promptly declared king . There was no time for celebrations. Edmund and Canute's armies clashed at five major battles during the year. The outcome was rarely decisive, both sides claiming victory. Edmund succeeded in holding London against Canute's siege and he probably would have defeated the Danes at Sherstone had not one of his ealdormen (the ever-traitorous Eadric of Shropshire) tricked the Saxons into believing Edmund was dead. Canute defeated Edmund at Ashingdon, in Essex, on 18 October, but by this time both sides were battle-weary. One further engagement was fought near Deerhurst in Gloucester, at which point both parties agreed to negotiate. At the Treaty of Olney, signed at the end of October, Canute was granted Mercia and Northumbria, and Edmund remained in Wessex. Edmund returned to London. He had been seriously wounded at Ashingdon, and his continued fighting had not improved his health. Nevertheless his death, just one month later, still shocked the Saxon nation. There was talk of murder and the weight of evidence supports this. Later rumours of a particularly nasty disembowelling whilst on the privy have never been disproved. With his death Canute soon convinced the English to accept him as king. Edmund's sons were despatched from England, and other young Saxon princes were transferred to places of safety. Only one of them, Edmund's son Edward (the father of Edgar Atheling), would return.

Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (Old English: Eadmund) (c. 988/993 – 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Viking invasion led by Cnut the Great. His authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames. The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death.

Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York. He had three brothers, the elder Æthelstan, and the younger two Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy.

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow Ealdgyth from Malmesbury Abbey, where she had been imprisoned, and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria, but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Æthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him, he fought them to a standstill. He raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. But, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex. After the battle, the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames. In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.

On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London. His territories were ceded to Cnut, who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated by being stabbed 'up the bottom' with a dagger by a viking.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed. The location of his body is unknown.

Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund. Cnut the Great ordered them both sent to Sweden, to be murdered, but they were sent on to Kiev and ended up in Hungary.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_II_of_England Name: King Edmund II lronside Born: c.990 Parents: Ethelred II and Elfleda Relation to Elizabeth II: 27th great-grandfather House of: Wessex Ascended to the throne: April 23, 1016 Crowned: 25 April, 1016 at Old St Paul's Cathedral, aged c.26 Married: Ealdgyth Children: 2 sons Died: November 30, 1016 at London Buried at: Glastonbury Reigned for: 7 months, and 7 days Succeeded by: by Canute son of Sweyn who claimed the throne by conquest

King of England in 1016, the son of Ethelred II 'the Unready' . He led the resistance to Canute's invasion in 1015, and on Ethelred's death in 1016 was chosen king by the citizens of London. Meanwhile, the Witan (the king's council) elected Canute. In the struggle for the throne, Canute defeated Edmund at Ashingdon (or Assandun), and they divided the kingdom between them with Canute ruling the North and Edmund ruling the South. When Edmund died (probably assassinated) the same year, Canute ruled the whole kingdom.

Timeline for King Edmund II lronside Historical Timeline 800 - Present

Reigned as King of England 23 Apr to 30 Nov 1016.

1 - surnamed Ironside, on account of his strength, or perhaps from the armour he wore, was the son of Ethelred II., whom he succeeded in 1016 but being opposed by Canute , he agreed to share the crown with him. London was twice besieged by the Danes in his reign, and many battles were fought, Edmund being finally defeated at Assandune. After a reign of nine months only, he is said to have been treacherously murdered in 1017.

2 - Edrnund grew up during a period when England's fortunes were at a low ebb because of repeated Viking incursions. Perceptive even in his youth, Edmund recognised the flaws in his father's policy of buying off the Vikings, and as a prince encouraged the country to stand up against them. His valour earned him the epithet Ironside'. Even before the death of his father, Edmund had made himself ruler in Danelaw. However, his efforts to oppose the invasion ofWessex by his rival, Canute, in late 1015 were undermined by the treachery of Earldorman Edric of Mercia, and in the following year Edmund was unable to hold Northumbria against Canute. When Ethelred died in 1016, London and the Witan members there chose Edmund as king, but the Witan in Southampton opted for Canute. At Olney, Edmund and Canute agreed to partition England, though the longer lived would succeed to the whole. However, a few weeks later Edmund died after a reign of only seven months and his infant sons fled Canute's rule to settle in Hungary.

3 - He fought in the Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, where he was defeated by Cnut. Due to King Ethelred having been so inept, Cnut was accepted as King by a large section of the country after Ethelred's death. Cnut ruled most of the country North of the Thames whilst Edmund was accepted in the South. Cnut laid siege to London and wished to control it with his fleet but his ships could not pass London Bridge, so he had a cutting made on the South side of the bridge and passed his ships around it. Edmund marched on London through the woods at Tottenham and a fierce battle ensued. Cnut withdrew and fought Edmund at Ashington (Assandun) in Essex but this time Edmund was beaten. Cnut was wise and knew that Edmund was popular so he met him on an island in the Severn near Deerhurst and it was agreed that Edmund should rule Wessex and Canute would rule the land North of the Thames, including London. [ http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102185 ] (Medical):See attached sources. [1]

Sources [S819] The Royal Line of Succession (1952), Montague-Smith, Patrick W., (London: Pitkins, [1952]), FHL book 942 A1 no. 779 FHL microfiche 6026074., p. 7.

[S95] The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History, 1099-1125 (2000), Murray, Alan V., (Oxford, England: Unit for prosopographical research, Linacre College, 2000), FHL book 956.944/J1 H2m., Gen table 3.

[S283] #2 Der Europäischen käyser- und königlichen Häuser historische und genealogische Erläuterung (1730-1731), Lohmeier, Georg von, und Johann Ludwig Levin Gebhardi, (3 volumes in 1. Luneburg: Sternischen Buchdruckerei, 1730-1731), FHL microfilm 1,051,694, items 4-6., pt 1 p. 96, 97, 100-101, 128-129.

[S285] Edward the Confessor (1970), Barlow, Frank, (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1970), JWML book DA154.8 B297., Gen Tables.

[S1850] Medieval Lands: A Prosopography of Medieval European Noble and Royal Families, Charles Cawley, (http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/), England, Anglo-Saxon & Danish Kings [accessed 28 Jun 2006].

[S820] From Domesday Book to Magna Carta 1087-1216 (1955), Poole, Austin Lane, (Oxford History of England, volume 3. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1955), JWML book DA175 P6 1955 FHL microfilm 874,262 ite., p. 115.

[S37] #93 [Book version] The Dictionary of National Biography: from the Earliest Times to 1900 (1885-1900, reprint 1993), Stephen, Leslie, (22 volumes. 1885-1900. Reprint, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1993), FHL book 920.042 D561n., vol. 1 6 p. 403-405.

[S68] #673 The New England Historical and Genealogical Register (1846-), (Boston, Massachusetts: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1846-), FHL book 974 B2ne CD-ROM No 33 Parts 1-9 See FHL., vol. 150 p. 418, 427.

[S635] #23 Genealogies of European Families from Charlemagne to the Present Date, August 1957, Paget, Gerald, (Manuscript, filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1957), FHL microfilms 170,050-170,062., Normandy.

[S25] #798 The Wallop Family and Their Ancestry, Watney, Vernon James, (4 volumes. Oxford: John Johnson, 1928), FHL book Q 929.242 W159w FHL microfilm 1696491 it., vol. 3 p. 691.

[S821] #361 Ahnentafel Rﲾl-Blass (1939), Rﲾl, Eduard, (4 volumes. Zürich: Schulthess, 1939.), FHL book 929.2494 R822r FHL microfilm 491,158., table 257.

[S23] #849 Burke's Guide to the Royal Family (1973), (London: Burke's Peerage, c1973), FHl book 942 D22bgr., p. 190.

[S817] #391 Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings and Nobles, the Succession of the Bishops and the Pedigrees of the Kings and Nobles (1899), Searle, William George, (Cambridge: University Press, 1899), FHL microfilm 547,168 item 2., p. 350.

[S5] #552 Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten. Neue Folge (1978), Schwennicke, Detlev, (Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, c1978-1995 (v. 1-16) -- Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, c1998- Medieval Families bibliography #552.), FHL book Q 940 D5es new series., vol. 2 table 79.

[S851] #10351 Historiæ Normannorvm Scriptores Antiqvi: Res Ab Illis per Galliam, Angliam, Apvliam, Capvæ Principatvm, Siciliam, & Orientem Gestas Explicantes, Ab Anno Christi DCCCXXXVIII. ad Annvm MCCXX / Insertæ Svnt Monasteriorvm Fvndationes Variæ. Duchesne, André, (Colophon: Lvtetiæ Parisiorvm, 1619), JWML book DC611.N842 D9., p. 163-164, 178, 206, 213, 252-253, 271, 492, 660, 1087.

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Edmund Ironside or Edmund II, was King of England from 23 April to 18 October 1016 and of Wessex from 23 April to 30 November 1016.

His cognomen "Ironside" is not recorded until 1057, but may have been contemporary. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, it was given to him "because of his valour" in resisting the Danish invasion led by Cnut the Great. He fought five battles against the Danes, ending in defeat against Cnut on 18 October at the Battle of Assandun, after which they agreed to divide the kingdom, Edmund taking Wessex and Cnut the rest of the country. Edmund died shortly afterwards on 30 November, and Cnut became the king of all England. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Ironside Edmund II "Ironside"

Son of Æthelred Unr๭ and Ælfleth Married: Ealdgyth (NOT daughter of Morcar, she was Sigeferth's widow - Sigeferth being Morcar's brother)

EADMUND, son of ÆTHELRED II King of England & his first wife Ælfl๭ ([990]-30 Nov 1016, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset[1871]). Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1872]. Roger of Wendover records the birth in 981 of "rex Ethelredus𠉯ilium�mundum"[1873], but this date is probably inaccurate if it is correct (as shown above) that Eadmund was his father´s third son, given King Æthelred´s birth in [966]. "Eadmundus filius regis/clito/ætheling" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 993 and 1015, the last dated 1015 being signed "Eadmund regie indolis soboles"[1874]. His name was listed after his brother Ecgberht, before the latter's disappearance from the records in 1005, consistent with Edmund being the third son. He subscribed his father's charter dated 1002 which granted land at Codicote, Hertfordshire to Ælthelm, signing third among the brothers[1875], and "Eadmundus clito" subscribed his father's 1006 charter making grants to St Alban's, also signing third[1876]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made bequests to "…my brother Eadmund, my brother Eadwig…"[1877]. After the murder of the brothers Sigeferth and Morcar, leading thegns in northern England, Edmund abducted and married Sigeferth's widow against his father's wishes. In Sep 1015, he proceeded north to retake the properties of his wife's first husband which had been confiscated by the king[1878]. In early 1016, Edmund devastated northwest Mercia in alliance with Uhtred Earl of Northumbria, but returned to London to rejoin his father shortly before he died. He was immediately proclaimed king on his father's death in 1016 by an assembly of northern notables and burghers of London[1879], succeeding as EDMUND "Ironside" King of England, crowned at Old St Paul's Cathedral in Apr 1016. The Witan had offered the throne to Knud of Denmark, to whom a group of nobles and church dignitaries from southern England swore allegiance at Southampton[1880]. King Edmund reconquered Wessex from Danish forces, and relieved London from the siege imposed by a Danish fleet. The Danes turned their attention to Mercia, Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" defecting back to King Edmund's forces at Aylesford only to betray him again at Ashingdon in Essex where Danish forces finally defeated King Edmund in Oct 1016[1881]. At Alney, near Deerhurst, Edmund agreed a compromise division of the country with Canute, Edmund taking Wessex and Canute the north, but King Edmund died before this could be implemented. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Andrew's day 1016 of King Edmund and his burial at Glastonbury[1882]. According to Henry of Huntingdon, King Edmund was murdered by the son of Eadric Streona[1883].

m (Malmesbury, Wiltshire [Jun/Aug] 1015) as her second husband, ÆLDGYTH, widow of SIGEFERTH, daughter of --- . The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "prince Edmund�ucted [Siferth's widow] against the king's will and made her his wife" but does not name her[1884]. Simeon of Durham records that Edmund married "Algitha widow of Sigeferth" in 1015[1885]. According to Ronay, she was the daughter of Olof "Skotkonung" King of Sweden and his concubine Edla of Vindland, but the author cites no primary source to support this suggestion[1886]. If the assertion is correct, it is surprising that Ældgyth is not mentioned with the Swedish king's other children in the Saga of Olaf Haraldson[1887]. In addition, there would be no explanation for Ældgyth's first marriage to an obscure Northumbrian nobleman, especially as King Olof's two known daughters made high-profile marriages with the Grand Prince of Kiev and the king of Norway. Simeon of Durham records that, after Ældgyth's first husband was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia, Ældgyth was arrested and brought to Malmesbury on the orders of King Æthelred II who had confiscated her husband's properties in the north of England[1888]. She was abducted and married, against the king's wishes, by her second husband who proceeded to take possession of her first husband's properties. No mention has been found of Queen Ældgyth after the death of her second husband.

King Edmund "Ironside" & his wife had two sons:

1. EDMUND ([1016/17]-before 1054). Edmund was the older of King Edward's sons according to William of Malmesbury[1889]. However, the brothers may have been twins as there is barely sufficient time between the king's marriage in Summer 1015 and his death in Nov 1016 for two children to have been conceived, the second son inevitably having been born posthumously if the births were separate. After his father's death, Edmund and his brother were smuggled out of England and ultimately found their way to Hungary. The sources are contradictory about the exact route of their flight and the chronology of each step. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Canute "banished [them] into Hungary"[1890]. Orderic Vitalis names "Edward et Edmund" as the two sons of king Edmund II, specifying that King Canute sent them to Denmark to be killed but that his brother "Suenon [error for Harald] roi de Danemark" sent them "comme ses neveux en otage au roi des Huns" where Edmund died prematurely[1891]. Florence of Worcester specifies that the infants were first "sent to the king of the Swedes to be killed [but the latter] sent them to Solomon King of Hungary to spare their lives and have them brought up at his court"[1892]. Roger of Wendover, presumably copying Florence of Worcester, records that "filios…regis Eadmundi, Eadwinum [error for "Eadmundus"] et Eadwardum" were sent "ad regem Suanorum" and from there to "Salomonem, Hungariæ regem"[1893]. Adam of Bremen records that the sons of "Emund" (whom he mistakenly calls "frater Adelradi") were "in Ruzziam exilio dampnati"[1894]. Geoffrey Gaimar (in an altogether confusing account) names "Li uns�gar…li alters�lret" as the children of King Edmund, recounting that they were sent first to Denmark and later to "Russie [Susie], e vint en terre de Hungrie"[1895]. While the precise details may not at first sight appear important, as will be seen below the exact timing and location of each stage of their journey is highly significant in attempting to resolve the even more controversial issue of the identities of the wives of the two brothers. It is probably best to tackle the problem in reverse chronological order. We know that the younger brother Edward was recalled to England from Hungary with his young family in the mid-1050s (see below). Given the turbulent history of Hungary over the previous twenty years, with four changes of regime brought about by revolution and civil war between the competing religious and political factions[1896], it is unlikely that the two immigrant princes could have enjoyed continuity of favour with the country's different leaders throughout this period. The most likely case is that the English princes arrived in Hungary from Kiev in 1046 with King András I, when the latter was recalled to his native country after at least ten years' exile. It is not impossible that the princes had lived in Hungary in earlier years and accompanied András into exile, but this is unlikely. Prince András's father and brothers represented the traditional, tribal and heathen element in the Hungarian royal family, their banishment being due to clashes with the Catholic pro-western faction. If the English princes had been in Hungary in the 1030s, it seems improbable that, as Christians from western Europe, they would have been drawn to the heathen rather than the Catholic element. The more likely hypothesis is that they were already living in Kiev when András arrived there and that their ties with him were formed there. Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev married a Swedish princess in 1019. Assuming that the princes did journey through Sweden as reported by Florence of Worcester, the court at Kiev would have been a more obvious destination than Hungary for the young princes. The children may even have been part of the retinue of Ingigerd of Sweden when she travelled to Russia for her marriage. Whether the first leg of the brothers' journey from England was to Denmark or to Sweden is probably irrelevant for present purposes. According to William of Malmesbury, Edmund later died in Hungary[1897]. He must have died before his brother Edward was invited back to England, there being no mention of Edmund at that time. According to Weir[1898], he must have lived "at least into his teens", this assessment being based presumably on the fact of his supposed marriage (which is undated in Weir).

[m [HEDWIG] of Hungary, daughter of --- King of Hungary & his wife ---. Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edmundo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "Hungariorum regem𠉯iliam suam"[1899]. Geoffrey Gaimar recounts that "Edgar" (older of the two children of King Edmund whom he names incorrectly in an earlier passage) made "la fille al rei [de Hungrie]" pregnant, was married to her and appointed heir by her father, but adding confusingly that they were parents of "Margarete" who married "rei Malcolom"[1900]. The basis for this story, and whether there is any element of truth hidden somewhere in it, is unknown. Edmund's wife is named Hedwig in Burke's Guide to the Royal Family[1901], although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. In the absence of further information, the accuracy of these reports must be considered dubious as none of the Hungarian kings during the first half of the 11th century provides an obvious match. In the case of King István, it is likely that all his daughters predeceased their father in view of the accession of his nephew, King Péter, when he died. In any case, his daughters would have been beyond child-bearing age when the ætheling Edmund arrived in Hungary, assuming that this arrival took place in [1046] as explained above. As the ætheling brothers were closely linked to King András I, it is unlikely that Edmund would have married a daughter of either of his disgraced predecessors King Péter or King Samuel Aba, and any daughters of the former at least would have been too young for such a marriage. Finally, any daughters of King András himself would certainly have been too young for the marriage. There is therefore considerable doubt about the historical authenticity of this Hungarian princess or her marriage to Edmund.]

2. EDWARD ([1016/17]-London 19 Apr 1057, bur London St Paul's). Maybe twin with his brother Edmund or, as noted above, born posthumously. He is the first prince in the Wessex royal family to have been named after his father, which suggests that he may have been born posthumously which could have justified this departure from the normal naming practice. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Canute "banished [him] into Hungary … [where] he grew up to be a good man"[1902]. Orderic Vitalis names "Edward et Edmund" as the two sons of king Edmund II, specifying that King Canute sent them to Denmark to be killed but that his brother "Suenon [error for Harald] roi de Danemark" sent them "comme ses neveux en otage au roi des Huns" where Edward "épousa la fille du roi et regna sur les Huns"[1903]. Florence of Worcester specifies that the infants were first "sent to the king of the Swedes to be killed [but the latter] sent them to Solomon King of Hungary to spare their lives and have them brought up at his court"[1904]. According to Adam of Bremen, the two brothers were "condemned to exile in Russia"[1905]. Geoffrey Gaimar (in an altogether confusing account) names "Li uns�gar…li alters�lret" as the children of King Edmund, recounting that they were sent first to Denmark and later to "Russie [Susie], e vint en terre de Hungrie"[1906]. Edward´s life in exile is discussed in detail by Ronay[1907]. Humphreys infers from the chronicles of Gaimar, Adam of Bremen and Roger of Hoveden that Edward spent some time at the court of Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev[1908]. Assuming he was in exile in Hungary from childhood, he may have left for Kiev in 1037 with András Prince of Hungary who fled Hungary after the 1037 disgrace of his father, although this is unlikely for the reasons explained above in relation to his brother Edmund. If this is correct, he would have returned with András in [1046/47] when the latter succeeded as András I King of Hungary after King Péter Orseolo was deposed. Aldred Bishop of Worcester, ambassador of King Edward "the Confessor", "proposed to the emperor to send envoys to Hungary to bring back Edward and have him conducted to England"[1909], according to Florence of Worcester to be groomed to succeed to the English throne[1910]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Edward died "at London soon after his arrival"[1911] before meeting his uncle the king and also states his burial place[1912]. m (Kiev[1913] [1040/45]%29 AGATHA, daughter of --- ([1025/35]-). Agatha is named as the wife of Edward in many sources[1914], but her origin has been the subject of lively debate for years. The early 12th century chronicles are contradictory. The assertion by Orderic Vitalis that she was "daughter of Solomon King of the Magyars"[1915] can be dismissed as impossible chronologically. One group of chroniclers suggest a German origin, saying that she was "the daughter of the brother of the Emperor Henry". This includes John of Worcester ("filia germani imperatoris henrici"[1916], in a passage which Humphreys speculates was written some time between 1120 and 1131 although possibly based on the earlier work of Marianus Scotus), Florence of Worcester ("daughter of the brother of Emperor Henry"[1917]), the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ("the emperor's kinswoman"[1918] and, in relation to her daughter Margaret, "descended from the emperor Henry who had dominion over Rome"[1919]). Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edwardo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "filiam germani sui Henrici imperatoris𠉪gatha"[1920]. Matthew of Paris calls Agatha "soror Henrici imperatoris Romani" when recounting the ancestry of Henry II King of England[1921]. A second group of chroniclers propose a Russian origin, suggesting that Agatha belonged to the family of Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev. For William of Malmesbury, she was "sister of the [Hungarian] queen", which from a chronological point of view could only refer to Anastasia Iaroslavna, wife of King András I. In a 13th century interpolation in one copy of the Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ (written in [1130]) she was "ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum"[1922]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agatham regine Hunorem sororem"[1923], the Hungarian Magyars frequently, though incorrectly, being referred to as "Huns" in many other sources. Lastly, Roger of Wendover records that "Eadwardus" married "reginæ Hungariæ sororem𠉪gatham"[1924]. In considering the German origin theory, the uterine half-brothers ("germani") of Emperor Heinrich III provide a likely candidate. These half-brothers were Liudolf von Braunschweig, Markgraf in Friesland (son of Gisela of Swabia, mother of Emperor Heinrich III, by her first marriage with Bruno Graf [von Braunschweig]), and Ernst von Babenberg Duke of Swabia and his younger brother Hermann IV Duke of Swabia (sons of Gisela by her second marriage). The latter, the Babenberg brothers, born in [1014/16], were both too young to have been Agatha's father so can be dismissed. Liudolf von Braunschweig was first proposed as Agatha's father in 1933[1925], and has been the preferred candidate for many historians since then[1926]. His birth date is estimated at [1003/05] (see BRUNSWICK) which is consistent with his having been Agatha's father. The marriage taking place in Kiev would not exclude a German origin, as contacts were reported between Kiev and the imperial court in 1040[1927], when Russia was aiming to create a tripartite alliance with England and Germany to weaken Denmark, and also in 1043[1928], when the situation required review following the accession of King Edward "the Confessor" in England. The major drawback to the German origin theory is the total absence of onomastic connections between the Braunschweig family and the descendants of Edward and Agatha, although this is not of course conclusive to prove or disprove the hypothesis. The Russian origin theory has also found considerable academic support[1929]. Edmund must have had contact with the Russian royal family during his period in Kiev, assuming it is correct, as suggested above, that he spent time there during his exile. There are numerous onomastic connections between the the extended family of Grand Prince Iaroslav and the descendants of Edward and Agatha. For example, the names of Edward and Agatha's own daughters, Margaret and Christina, were both used in the Swedish royal family, to which Grand Prince Iaroslav's wife belonged. In the next generation, among Queen Margaret's own children, the name David is one which seems only to have been used in the Kiev ruling family among all contemporary European royal dynasties. The major problem with the Russian origin theory is the complete failure to explain the source references to Agatha's family relationship with the emperor, which it is unwise to dismiss as completely meaningless. It is of course possible that neither of these theories is correct, and that Agatha belonged to a minor German, Russian or Hungarian noble family the importance of whose family connections were exaggerated in the sources. Edward's relationship to the kings of England may, at the time of his marriage, have seemed remote and unimportant in eastern Europe, especially as England was ruled by Danish kings whose position must then have seemed secure. He may not have provided a sufficiently attractive marriage prospect for a prominent European princess. In conclusion, therefore, there is no satisfactory way of deciding between each of the competing theories concerning Agatha's origin and it appears best to classify it as "unknown". It is unlikely that the mystery of Agatha's origin will ever be solved to the satisfaction of all. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, after the Norman conquest, Agatha left England with her children in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1930]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1931]. According to Weir, in old age,


The Shady Old Lady's Guide to London


Description: This parkland by the Thames is reputedly the scene of two of the great Battles of Brentford.

The Battle of Brentford (1016) was fought in 1016 some time between 9 May (the approximate date Canute landed at Greenwich) and 18 October (the date of the later Battle of Ashingdon) between the English led by Edmund Ironside and the Danes led by Canute. It was one of a series of battles fought between Edmund and Canute, ultimately resulting in the lands held by Edmund's father Ethelred the Unready being divided between the two. Edmund was victorious in this particular battle, but ultimately failed to defend the lands inherited from his father.

The Battle of Brentford was a small pitched battle which took place on 12 November, 1642, between a cavalry detachment of the Royalist army under the command of Prince Rupert and two cavalry regiments of Parlimentarian forces. The result was a victory for the Royalists, with many Parlimentarians fleeing into the Thames and drowning.

Having won the battle the Royalist forces sacked the town. This action encouraged those Londoners who feared for their property to side with the Parliamentarians.[


Watch the video: Battle Of Mohi, 1241 AD Mongol Invasion of Europe (November 2021).