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Thomas Howard, Lord High Steward

Thomas Howard, Lord High Steward


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Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk

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Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk, (born 1473—died August 25, 1554, Kenninghall, Norfolk, England), powerful English noble who held a variety of high offices under King Henry VIII. Although he was valuable to the king as a military commander, he failed in his aspiration to become the chief minister of the realm.

Howard was the brother-in-law of King Henry VII and the son of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk. In May 1513 he became lord high admiral, and on September 9 he helped rout the Scots at Flodden Field near Branxton, Northumberland. He became lord deputy of Ireland in 1520 but soon left this post to command a fleet against the French.

Succeeding his father as duke of Norfolk in 1524, he headed the faction opposed to Henry’s chief minister, Thomas Wolsey. Upon Wolsey’s fall in 1529, Norfolk became president of the royal council. He supported the marriage of his niece Anne Boleyn to Henry in 1533, but, by the time of Anne’s fall in 1536, his relationship to Henry had already been weakened by the rise of Thomas Cromwell. As lord high steward, Norfolk was assigned to preside at her trial and execution. He momentarily regained royal favour by skillfully suppressing the rebellion of Roman Catholics in northern England known as the Pilgrimage of Grace (1536). A conservative in religion, Norfolk became a leading opponent of two influential church reformers: the king’s chief adviser, Thomas Cromwell, and the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. Upon Cromwell’s execution (1540) Norfolk emerged as the second most powerful man in England, but his position was again weakened when Henry’s fifth wife, Catherine Howard—another of Norfolk’s nieces—was put to death in 1542.

In December 1546 Norfolk was accused of being an accessory to the alleged treasonable activities of his son, Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. Surrey was executed and Norfolk condemned, but before the sentence could be carried out Henry VIII died (January 1547). Norfolk remained in prison during the reign of the Protestant king Edward VI (reigned 1547–53) in August 1553, following the accession of Queen Mary (reigned 1553–58), a Roman Catholic, he was released and restored to his dukedom. He died in 1554 after failing to suppress the uprising, led by Sir Thomas Wyatt, protesting the marriage of Mary I to King Philip of Spain.


Thomas Howard, Lord High Steward - History

THOMAS HOWARD, 2ND EARL OF SURREY AND 3RD DUKE OF NORFOLK of the Howard house, warrior and statesman, was the eldest son of Thomas Howard by his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir Frederick Tilney of Ashwellthorpe Hall, Norfolk. He was born in 1473, and, as a sign of the close alliance between Richard III and the Howard family, was betrothed in 1484 to the Lady Anne (born at Westminster 2 Nov. 1475), third daughter of Edward IV. 1 The lady had been betrothed by her father by treaty dated 5 Aug. 1480 to Philip, son of Maximilian, archduke of Austria, but Edward IV's death had brought the scheme to nothing. After the overthrow of Richard, despite the change in the fortunes of the Howards, Lord Thomas renewed his claim to the hand of the Lady Anne, who was in constant attendance on her sister, Queen Elizabeth [Elizabeth of York], and Henry VII permitted the marriage to take place in 1495. 2 The queen settled upon the bride an annuity of 120l. (confirmed by acts of parliament 11 and 12 Hen. VII), and the marriage took place in Westminster Abbey on 4 Feb. 1495.

Howard subsequently served in the north under his father, by whom he was knighted in 1498. In 1511 he joined his younger brother, Edward, the lord admiral, as captain of a ship in his encounter with the Scottish pirate, Andrew Barton. In May 1512 he was made lieutenant-general of the army which was sent to Spain under the command of the Marquis of Dorset, with the intention of joining the forces of Ferdinand for the invasion of Guienne. The troops, ill supplied with food, grew weary of waiting for Ferdinand and insisted upon returning home, in spite of Howard's efforts to persuade them to remain. 3 Henry VIII invaded France next year. Sir Edward Howard fell in a naval engagement in March, and on 2 May 1513 Lord Thomas was appointed lord admiral in his stead. He was not, however, called upon to serve at sea, but fought under his father as captain of the vanguard at the battle of Flodden Field (September 1513), where he sent a message to the Scottish king that he had come to give him satisfaction for the death of Andrew Barton.

When his father was created Duke of Norfolk on 1 Feb. 1514, Lord Thomas Howard was created Earl of Surrey. In politics he joined with his father in opposing Wolsey, and was consoled, like his father, for the failure of his opposition to the French alliance by being sent in September 1514 to escort the Princess Mary to France. But Surrey did not see the wisdom of abandoning his opposition to Wolsey so soon as his father. There were stormy scenes sometimes in the council chamber, and on 31 May 1516 we are told that Surrey 'was put out, whatever that may mean.' 4 His wife Anne died of consumption probably in the winter of 1512-13, and about Easter 1513 he married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, by Lady Elinor Percy, daughter of the Earl of Northumberland. The girl, who was little more than fifteen, had already been betrothed to her father's ward, Richard Neville, afterwards fourth Earl of Westmorland.

The alliance with such families as those of Buckingham and Northumberland strengthened in Surrey the natural objection which he felt to Wolsey's power, and to the policy of depressing the old nobility, but the execution of Buckingham in 1521 taught him a lesson of prudence. When the trial of Buckingham took place, Surrey was in Ireland as lord-lieutenant, and it was said that he had been sent thither of set purpose that he might be out of the way when the nobles received that severe caution. In July 1520 Surrey entered upon the thankless task of endeavouring to keep Ireland in order. His letters contain accounts of attempts to pacify the rival factions of Kildare and Ormonde, and are full of demands for more money and troops.

A the end of 1521 Surrey was recalled from Ireland to take command of the English fleet in naval operations against France. In July 1522 he burned Morlaix, in September laid waste the country round Boulogne, and spread devastation on every side, till the winter brought back the fleet to England. When, in December 1522, his father resigned the office of high treasurer, it was bestowed on Surrey, whose services next year were required on the Scottish border. The Duke of Albany, acting in the interests of France, was raising a party in Scotland, and threatened to cripple England in its military undertakings abroad. Surrey was made warden general of the marches, and was sent to teach Scotland a lesson. He carried out the same brutal policy of devastation as he had used in France, and reduced the Scottish border to a desert. but he did not venture to march on Edinburgh, and Albany found means to reach Scotland from France and gather an army, with which he laid siege to Wark Castle on 1 Nov. but, when he heard that Surrey was advancing to its relief, he ignominiously retreated. This was felt to be a great victory for Surrey, and Skelton represented the popular opinion in his poem, 'How the Duke of Albany, like a cowardly knight, ran away.'

On 21 May 1524 Surrey, by his father's death, succeeded as Duke of Norfolk, but was still employed in watching Scotland and in negotiating with the queen regent, Margaret. In 1525 he was allowed to return to his house at Kenninghall, Norfolk, where, however, his services were soon needed to quell an insurrection which broke out at Lavenham and Sudbury against the loan which was necessitated by the expenses of the French war. 5 Norfolk's tact in dealing with the insurgents was successful, but the demand for money was withdrawn. Want of supplies meant that peace was necessary, and in August Norfolk was appointed commissioner to treat for peace with France.

When the war was over, the great question which occupied English politics was that of the king's divorce. Norfolk was entirely on the king's side, and waited with growing satisfaction for the course of events to bring about Wolsey's fall. He and the Duke of Suffolk did all they could to increase the king's anger against Wolsey, and enjoyed their triumph when they were commissioned to demand from him the great seal. Norfolk was Wolsey's implacable enemy, and would be content with nothing short of his entire ruin. He presided over the privy council, and hoped to rise to the eminence from which Wolsey had fallen. He devised the plan of sending Wolsey to his diocese of York, and did not rest till he had gathered evidence which raised the king's suspicions and led to Wolsey's summons to London and his death on the journey.

Norfolk hoped to fill Wolsey's place, but he was entirely destitute of Wolsey's genius. He could only become the king's tool in his dishonourable purposes. In 1529 he signed the letter to the pope which threatened him with the loss of his supremacy in England if he refused the king's divorce. He acquiesced in all the subsequent proceedings, and waxed fat on the spoils of the monasteries. He was chief adviser of his niece, Anne Boleyn, but followed the fashion of the time in presiding at her trial and arranging for her execution.

But, after all his subservience, Thomas Cromwell proved a more useful man than himself. A fruitless embassy to France in 1533, for the purpose of winning Francis I to side with Henry, showed that Norfolk was entirely destitute of Wolsey's diplomatic skill. But there were some points of domestic policy for which he was necessary. he was created earl marshal in 1533, and presided over the trial of Lord Dacre, who, strange to say, was acquitted. In the suppression of the Pilgrimage of Grace, Norfolk alternately cajoled and threatened the insurgents till their forces melted away, and he could with safety undertake the work of official butchery. He held the office of Lord President of the Council of the North from April 1537 till October 1538, when he could boast that the rebellion had been avenged by a course of merciless punishment.

On his return to court Norfolk headed the opposition against Cromwell. He allied himself with Gardiner and the prelates of the old learning in endeavouring to present an alliance with German protestantism. In the parliament of 1539 he laid before the lords the bill of the Six Articles, which became law. 'It was merry in England,' he said, 'before the new learning came up,' 6 and henceforth he declared himself the head of the reactionary party. In February 1540 he again went to Paris as ambassador, to try if he could succeed on this new basis in detaching Francis I from Charles V and gaining him as an ally to Henry VIII. 7 Again he failed in his diplomacy, but after his return he had the satisfaction on 10 June of arresting Cromwell in the council chamber.

The execution of his rival threw once again the chief power into Norfolk's hands, and a second time he made good his position by arranging for the marriage of a niece with the king. But the disgrace of Catherine Howard was more rapid than that of Anne Boleyn, and Norfolk again fell back into the position of a military commander. In 1542 he was sent to wage war against Scotland, and again wreaked Henry VIII's vengeance by a barbarous raid upon the borders. It was the terror of his name, and not his actual presence, which ended the war by the disastrous rout of Solway Moss. When Henry went to war with France in 1544, Norfolk in spite of his age was appointed lieutenant-general of the army. The army besieged Montreuil, and, after a long siege, captured Boulogne, but Norfolk could claim no glory from the war. Again he found himself superseded in the royal favour by a powerful rival, the Earl of Hertford, whom he failed to conciliate by a family alliance which was proposed for his acceptance. Under the influence of his last queen (Catherine Parr) and the Earl of Hertford, Henry VIII favoured the reforming party, and Norfolk's counsels were little heeded. As the king's health was rapidly failing, it became Hertford's object to remove his rivals out of the way, and in 1546 Norfolk's son, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was accused of high treason.

The charge against the son was made to include the father, and Norfolk's enemies were those of his own household. His private life was discreditable, and shows the debasing effect of the king's example on those around him. Norfolk quarrelled with his wife, who, although of a jealous and vindictive temper, was one of the most accomplished women of the time. She patronised the poet Skelton, who wrote, while her guest at Sheriff Hutton, Yorkshire, 'A goodly Garlande or Chapelet of Laurell.' But with her husband she was always on bad terms, and accused him of cruelty at the time of her daughter Mary's birth in 1519. The duke soon afterwards took a mistress, Elizabeth Holland, 'a churl's daughter who was but a washer in my nursery eight years,' as his wife complained to Cromwell. 8 in 1533 he separated from his wife, who withdrew to Redborne, hertfordshire, with a very scanty allowance. Appeals of husband and wife to Cromwell and the king failed to secure a reconciliation, and the duchess refused to sue for a divorce. The discord spread among the other members of the family, and they were all at variance.

Evidence against Norfolk was given, not only by his wife, but by his daughter, the Duchess of Richmond, and even by Elizabeth Holland, who only wished to save herself and her ill-gotten gains. But the evidence was not sufficient for his condemnation, and Norfolk, a prisoner in the Tower, was persuaded to plead guilty and throw himself on the king's mercy. He signed his confession on 12 Jan. 1547, 9 and his enemies, who were eager to share the proceeds of his forfeiture, introduced a bill for his attainder into parliament. The bill, of course, passed at once, and the dying king appointed a commission to give it the royal assent. This was done on 27 Jan., and orders were given for Norfolk's execution on the following morning. But in the night the king died, and the lords of the council did not think it wise to begin their rule by an act of useless bloodshed. Norfolk, indeed, had cut the ground from under their feet by sending a petition to the king begging that his estates should be settled on the young Prince Edward, and the king had graciously accepted the suggestion. 10

Norfolk remained a prisoner in the Tower during Edward VI's reign, but was released on Mary's accession. He petitioned parliament for the reversal of his attainder on the ground that Henry VIII had not signed the commission to give the bill his assent. 11 His petition was granted, and he was restored Duke of Norfolk on 3 Aug. 1553. He was further sworn of the privy council and made a knight of the Garter. His services were required for business in which he had ample experience, and on 17 Aug. he presided as lord high steward at the trial of the Duke of Northumberland and had the satisfaction of sentencing a former opponent to death.

In January 1554 the old man was lieutenant-general of the queen's army to put down Wyat's rebellion. In this he displayed an excess of rashness. He marched with far inferior forces against Wyat, whose headquarters were at Rochester, and in a parley was deserted by a band of five hundred Londoners, who were in his ranks. His forces were thrown into confusion and fled, leaving their guns behind. Wyat was thus encouraged to continue his march upon London. Norfolk retired to his house at Kenninghall, Norfolk, where he died on 25 Aug. 1554. He was buried in the church of Framlingham, where a monument, which still exists, was erected over his grave—an altar tomb with effigies of Norfolk and his second wife.

Norfolk is described by the Venetian ambassador, Falieri, in 1531 as 'small and spare of stature and his hair black. he is prudent, liberal, affable and astute associates with everybody, has great experience in the administration of the kingdom, handles affairs admirably, aspires to greater elevation.' 12 This was written when Norfolk, after Wolsey's death, seemed, as the chief of the English nobles, to be the destined successor of Wolsey but it soon appeared that the Tudor policy was not of a kind which could be best carried out by nobles. Norfolk influential more through his position than through his abilities, and did no scruple at personal intrigue to secure his power. Still, subservient as he might show himself, he was not so useful as men like Cromwell, and his hopes of holding the chief place were constantly disappointed. He was hot-tempered, self-seeking, and brutal, and his career shows the deterioration of English life under Henry VIII.

Norfolk's four children by his first wife died young by his second wife, who died 30 Nov. 1558 and was buried in the Howard Chapel, Lambeth, he had two sons (Henry, Earl of Surrey, and Thomas, 1528?-1583, who was educated by Leland, and was created Viscount Howard of Bindon 13 Jan. 1558-9) and one daughter, Mary, who married Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, natural son of Henry VIII.

1 Buck, History of Richard III, p. 574.
2 The marriage settlement is given by Madox, Formulare Anglicanum, pp. 109-10.
3 Brewer, Calendar, i. No. 3451.
4 Lodge, Illustrations, i. 21.
5 Hall, Chronicle, p. 700.
6 Froude, Hist. ch. xix.
7 State Papers, Hen. VIII, viii. 245-340.
8 Nott, Works of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, App. xxvii-xxxii.
9 Herbert, Reign of Henry VIII, s.a.
10 Nott, App. xxxix.
11 Ib. App. l.
12 Venetian Calendar, iv. 294-5.


Excerpted from:

Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. XXVIII. Sidney Lee, ed.
New York: The Macmillan Co., 1898. 64-77.

Brenan, Gerald and Edward Phillips Statham. The House of Howard. Vol I.
Hutchinson & Co, 1907.


Also, a brief derivation of the most honourable family of the Howards : with an account of what families they are related to by marriages

This edition was published in 1685 by Printed by Nathaniel Thompson . in [London] .

Edition Notes

Imperfect: faded, with loss of text.

Reproduction of original in Huntington Library.

Available electronically as part of Early English books online.

Microfilm. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1986. 1 microfilm reel 35 mm. (Early English books, 1641-1700 1723:17)


Also, a brief derivation of the most honourable family of the Howards : with an account of what families they are related to by marriages

This edition was published in 1685 by Printed by Nathaniel Thompson . in [London] .

Edition Notes

Imperfect: faded, with loss of text.

Reproduction of original in Huntington Library.

Available electronically as part of Early English books online.

Microfilm. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1986. 1 microfilm reel 35 mm. (Early English books, 1641-1700 1723:17)


Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk

"Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, KG, PC, Earl Marshal (1473 – 25 August 1554) was a prominent Tudor politician. He was an uncle of two of the wives of Henry VIII: Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, and played a major role in the machinations behind these marriages. After falling from favour in 1546, he was stripped of the dukedom and imprisoned in the Tower, avoiding execution when the King died. He was released on the accession of Queen Mary I. He aided Mary in securing her throne, setting the stage for alienation between his Catholic family and the Protestant royal line that would be continued by Queen Elizabeth I."

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 139. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

[S16] #894 Cahiers de Saint-Louis (1976), Louis IX, Roi de France, (Angers: J. Saillot, 1976), FHL book 944 D22ds., vol. 2 p. 108, 119, vol. 3 p. 134, vol. 4 p. 303.

[S20] Magna Carta Ancestry: A study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Richardson, Douglas, (Kimball G. Everingham, editor. 2nd edition, 2011), vol. 2 p. 415-416.

[S23] #849 Burke's Guide to the Royal Family (1973), (London: Burke's Peerage, c1973), FHl book 942 D22bgr., p. 204.

[S25] #798 The Wallop Family and Their Ancestry, Watney, Vernon James, (4 volumes. Oxford: John Johnson, 1928), FHL book Q 929.242 W159w FHL microfilm 1696491 it., vol. 2 p. 447, vol. 3 p. 716.

"Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Surrey, styled Lord Howard 1483-1514, K.G. Earl Marshal of England Lord High Admiral 1513-25 Captain of the Vanguard at Flodden 1513 Chief Governor of Ireland 1520-3 Lord High Treasurer 1522 took an active part in the overthrow of Cardinal Wolsey Lord High Steward for the trial of his niece, Anne Boleyn, the Queen Consort, of whom he had till then been 'Chief Adviser' opposed the new religion arranged the marriage of his niece, Katharine Howard, with the King found guilty of High Treason at the end of Henry VIII's reign, and kept a prisoner during the reign of Edward VI was the Bearer of the Crown at the Coronation of Queen Mary b. 1473 d. 25 August 1554."

[S37] #93 [Book version] The Dictionary of National Biography: from the Earliest Times to 1900 (1885-1900, reprint 1993), Stephen, Leslie, (22 volumes. 1885-1900. Reprint, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1993), FHL book 920.042 D561n., vol. 3 p. 204-205.

[S124] #240 Collins's Peerage of England, Genealogical, Biographical, and Historical, Greatly Augmented, and Continued to the Present Time (1812), Brydges, Sir Egerton,, (9 volumes. London: [T. Bensley], 1812), FHL book 942 D22be., vol. 1 p. 80, 98.

[S177] #929 The History and Antiquities of the County of Surrey: Compiled from the Best and Most Authentic Historians, Valuable Records, and Manuscripts in the Public Offices and Libraries, and in Private Hands.. (1804-1814), Manning, Owen, (Three volumes. London: J. Nichols, 1804-1814), FHL book Q 942.21 H2ma., vol. 2 p. 169.

[S260] #1784 The Visitation of Norfolk, Made and Taken by William Hervey, Anno 1563, Enlarged with Another Visitacion [Sic] Made by Clarenceux Cook: with Many Other Descents, and Also the Vissitation [Sic] Made by John Raven, Anno 1613 (1891), Rye, Walter, (The Publications of the Harleian Society: Visitations, volume 32. London: [Harleian Society], 1891), FHL book 942 B4h FHL microfilm 162,058., vol. 32 p. 163.

[S347] Plantagenet Ancestry of Seventeenth-century Colonists: the Descent from the Later Plantagenet Kings of England, Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, and Edward III, of Emigrants from England and Wales to the North American Colonies Before 1701 (2nd ed., 1999), Faris, David, (2nd edition. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1999), FHL book 973 D2fp., p. 45 BOURCHIER:4.

[S452] #21 The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (1910), Cokayne, George Edward (main author) and Vicary Gibbs (added author), (New edition. 13 volumes in 14. London: St. Catherine Press,1910-), vol. 1 p. 253 vol. 2 p. 138 vol. 14 p. 87 [BERKELEY].


Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham

Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham (1536 – 14 December 1624), known as Howard of Effingham, was an English statesman and Lord High Admiral under Elizabeth I and James I. He was commander of the English forces during the battles against the Spanish Armada and was chiefly responsible after Francis Drake for the victory that saved England from invasion by the Spanish Empire.

Few details of Charles Howard's early life are known. He was born in 1536, and was the cousin of Queen Elizabeth. He was son of William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham (c. 1510 – 1573) and Margaret Gamage (d. 18 May 1581), daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage.[1] He was a grandson of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He was also the cousin of Anne Boleyn (Anne's mother was half-sister to Charles' father), and held several prominent posts during the reign of Anne's daughter, Elizabeth I.

It is believed that Charles Howard was taught French and a bit of Latin at the house of his uncle, the 3rd Duke of Norfolk. He was also educated in penmanship, chivalric exercises, and some legal traditions. He served as a page to his cousin Thomas who later became the 4th Duke of Norfolk. He also fished and hunted fervently throughout his life.[2]

Howard served at sea under his father's command as a youth.

In 1552, he was sent to France to become well-educated in the French language, but was soon brought back to England at the request of his father because of questionable or unexpected treatment.[3]

Howard went to the peace negotiations between England and France which led to the Treaty of Câteau-Cambrésis of 1559. He personally informed Elizabeth of its ratification.[1]

He served as Ambassador to France in 1559. In December of 1562, he became the keeper of the Queen's house and park at Oatlands. In his early years at court he and five other gentlemen bore the canopy of state when Queen Elizabeth opened her second Parliament on 11 January 1563, and he is recorded as having been a regular participant in jousts and tournaments, but despite his relationship to the Queen it is said that it took some time before he was able to gain any personal benefit from his situation.[4] Howard was also a member of the House of Commons, yet he was not as distinguished as many others have been. He represented Surrey in Parliament in 1563 and again in 1572.

In 1564 he became a member of Gray's Inn, and received his Master of Arts at Cambridge in 1571. This was not because he had any legal ambitions, but because it was the normal thing for men of his status to do.[4]

He served as General of the Horse in 1569 and suppressed a Catholic rebellion in northern England. He commanded a squadron of ships escorting the Queen of Spain on a state visit in 1570.[5]

Howard was knighted in 1572 and became Lord Howard of Effingham following his father's death in 1573. From 1576� he was patron of a playing company, Nottingham's Men, later called the Admiral's Men.

On 3 April 1575 Howard was elected to the Order of the Garter to replace his cousin, Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, who had been executed in 1572. He was installed at Windsor on 8 May 1575.[6]

Howard was named Lord High Admiral in 1585. The French ambassador wrote to Sir Francis Walsingham, saying Elizabeth's appointment of Howard was "a choice worthy of her virtue and prudence and very necessary for the Admiralty. I pray you tell her that the King [of France] has written to me by an express to thank her for having elected so good an admiral, from whom he hopes great things for the peace of his subjects".[7]

Howard died in 1624 at the age of 88. None of his three sons left heirs, and shortly after the last died the Nottingham earldom was recreated for a close relative of the Earl of Winchilsea the Howard of Effingham barony passed to descendants of his brother, the Earl of Effingham being the modern heir.

He was married first to Catherine Carey, daughter of Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon and Ann Morgan. They had five children:

  • Frances Howard (buried 11 July 1628). She was married first to Henry FitzGerald, 12th Earl of Kildare. She was secondly married to Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham.
  • William Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Effingham (27 December 1577 – 28 November 1615). Summoned to the Lords as 3rd Baron Howard of Effingham. He was married on 7 February 1596/1597 to Anne St John.
  • Charles Howard, 2nd Earl of Nottingham (17 September 1579 – 3 October 1642). He was married first on 19 May 1597 to Charity White (d. 18 December 1618), daughter to Robert White. Secondly on 22 April 1620 to Mary Cokayne, daughter of Sir William Cokayne who served as Lord Mayor of London in 1619 and Mary Morris.
  • Margaret Howard, married in 1587 Sir Richard Leveson, no issue.
  • Elizabeth Howard (buried 31 March 1646). Maid of honour to Elizabeth I of England. She was married first to Sir Robert Southwell. One of their daughters, Elizabeth, was a lover and eventually a third wife of Robert Dudley (explorer). Another daughter, Frances, married Edward Rodney. Elizabeth Howard was secondly married to John Stewart, 1st Earl of Carrick.

He was married secondly to Margaret Stuart, daughter of James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Moray and Elizabeth Stuart, 2nd Countess of Moray. She was more than 50 years younger than he was. They had two children:

  • Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Nottingham (1610�)
  • Anne Howard (born c. 1612). She was married on 29 December 1627 to Alexander Stewart, Baron Garlies, son of Alexander Stewart, 1st Earl of Galloway and Grizel Gordon.
  • Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham1
  • M, #11922, b. circa 1536, d. 14 December 1624
  • Last Edited=12 Jan 2012
  • Consanguinity Index=0.02%
  • Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham was born circa 1536.1 He was the son of William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham and Margaret Gamage.1 He married, firstly, Katherine Carey, daughter of Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon of Hunsdon and Ann Morgan, circa July 1563.1 He married, secondly, Lady Margaret Stuart, daughter of James Stuart, 2nd Lord Doune and Elizabeth Stewart, Countess of Moray, circa September 1603.4 He died on 14 December 1624.
  • He succeeded to the title of 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham, co. Surrey [E., 1554] on 21 January 1572/73.1 He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) in 1574.1 He held the office of Lord High Admiral [England] in 1588, who was in supreme command at the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588.1 He was created 1st Earl of Nottingham [England] on 22 October 1596.1
  • Child of Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham
    • Lady Anne Howard4
    • Lady Elizabeth Howard+5 b. 1564, d. c Jan 1646
    • Lady Frances Howard+6 b. b 1572, d. c 7 Jul 1628
    • William Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Effingham+7 b. 27 Dec 1577, d. 28 Nov 1615
    • Charles Howard, 2nd Earl of Nottingham1 b. 17 Sep 1579, d. 3 Oct 1642
    • Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Nottingham1 b. 25 Dec 1610, d. 26 Apr 1681
    • HOWARD, Charles I (c.1536-1624), of Effingham, Surr.
    • b. c.1536, 1st s. of William, 1st Baron Howard, by his 2nd w. Margaret, da. of Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity, Glam. bro. of William. m. (1) July 1563, Katharine (d. Feb. 1603), da. of Henry Carey†, 1st Baron Hunsdon, 2s. Sir William, Lord Howard of Effingham and Charles Howard II 3da. (2) Sept. 1603, Margaret, da. of James, Earl of Moray, 2s. suc. fa. as 2nd Baron Howard 1573 KG 22 May 1575 cr. Earl of Nottingham 22 Oct. 1597.
    • Offices Held
      • Gent. of privy chamber 1558 envoy to France July 1559 keeper of Oatlands park 1562 gen. of horse 1569 j.p.q. Surr. by 1573, ld. lt. musters 1579, custos rot. c.1584 chamberlain of the Household 1583-5 PC 1583-d. ld. high adm. 1585-1619 ld. lt. and custos rot. Surr. 1585-d. (jointly with s. Charles from 1621) ld. lt. Suss. 1585-d. (jointly with Lord Buckhurst from 1586 and the Earl of Arundel from 1608) high steward, Guildford from 1585 lt.-gen. army and navy Dec. 1587 constable, Windsor castle 1588-d. high steward, Windsor 1593-d. keeper Hampton Court 1593 jt. commr. to exercise office of earl marshal 1592, 1601, 1604, 1605, 1616, 1617, 1618 jt. c.-in-c. Cadiz expedition 1596 steward of the Household 1597-1615 c.j. forests south of Trent 1597-d. ambassador extraordinary to Spain 1605.2
      • Charles HOWARD (1° E. Nottingham)
      • Born: 1536
      • Acceded: 22 Oct 1597
      • Died: 14 Dec 1624, Haling House near Croydon, Surrey
      • Notes: See his Biography.
      • Father: William HOWARD (1º B. Howard of Effingham)
      • Mother: Margaret GAMAGE (B. Howard of Effingham)
      • Married 1: Catherine CAREY (C. Nottingham) Jul 1563
      • Children:
        • 1. Frances HOWARD (C. Kildare/B. Cobham)
        • 2. William HOWARD (3° B. Howard of Effingham)
        • 3. Charles HOWARD (2° E. Nottingham)
        • 4. Margaret HOWARD
        • 5. Elizabeth HOWARD (C. Carrick)
        • 6. Charles HOWARD (3° E. Nottingham)
        • 7. Anne HOWARD (B. Garlies)
        • Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 28
        • Howard, Charles (1536-1624) by John Knox Laughton
        • HOWARD, CHARLES, Lord Howard of Effingham, Earl of Nottingham (1536�), lord high admiral, was the eldest son of William, first lord Howard of Effingham (d. 1573) [q.v.], by his second wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity in Glamorganshire and of Margaret, daughter of Sir John St. John of Bletsoe (Collins, v. 120). He is said to have served at sea under his father during the reign of Queen Mary. On the accession of Elizabeth he stepped at once into a prominent position at court. His high birth and connections—the queen was his first cousin once removed𠅊re sufficient to account for his early advancement, even without the aid of a handsome person and courtly accomplishments (Fuller, Worthies of England, 1662, Surrey, p. 83). In 1559 he was sent as ambassador to France to congratulate Francis II on his accession. In the parliament of 1562 he represented the county of Surrey, and in 1569 was general of the horse, under the Earl of Warwick, in the suppression of the rebellion of the north. In 1570, when the young queen of Spain went from Flanders, Howard was appointed to command a strong squadron of ships of war, nominally as a guard of honour for her through the English seas, but really to provide against the possibility of the queen's voyage being used as the cloak of some act of aggression (Camden in Kennett, History of England, ii. 430 Cal. State Papers, Dom., 29 and 31 Aug. and 2 Oct. 1570). Hakluyt adds that he 'environed the Spanish fleet in most strange and warlike sort, and enforced them to stoop gallant and to vail their bonnets for the queen of England' (Principal Navigations, vol. i. Epistle Dedicatorie addressed to Howard). It is supposed that it was at this time that Howard was knighted. In the parliament of 1572 he was again knight of the shire for Surrey and on the death of his father, 29 Jan. 1572-3, he succeeded as second Lord Howard of Effingham. On 24 April 1574 he was installed a knight of the Garter, and was appointed lord chamberlain, a dignity which he held till May 1585, when he vacated it on being appointed lord admiral of England in succession to Edward Fiennes de Clinton, earl of Lincoln [q.v.], who died on 16 Jan. 1584-5. In 1586 Howard was one of the commissioners appointed for the trial of Mary Queen of Scots, and, though not actually present at the trial, seems to have conducted some of the examinations in London. According to William Davison (1541?- 1608) [q.v.] it was due to his urgent representations that Elizabeth finally signed Mary's death-warrant (Nicolas, Life of Davison, pp. 232, 258, 281). From Friday, 17 Nov. 1587, till the following Tuesday night, Howard entertained the queen at his house at Chelsea. Pageants were performed in her honour, and in the 'running at tilt' which she witnessed 'my Lord of Essex and my Lord of Cumberland were the chief that ran' (Philip Gawdy to his father, 24 Nov., Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 520).
        • In December 1587 Howard received a special commission as 'lieutenant-general and commander-in-chief of the navy and army prepared to the seas against Spain,' and forthwith hoisted his flag on board the Ark, a ship of eight hundred tons, which, having been built by Ralegh as a private venture and afterwards sold to the queen, seems to have been called indifferently Ark Ralegh, Ark Royal, and Ark (Edwards, Life of Ralegh, i. 83, 147). Howard's second in command was Sir Francis Drake [q.v.], whose greater experience of sea affairs secured for him a very large share of authority, but Howard's official correspondence through the spring, summer, and autumn of 1588—much of it in his own hand—shows that the responsibility as commander-in-chief was vested in himself alone. His council of war, which he consulted on every question of moment, consisted of Sir Francis Drake, Lord Thomas Howard, Lord Sheffield, Sir Roger Williams, Hawkyns, Frobiser, and Thomas Fenner (cf. his letter 19 June). When looking out for the approach of the Spanish fleet on 6 July, Howard divided the fleet into three parts, himself, as commander-in-chief, after prescriptive usage, in mid-channel, Drake off Ushant, and Hawkyns off Scilly, according to their ranks as second and third in command respectively. In the several encounters with the Spaniards off Plymouth, off St. Alban's Head, and off St Catherine's, Howard invariably acted as leader, though his colleagues, and Drake more particularly, were allowed considerable license. The determination to use the fire–ships off Calais was come to in a council of war, including�sides those already named, with the exception of Williams, who had joined the Earl of Leicester on shore—Lord Henry Seymour, Sir William Wynter [q.v.], and Sir Henry Palmer [q.v.] but the attack on the San Lorenzo, when stranded off Calais, was ordered and directed by Howard in person, contrary, it would appear, to the opinion of his colleagues, This action was severely criticised (cf. Froude, xii. 416 and note) it was urged that the commander-in-chief should then have been, rather, off Gravelines, where the enemy was in force. But the incident serves to mark the independence of Howard, as well as the sense of responsibility which tempered his courage. That the prudent tactics adopted throughout the earlier battles were mainly Howard's, we know, on the direct testimony of Ralegh, who highly commends him as 'better advised than a great many malignant fools were that found fault with his demeanour. The Spaniards had an army aboard them, and he had none they had more ships than he had, and of higher building and charging so that had he entangled himself with those great and powerful vessels, he had greatly endangered this kingdom of England. . . . But our admiral knew his advantage and held it which had he not done, he had not been worthy to have held his head '
        • During the years immediately following the destruction of the 'Invincible Armada' Howard had no employment at sea. His high office prevented his taking part in the adventurous cruising then in vogue [cf. Clifford, George, third Earl of Cumberland], and no expedition on a scale large enough to call for his services was set on foot, though one to the coast of Brittany was proposed in the spring of 1591 (Cal. State Papers, Dom., 12 March 1591). He was meantime occupied with the defence of the country and the administration of the navy. He has the official, and probably also the real, credit of organising the charity long known as 'The Chest at Chatham' [cf. Hawkins, Sir John], which was founded by the queen in 1590 'by the incitement, persuasion, approbation, and good liking of the lord admiral and of the principal officers of the navy' (Chatham Chest Entry Book, 1617-1797, p.1).
        • In 1596 news came of preparations in Spain for another attempt to invade this country, and a fleet and army were prepared and placed under the joint command of Howard and the Earl of Essex [see Devereux, Robert, second Earl of Essex], equal in authority, the lord admiral taking precedence at sea and Essex on shore, although in their joint letters or orders Essex's signature, by right of his earldom, stands first. The fleet, consisting of seventeen ships and numerous transports, arrived off Cadiz on 20 June and anchored in St. Sebastian's Bay. It was determined to force the passage into the harbour on the following morning. After a stubborn contest the Spanish ships gave way and fled towards Puerto Real. The larger vessels grounded in the mud, where their own men set them on fire. Two of the galeons only, the St. Andrew and St. Matthew, were saved and brought home to be added to the English navy. An 'argosy,' 'whose ballast was great ordnance,' was also secured. The other vessels, including several on the point of sailing for the Indies with lading of immense value, which were destroyed, might have been taken had not Essex landed as soon as the Spanish ships gave way. Howard, who had been charged by the queen to provide for her favourite's safety, was obliged to land in support of him (Monson, 'Naval Tracts,' in Churchill's Voyages, iii. 163). The town was taken by storm, and was sacked, but without the perpetration of any serious outrage. The principal officers of the expedition, to the large number of sixty-six, were knighted by the generals, the forts were dismantled, and the fleet again put to sea. The council of war, contrary to the views of Essex, agreed with the admiral that it was the sole business of the expedition to destroy Spanish shipping, and they returned quietly to England without meeting any enemy on the way. Howard's caution, which was with him a matter of temperament rather than (as is sometimes asserted) of age, was undoubtedly responsible for the comparatively small results of the enterprise. He declined all needless risk, and his judgment, in the queen's opinion, was correct. 'You have made me famous, dreadful, and renowned,' she wrote to the generals on their return, 'not more for your victory than for your courage, nor more for either than for such plentiful liquor of mercy, which may well match the better of the two in which you have so well performed my trust, as thereby I see I was not forgotten amongst you.' Elizabeth, however, was, after her wont, very angry when Howard applied for money to pay the sailors their wages. She asserted that the men had paid themselves by plunder, and that she had received no benefit from the expedition.
        • An angry feeling which had arisen between Essex and Howard was increased the following year, when, on 22 Oct., Howard was created Earl of Nottingham, the patent expressly referring not only to his services against the Armada in 1588, but to his achievements in conjunction with Essex at Cadiz. Essex claimed that all that had been done at Cadiz was his work alone, and resented the precedence which the office of lord admiral gave Howard over all non-official earls. The queen appointed Essex earl marshal, thus restoring his precedence but the relations between the two were still strained (Chamberlain, p.38).
        • In February 1597𠄸 some small reinforcements sent to the Spanish army in the Low Countries were magnified by report into alarge force intended for the invasion of England, and Howard was suddenly called on to take measures for the defence of the kingdom. Nothing was ready. With the exception of the Vanguard, Nottingham wrote, all the ships in the Narrow Seas are small, 'fit to meet with Dunkirkers, but far unfit for this that now happens unlooked for. In my opinion, these ships will watch a time to do something on our coast and if they hear our ships are gone to Dieppe, then I think them beasts if they do not burn and spoil Dover and Sandwich. What four thousand men may do on the sudden in some other places I leave to your lordships' judgments' (Nottingham to Burghley and Essex, 17 Feb. 1598, Cal State Papers, Dom.) Eighteen months afterwards there was a similar alarm, with many false rumours, springing out of a gathering of Spanish ships at Corunna. They were reported off Ushant and in the Channel (ib. August 1599). A strong fleet was fitted out and sent to sea, 'in good plight for so short warning' (Chamberlain, p. 61) a camp was ordered to be formed, troops were raised (ib.), and Nottingham was appointed to the chief command by sea or land, his commission constituting him 'lord lieutenant-general of all England,' an exceptional office, which Elizabeth had destined for Leicester at the time of his death, but which had been actually conferred on no one before. Howard now 'held [it] with almost regal authority for the space of six weeks, being sometimes with the fleet in the Downs, and sometimes on shore with the forces' (Campbell, i. 397).
        • Nottingham was one of the commissioners at Essex's trial (19 Feb. 1600𠄱), and after the execution of Essex served on the commission with the lord treasurer and the Earl of Worcester for performing the office of earl marshal (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 10 Dec. 1601). He was in high favour with the queen. On 13 or 14 Dec. 1602 he entertained her at Arundel House. The feasting, we are told, 'had nothing extraordinary, neither were his presents so precious as was expected, being only a whole suit of apparel, whereas it was thought he would have bestowed his rich hangings of all the fights with the Armada in 1588'(Chamberlain, p.169). These hangings were afterwards in the House of Lords, and were burnt with it in 1834, though copies still exist in the engravings made by Pine in 1739. It was to Nottingham that the queen on her deathbed named the king of Scots as her successor (Campbell, i. 398), and it was at his house that the privy council assembled to take measures for moving the queen's body to London (Gardiner, i. 85). He had probably been already in communication with James, and from the first he was marked out as a recipient of the royal favour. He was continued in his office of lord admiral. He was appointed (20 May 1603) a commissioner to consider the preparations for the coronation in May 1604 he was a commissioner for negotiating the peace with Spain, and in March 1605 was sent to Spain as ambassador extraordinary, to interchange ratifications and oaths. His embassy was of almost regal splendour. He had the title of excellency, and a money allowance of 15,000l. All the gentlemen of his staff wore black velvet cloaks, and his retainers numbered five hundred (Winwood, Memorials, ii. 39, 52). His firmness, his calm temper, and his unswerving courtesy, backed up by the prestige of his military achievements, carried the treaty through most satisfactorily. 'My lord's person,' wrote Sir Charles Cornwallis [q. v.], 'his behaviour and his office of admiral hath much graced him with this people, who have heaped all manner of honours that possibly they can upon him. The king of Spain has borne all charges for diet, carriage, &c., and bestowed upon him in plate, jewels, and horses at his departure to the value of 20,000l.' ( Winwood, ii. 74, 89). Liberal presents of chains and jewels were made to the officers of his staff, and Nottingham won golden opinions from the Spanish courtiers by his open-handed generosity.
        • No important commission seems to have been considered complete unless Nottingham was a member of it. He was appointed to the commission formed to prevent persons of low birth assuming the armorial bearings of the nobility, 4 Feb. 1603𠄴 to consider the union of England and Scotland, 2 June 1604 for the trial of the parties concerned in the Gunpowder plot, 27 Jan. 1604𠄵 to grant leases of his majesty's woods and coppices, 24 Sept. 1606 and to take an inventory of, jewels in the Tower, 20 March 1606𠄷. On the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth to the Elector Palatine, 14 Feb. 1612�, 'she was conducted from the chapel betwixt him and the Duke of Lennox' (Collins, v. 123), and was afterwards escorted to Flushing by a squadron under his command. This was his last naval service. The last commission of which he was a member was that appointed on 26 April 1618 to review the ancient statutes and articles of the order of the Garter (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 674). He was now an old man, and it may be conceived that the cares of office sat heavily on him. Many abuses crept into the administration of the navy, as indeed into other public departments, and a commission was appointed to inquire into them on 23 June 1618 (Gardiner, iii. 204 Patent Roll, 16 Jac. I, pt. i. It may be noted that immediately following this appointment in the Roll is that of an other commission, in almost identical terms, to inquire into abuses in the treasury). After the report of the naval commission in the September following (Cal. State Papers, Dom. vol. ci. Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. pt. i. p. 99), though no blame was attributed to Nottingham, even by current gossip, he probably felt that he was not equal to the task of cleansing the sink of iniquity which stood revealed. Buckingham was anxious to relieve him of the burden, and a friendly arrangement was made, by the terms of which he was to receive 3,000l. for the surrender of his office, and a pension of 1,000l. per annum (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 6 Feb. 1619) he was also during life to take precedence as Earl of Nottingham of the original creation of John Mowbray (temp. Richard II), from whom, in the female line, he claimed descent (ib. 19 Feb.) This precedency seems to have been purely personal (Collins, v. 123), and not to have extended to his wife for two months later, on the occasion of the queen's funeral, there was a warm controversy on the subject, Nottingham arguing that a woman necessarily took the same precedence as her husband, except when that was official (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 14, 24, 25 April). In his retirement he continued to act as lord-lieutenant of Surrey, and held numerous posts connected with the royal domains (ib. 14 April 1608), the gross emoluments of which were large. Despite his high and remunerative offices he was not accused of greed, but was said to have exercised a noble munificence and princely hospitality, and to have used the income of his office in maintaining its splendour. He died at the ripe age of eighty-eight, at Harling, near Croydon, on 13 Dec. 1624. It appears that he preserved his faculties to the last. A letter dated 20 May 1623, though written by his secretary, was signed by himself, 'Nottingham,' in a clear bold hand. He was buried in the family vault in the church at Reigate, but no monument to his memory is there. One in the church of St. Margaret, Westminster, has sometimes given rise to a false impression that he was buried there.
        • It has been frequently stated that Howard was a Roman catholic. The presumption is strongly against it, for the Act of Uniformity passed in 1559, declaring the queen the supreme head of the church, required a sworn admission to that effect from every officer of the crown. The statement itself seems to be of recent origin. Dodd, Tierney, Charles Butler, and Lingard, among catholics Camden, Stow, Collins, Campbell, and Southey, among protestants give no hint of it. The story was not improbably coined during the discussions on catholic emancipation, and suggested by the known religious belief of recent dukes of Norfolk. A number of circumstances combine to give it positive contradiction. He helped to suppress the rebellion of the north, a catholic rising, in 1569 was a commissioner for the trial of those implicated in the Babington plot, and of Mary Queen of Scots on 2 Oct. 1597, and again 9 May 1605, was appointed on a commission to hear and determine ecclesiastical causes in the diocese of Winchester was on the commission for the trial of the men implicated in the Gunpowder plot in 1605, and for the trial of Henry Garnett [q.v.], the Jesuit (Hargrave, i.231, 247) was in the beginning of the reign of James I at the head of a commission to discover and expel all catholic priests (Howard, Memorials, p.90). An Englishman in Spain, in the course of a letter of intelligence addressed to Howard, wrote: 'I hope to acquaint you with all the papists of account and traitors in England ' (Cal State Papers,Dom. 13 Aug. 1598). According to information from Douay: 'The recusants say that they have but three enemies in England whom they fear, viz. the lord chief justice, Sir Robert Cecil, and the lord high admiral' (ib. 27 April 1602) and on 20 May 1623 he reported to the archbishop of Canterbury, as lieutenant of the county, that John Monson, son of Sir William Monson, was 'the most dangerous papist,' and was, therefore, committed to the Gatehouse (ib. 30 May). His father, as lord admiral under Mary, was no doubt a catholic then, but in all probability conformed to the new religion with his son on the accession of Elizabeth.
        • Howard was twice married: first, to Catherine, daughter of Henry Carey, lord Hunsdon [q.v.], first cousin of the queen on the mother's side. By her Howard had issue two sons and three daughters. Of the sons William married in 1597 Anne, daughter of John, lord St. John of Bletsoe, and died 28 Nov. 1615, leaving one daughter, Elizabeth, who married John Mordaunt, earl of Peterborough, and was grandmother of Charles Mordaunt, earl of Peterborough [q.v.] in the time of Queen Anne the younger, Charles, on the death of his father, succeeded as second Earl of Nottingham, and died without male issue in 1642. Of the daughters Frances married Sir Robert Southwell, who commanded the Elizabeth Jonas against the Armada in 1588 Elizabeth married Henry Fitzgerald, earl of Kildare, and Margaret married Sir Richard Leveson [q. v.] of Trentham, vice�miral of England. Catherine, the first countess of Nottingham, died in February 1602-3, which, we are told, the admiral took 'exceeding grievously,' keeping his chamber, mourning in sad earnest ' (Chamberlain, p. 179 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 9 March 1603). She was a favourite with the queen, and when she died in February 1602-3, Elizabeth fell into a deep melancholy, and herself died 20 March following. The story that the countess intercepted a ring sent by Essex to Elizabeth, and confessed the deceit to the queen on her deathbed, is doubtless apocryphal [see Devereux, Robert, second Earl of Esssex]. Before June 1604 Howard married his second wife Margaret, daughter of James Stuart, earl of Murray, great-granddaughter through the female line of the Regent Murray. On 12 June 1604 she was granted the manor and mansion-house of Chelsea for life (Cal. State Papers, Dom.) she is again mentioned in December 1604 as having a 'polypus in her nostril, which some fear must be cut off' (Winwood, ii. 39). By her Howard had two sons: James, who died a child in 1610, and Charles, born 25 Dec. 1610, who, on the death of his half-brother and namesake, succeeded as third Earl of Nottingham he died without issue in 1681, when the title became extinct, the barony of Effingham passing to the line of Howard's younger brother.
        • A portrait of Howard by Mytens is at Hampton Court another, full length, life size, in Garter robes, collar of the Garter with George, with the Armada seen in the background through an open window, belongs to the Duke of Norfolk a third, three-quarter length, life size, is the property of Mr. G. Milner-Gibson Cullum a fourth is in the possession of the Earl of Effingham. They all represent Howard as an old man.
        • [By far the best Memoir of Howard is that in the Biographia Britannica, which exhausts the older sources of information the memoir in Campbell's Lives of the Admirals (i. 392) is a condensed version of it. The notice in Collins's Peerage (edit. of 1768), v. 121, is also good that in Southey's Lives of the British Admirals, ii. 278, is, as a biography, meagre. Much new matter is in the Calendars of State Papers, Dom. There is some interesting correspondence in Winwood's Memorials, vol. ii., and in Chamberlain's Letters (Camden Soc. 1861). Treswell's Relation of the Embassy to Spain (1605) is republished in Somers's Tracts, 1809, ii. 70. The story of the Armada and of the sacking of Cadiz is in Hakluyt's Principal Navigations, and the whole naval history of the period is brought together in Lediard's Naval History. Other authorities bearing on parts of Howard's extended career are Monson's Naval Tracts in Churchill's Voyages, vol. iii. Devereux's Lives of the Devereux, Earls of Essex Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia in Harleian Miscellany, ii. 98 Howard's Memorials of the Howard family, which makes some strange blunders in dates G. Leveson-Grower's Howards of Effingham, in vol. ix. of Surrey Arch. Coll. p. 395 Froude's Hist. of England (cabinet edit.) Gardiner's Hist. of England (cabinet edit,)]
        • From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Howard,_Charles_(1536-1624)_(DNB00)

        The History of Norfolk: From Original Records and Other Authorities Preserved in Public and Private Collections Robert Hindry Mason - January 1, 1885 Wertheimer, Lea - Publisher

        Curator, please remove Joan Howard. It was removed before and someone reposted her as a daughter. Joan was NOT his daughter. - Done EH 28 May 2013

        Charles Howard was married first to Catherine Carey, daughter of Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon and Ann Morgan.

        They had the following children:

        1. Frances Howard (buried July 11, 1628). She was married first to Henry FitzGerald, 12th Earl of Kildare. She was secondly married to Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham.

        2. William Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Effingham (December 27, 1577 – November 28, 1615). Summoned to the Lords as 3rd Baron Howard of Effingham. He was married on February 7, 1596/1597 to Anne St John.

        3. Charles Howard, 2nd Earl of Nottingham (September 17, 1579 – October 3, 1642). He was married first on May 19, 1597 to Charity White (d. December 18, 1618), daughter to Robert White. Secondly on April 22, 1620 to Mary Cokayne, daughter of Sir William Cokayne who served as Lord Mayor of London in 1619 and Mary Morris.

        4. Margaret Howard, married in 1587 Sir Richard Leveson, no issue.

        5. Elizabeth Howard (buried March 31, 1646). Maid of honour to Elizabeth I of England. She was married first to Sir Robert Southwell. One of their daughters, Elizabeth, was a lover and eventually a third wife of Robert Dudley (explorer). Another daughter, Frances, married Edward Rodney. Elizabeth Howard was secondly married to John Stewart, 1st Earl of Carrick.

        Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham married secondly to Margaret Stuart, daughter of James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Moray and Elizabeth Stuart, 2nd Countess of Moray. She was more than 50 years younger than he was. They had two children:

        6. Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Nottingham (1610�)

        7. Anne Howard (born c. 1612). She was married on 29 December 1627 to Alexander Stewart, Baron Garlies, son of Alexander Stewart, 1st Earl of Galloway and Grizel Gordon.

        First Earl of Nottingham. Statesman, admiral, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham.

        Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham (1536 – 14 December 1624), known as Howard of Effingham, was an English statesman and Lord High Admiral under Elizabeth I and James I. He was commander of the English forces during the battles against the Spanish Armada and was chiefly responsible after Francis Drake for the victory that saved England from invasion by the Spanish Empire.

        Few details of Charles Howard's early life are known. He was born in 1536, and was the cousin of Queen Elizabeth. He was son of William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham (c. 1510 – 1573) and Margaret Gamage (d. 18 May 1581), daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage.[1] He was a grandson of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He was also the cousin of Anne Boleyn (Anne's mother was half-sister to Charles' father), and held several prominent posts during the reign of Anne's daughter, Elizabeth I.


        Family

        The identity of Alexander's wife is uncertain. Some secondary sources erroneously identify her as Jean, daughter of James, son of Angus, son of Somerled.

        1. James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (c. 1243-1309)
        2. Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, Berwickshire (c. 1245-22 July 1298), described as the "second son" who married the Bonkill heiress, had seven sons and one daughter, and was killed in the Battle of Falkirk.
        3. Andrew Stewart (a.k.a. Andrew Steward) Esq. (c. 1245), third son of Alexander Stewart. Married the daughter of James Bethe. Father of Sir Alexander 'the fierce' Steward and direct ancestor of Oliver Cromwell. Great uncle of King Robert II.
        4. Elizabeth Stewart, (c. 1248, d. before 1288) Married Sir William Douglas the Hardy, Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[7] She was the mother of the Good Sir James Douglas.
        5. Hawise Stewart (c. 1262) Married the brother of the Lord of Liddesdale, Sir John de Soulis.[18] Had female issue, Muriel de Soulis.

        Through their eldest son James they were great-grandparents of King Robert II, the first Stewart to be King of Scots, and thus ancestors of all subsequent Scottish monarchs and the later and current monarchs of Great Britain.

        Through their second son John, they were the direct ancestors in the male line of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and of the Stuart monarchs of Scotland and England from Darnley's son James VI and I onwards.

        Through their third son Andrew they were the 9x great grandparents of Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector.

          Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, Containing an Historical and Genealogical Account of the Nobility of that Kingdom, with Armorial Illustrations (1904-1914), Paul , Sir James Balfour, (9 volumes. Edinburgh: D. Douglas, 1904-1914), vol. 1 p. 13. "His wife is said to have been Jean, daughter of James, Lord of Bute."

        Alexander Stewart (died 1283), also known as Alexander of Dundonald, was 4th hereditary High Steward of Scotland from his father's death in 1246.

        Coat of arms of the High Stewart of Scotland: Or, a fess chequy argent and azure Tenure 1246� Predecessor Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland Successor James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland Died1283 Nationality Scottish Parents Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland and Beth༼ (Beatrix) Mac Gille Críst

        Origins He was a son of Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland by his wife Beth༼, daughter of Gille Críst, Earl of Angus.

        Career He is said to have accompanied King Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade (1248�).[1] In 1255 he was one of the councillors of King Alexander III of Scotland, though under age.[2]

        He was the principal commander under King Alexander III at the Battle of Largs, on 2 October 1263, when the Scots defeated the Norwegians under Haakon IV. The Scots invaded and conquered the Isle of Man the following year, which was then, together with the whole of the Western Isles, annexed to the Crown of Scotland.[3][4]

        Marriage and issue He married Jane, heiress of the Isles of Bute and Arran, daughter of James Mac Angus(d.1210) (who with his father and brothers were killed by the men of Skye), son of Angus, Lord of Bute & Arran (younger son of Somerled, King of the South Isles). By his wife he had the following issue:[5][6]

        James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (c. 1260-1309), eldest son and heir grandfather of King Robert II of Scotland, the first Stewart King of Scots, and thus ancestor of all subsequent Scottish monarchs and of the post-Tudor monarchs of Great Britain, later the United Kingdom . Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, (d. 22 July 1298), 2nd son, who married Margaret de Bonkyll, the heiress of Bonkyll, by whom he had seven sons and one daughter. Ancestor of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, father of King James VI and I of Scotland and England. He was killed in the Battle of Falkirk (1298).[7][8] Andrew Stewart,[9] third son,[10] who married the daughter of James Bethe. He was the father of Sir Alexander Steward "The Fierce" and an ancestor of Oliver Cromwell.[11][12][13] Elizabeth Stewart (d. before 1288), who married Sir William Douglas the Hardy, Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed. She was the mother of the James Douglas, Lord of Douglas, "Good Sir James Douglas".[14] Hawise Stewart, who married John de Soulis (died 1310), brother of the Lord of Liddesdale.[15]

        Sources Nisbet, Alexander, 1722. Vol.1,p. 48 and appendix, page 149. Burke, Messrs., John and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, and Their Descendants &c., volume 2, London, 1851, p. xlii. Anderson, William, "The Scottish Nation", Edinburgh, 1867, vol.vii, p. 200. Mackenzie, A. M., MA., D.Litt., The Rise of the Stewarts, London, 1935, pp. 13�. The Marquis de Ruvigny & Raineval, The Jacobite Peerage &c., London & Edinburgh (1904), 1974 reprint, p. 8n.</ref> Agnatic ancestor of British kings.

        References ^ Simpson, David, The Genealogical and Chronological History of the Stuarts, Edinburgh, 1713. ^ Anderson, William, The Scottish Nation, Edinburgh, 1867, vol.ix, p.512 ^ Burke, Messrs., John and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, with Their Descendants &c., volume 2, London, 1851, p. xli-xlii. ^ Anderson (1867) vil.ix, p.512 ^ Sir James Balfour Paul. The Scots Peerage: founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's, The Peerage of Scotland, (Edinburgh, Scotland: David Douglas, 1904), vol. 1, p. 13. ^ Mosley, Charles, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th ed., 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books, Ltd., 2003), vol. 1, p. 449. ^ Paul, James Balfour (1904). The Scottish Peerage. p. 169. ^ "Bunkle Castle". Historic Environment Scotland. ^ International Genealogical Index Source Batch No. 6020347, Sheet 65, Source Call No. 1621525 ^ Visitations of Cambridgeshire, 1575 & 1619 ^ Noble, Mark, Memoirs of the Protectoral House of Cromwell, London, 1757, vol.2, p.204 ^ Foster, John, The Statesmen of the Commonwealth of England, London, 1830, vol.4, p.305 ^ Lauder-Frost, 2004, p.152. ^ Maxwell, Sir Herbert, Bt., A History of the House of Douglas, London, 1902, vol.1, p.28. ^ Cokayne Gibbs Doubleday Howard de Walden (1932) p. 206.

        Bibliography Cokayne, GE Gibbs, V Doubleday, HA Howard de Walden, eds. (1932). The Complete Peerage. Vol. 8. London: The St Catherine Press. Lauder-Frost, Gregory, F.S.A.Scot., "East Anglian Stewarts" in The Scottish Genealogist, Dec.2004, vol.LI, no.4., pps:151-161. ISSN 0330-337X MacEwen, ABW (2011). "The Wives of Sir James the Steward (d.1309)". Foundations. 3 (5): 391�. Sellar, WDH (2000). "Hebridean Sea Kings: The Successors of Somerled, 1164�". In Cowan, EJ McDonald, RA (eds.). Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages. East Linton: Tuckwell Press. pp. 187�. ISBN 1-86232-151-5.

        External links Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland House of Stewart Born: 1214 Died: 1283 Peerage of Scotland Preceded by Walter Steward High Steward of Scotland 1246� Succeeded by James Stewart Last edited 5 months ago by 2601:589:8080:1CC0:78F3:E045:E016:8EA2

        RELATED ARTICLES Gille Críst, Earl of Angus Thomas Stewart, 2nd Earl of Angus John Stewart of Bonkyll

        Notes 𥹡 - Principal commander under King Alexander III at the Battle of Largs 2 Oct 1263 when the Scottish army defeated the Norwegians. In 1264 he invaded the Isle of Man.

        2.[S265] Colquoun_Cunningham.ged, Jamie Vans

        4.[S288] Alexander Gardner, Paisley, 1906, McKerlie, (Alexander Gardner, Paisley, 1906), ii, 267 (Reliability: 3)

        5.[S289] Betty and Dick Field's Family History, Richard Field

        Alexander Stewart (1214 – 1283) was 4th hereditary High Steward of Scotland from his father's death in 1246. He was also known as Alexander of Dundonald.

        A son of Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland by his wife Beth༼, daughter of Gille Críst, Earl of Angus, Alexander is said to have accompanied Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade (1248�). In 1255 he was one of the councillors of King Alexander III, though under age.

        He was the principal commander under King Alexander III of Scotland at the Battle of Largs, on 2 October 1263, when the Scots defeated the Norwegians under Haakon IV. The Scots invaded and conquered the Isle of Man the following year, which was, with the whole of the Western Isles, then annexed to the Crown of Scotland.

        The identity of Alexander's wife is uncertain. Some secondary sources erroneously identify her as Jean, daughter of James, son of Angus, son of Somerled.

        Children 1.James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (c. 1243-1309) 2.Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, Berwickshire (c. 1245-22 July 1298), described as the "second son" who married the Bonkill heiress, had seven sons and one daughter, and was killed in the Battle of Falkirk. 3.Andrew Stewart (a.k.a. Andrew Steward) Esq. (c. 1245), third son of Alexander Stewart. Married the daughter of James Bethe. Father of Sir Alexander 'the fierce' Steward and direct ancestor of Oliver Cromwell. Great uncle of King Robert II. 4.Elizabeth Stewart, (c. 1248, d. before 1288) Married Sir William Douglas the Hardy, Governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed.[7] She was the mother of the Good Sir James Douglas. 5.Hawise Stewart (c. 1262) Married the brother of the Lord of Liddesdale, Sir John de Soulis.[18] Had female issue, Muriel de Soulis.

        Through their eldest son James they were great-grandparents of King Robert II, the first Stewart to be King of Scots, and thus ancestors of all subsequent Scottish monarchs and the later and current monarchs of Great Britain.

        Through their second son John, they were the direct ancestors in the male line of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and of the Stuart monarchs of Scotland and England from Darnley's son James VI and I onwards.

        Through their third son Andrew they were the 9x great grandparents of Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector.

        Sources 1.The Scots Peerage: Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, Containing an Historical and Genealogical Account of the Nobility of that Kingdom, with Armorial Illustrations (1904-1914), Paul , Sir James Balfour, (9 volumes. Edinburgh: D. Douglas, 1904-1914), vol. 1 p. 13. "His wife is said to have been Jean, daughter of James, Lord of Bute."

        Notes 𥹡 - Principal commander under King Alexander III at the Battle of Largs 2 Oct 1263 when the Scottish army defeated the Norwegians. In 1264 he invaded the Isle of Man.

        2 -He commanded the right wing of the Scots army at the battle of Largs, 1263. He had two sons In the thirteenth century, the 4th Stewart of Scotland (a crusader) married the heiress of the Lord of Bute of the royal House of Isles

        1 October 1283: Invasion of Scotland by Haakon, King of Norway, attacked on the beaches by gathering Scottish forces, beginning the Battle of the Largs. 5 October 1283: Norwegians abandon invasion of Scotland, leaving ships and wounded on the beach. Despite the victory of Brian Boru over the Danes in Ireland in 1014, the Scandinavian incursions into the Celtic nations took a long time to fade away. It would be nearly 270 years after the Battle of Clontarf before the ScandinaviansÙu last hurrah in the spectacular Battle of the Largs. In the year 1283 the English were just consolidating their conquest of Wales with the execution on 3 October of Dafydd, the last native Prince of Wales. The power of Norway still dominated the North Sea and reached around the coast of Scotland into the Irish Sea, hedging the growing power of Scotland with a chain of island possessions that included the Orkneys, Shetland, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Mann. When ScotlandÙus boy king Alexander III turned 21 in 1262, one of his first acts was to try to purchase the Hebrides from Norway. The offer was refused, but when the Earl of Ross led a bloody raid on the Norwegian-held Isle of Skye, the Norwegian King Haakon prepared for an armed showdown with Scotland. Haakon assembled a fleet of 100 ships, the largest armada yet seen in those waters, and was joined by Magnus, the King of Mann, along with other Scandinavian jarls. But after wasting the summer in fruitless sparring and maneuvering, Haakon divided his forces, sending most of the Manx fleet off on coastal raids and dispatching 40 other ships to be dragged overland and floated in Loch Lomond, a novel if pointless tour de force. King Alexander in the meantime was biding his time, keeping his field armies intact behind a defensive screen of castles. The opportunity he was waiting for came at last on 1 October, when the first storms of autumn forced Haakon to decide between abandoning the campaign or chancing a risky landing on the Scottish coast. Haakon chose to go for the landing. The Norwegians struggled through the storm-roiled surf on the west coast of Scotland only to be met on the beaches by a Scottish vanguard of archers and mailed knights, who commenced a running battle with the Norwegians on 2 October. The bedraggled Norwegians were in no shape to deal with a hot landing zone, but found themselves unable to put back out to sea due to the worsening weather. They were equally unable to gain a secure beachhead for themselves in the face of the growing numbers of Scots that Alexander dispatched from their inland bases as soon as he learned of the Norwegian predicament. After some 72 hours of debilitating and almost continuous combat, the weather lifted just enough to enable the remaining Norwegians to make a hasty evacuation, leaving most of their dead and wounded on beaches lit by the burning hulks of their ships. The Battle of the Largs marked the rise of independent Scotland and the terminal decline of NorwayÙus North Sea hegemony. The victory was followed by the death of Haakon, NorwayÙus cessation of the Hebrides to Scotland, and the Scottish takeover of the Orkneys and the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. Scotland eventually gained Shetland too, as a wedding present, but that is a story for another day. [ http://www.celticleague.org/ ]

        2.[S265] Colquoun_Cunningham.ged, Jamie Vans

        4.[S288] Alexander Gardner, Paisley, 1906, McKerlie, (Alexander Gardner, Paisley, 1906), ii, 267 (Reliability: 3)


        High Steward (academia)

        The High Steward in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge (sometimes erroneously known as the Lord High Steward) is a university official. Originally a deputy for the Chancellor, the office of High Steward had by the 18th century undergone the same evolution and become a position by which the universities honoured prominent external figures. [1] The High Stewards still retain some functions relating to adjudication in disputes, appeals, and deputizing if there is a vacancy in the Chancellorship. [2] In Oxford, the office of High Steward is now more similar to the office of Commissary in Cambridge. [3]

        In Cambridge, the High Steward is elected by the members of the University Senate voting in person, one of that body's few remaining functions, and holds office until he or she voluntarily resigns or until the Senate otherwise determines. The Deputy High Steward is appointed by the High Steward by letters patent. The High Steward and the Deputy High Steward perform "such duties as have heretofore been customary and any duties prescribed by Statute or Ordinance". When the office of High Steward is vacant the duties of that office are performed by the Deputy High Steward. [2]


        Basics

        Son of: Walter Steward 1293 - 9 Apr 1326 and Marjorie Bruce December 1296 - 2 March 1316 (Daughter of Robert I)

        1. John Stewart, Earl of Carrick
        2. Walter Stewart, Lord of Fife (d. 1362)
        3. Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife and Monteith
        4. Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, Lord of Badenoch and Ross
        5. Margaret Stewart
        6. Marjory Stewart
        7. Isabella Stewart
        8. Katherine Stewart
        9. Elizabeth Stewart, the elder
        10. Jean Stewart
        1. David Stewart, 1st Earl of Caithness, Earl of Strathearn
        2. Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl
        3. Margaret Stewart
        4. Elizabeth Stewart, the younger
        5. Egidia Stewart

        Illegitimate children of with Mariota de Cardney

        1. Alexander Stewart of Innerlunan
        2. Sir John Stewart of Cardney
        3. James Stewart of Abernethy & Kinfaun
        4. Walter Stewart
        5. Possible Unknown Daughter(s)

        Illegitimate children with Moira Leitch

        Illegitimate children with Unknown

        1. Sir John Stewart of Dundonald
        2. Thomas Stewart, Bishop of St Andrews
        3. Alexander Stewart, Canon of Glasgow
        4. James Stewart, Canon of Glasgow
        5. Possible Unknown Daughter(s)

        [S6] G.E. Cokayne with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959 reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, pages 16, 77, 310-311. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage

        [S39] Medieval, royalty, nobility family group sheets (filmed 1996), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Family History Department. Medieval Family History Unit, (Manuscript. Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1996), FHL film 1553977-1553985..

        [S40] Handbook of British Chronology (1986), Fryde, E. B., editor, (Royal Historical Society guides and handbooks, no. 2. London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society, 1986), FHL book 942 C4rg no. 2., p. 59.

        [S109] #2419 Genealogical account of the family of Edmonstone of Duntreath, Edmonstone, Archibald, Sir, (Edinburgh : A. Edmondson, 1875), 929.241 Ed58e., p. 25.

        [S658] The Royal Stewarts, Henderson, T. F., (William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London, 1914), 929.241 St49h., Stewart Pedigree.

        [S2149] #665 The Genealogist (1877-1922), (Old Series, 7 volumes, 1877-1883. New Series, 38 volumes, 1884-1922. London: George Bell, 1877-1922), FHL book 942 B2gqm see FHL catalog for list of vo., Spring 1980, vol. 1 no. 1 p. 93 fn. 45.

        [S2318] #1210 The Family of Griffith of Garn and Plasnewydd in the County of Denbigh, as Registered in the College of Arms from the Beginning of the XIth Century (1934), Glenn, Thomas Allen, (London: Harrison, 1934), FHL book 929.2429 G875g FHL microfilm 994,040 ite., p. 306.

        Robert II (March 2, 1316 - April 19, 1390), king of Scots, called "the Steward", a title that gave the name to the House of Stewart (or Stuart). He ruled from 1371 until his death.

        Robert was the sole son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland (d. 1326) and Marjorie Bruce, daughter of King Robert I of Scotland and his first wife Isabella of Mar. He was delivered by caesarean section. His mother survived his birth by some hours at most.

        In 1318 the Scottish parliament decreed that if King Robert died without sons the crown should pass to his grandson but the birth of a son afterwards, King David II, to Bruce in 1324 postponed the accession of Robert for nearly forty-two years. Soon after the infant David became king in 1329, the Steward began to take a prominent part in the affairs of Scotland. He was one of the leaders of the Scottish army at the battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333 and after gaining some successes over the adherents of Edward Balliol in the west of Scotland, he and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray (d. 1346), were chosen as regents of the kingdom, while David sought safety in France.

        The colleagues soon quarrelled then Randolph fell into the hands of the English and Robert became sole regent, meeting with such success in his efforts to restore the royal authority that the king was able to return to Scotland in 1341. Having handed over the duties of government to David, the Steward escaped from the battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, and was again chosen regent while the king was a captive in England. Soon after this event some friction arose between Robert and his royal uncle. Accused, probably without truth, of desertion at Neville's Cross, the Steward as heir-presumptive was greatly chagrined by the king's proposal to make Edward III of England, or one of his sons, the heir to the Scottish throne, and by David's marriage with Margaret Logie.

        In 1363 he rose in rebellion, and after having made his submission was seized and imprisoned together with four of his sons, being only released a short time before David's death in February 1371. By the terms of the decree of 1318 Robert now succeeded to the throne, and was crowned at Scone, Perthshire in March 1371. He was not a particularly active king. Some steps were taken by the nobles to control the royal authority. In 1378 a war broke out with England but the king took no part in the fighting, which included the burning of Edinburgh and the Scottish victory at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388.

        As age and infirmity were telling upon him, the estates in 1389 appointed his second surviving son Robert, Earl of Fife, afterwards Duke of Albany, guardian of the kingdom. The king died at Dundonald in 1390, and was buried at Scone.

        His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan, a lady who had formerly been his mistress. Robert had married her in 1336, but as the marriage had been criticised as uncanonical, he remarried her in 1349. By her he had at least ten children:

        • John Stewart (d. 1406), later king as Robert III
        • Alexander of Buchan (1343?1394)
        • Margaret Stewart, married John MacDonald, Lord of the Isles
        • Walter Stewart (d. 1362), married Isabel Macduff, 9th Countess of Fife
        • Robert of Albany (1339?1420)
        • Marjory Stewart, married first John Dunbar, 5th Earl of Moray, second Alexander Keith
        • Jean Stewart, married in 1373 Sir John Keith, in 1379 Sir John Lyon, in 1384 Sir James Sandilands
        • Isabel Stewart, married first James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas, married second David Edmondstone
        • Katherine Stewart
        • Elizabeth Stewart, married Sir Thomas Hay, Lord High Constable of Scotland

        By his second wife, Euphemia, daughter of Hugh de Ross, 4th Earl of Ross, and widow of the 3rd Earl of Moray, formerly his colleague as regent, he had five children:

        • David Stewart, 1st Earl of Caithness (d. bef. 1389)
        • Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (d. 1437)
        • Margaret Stewart
        • Elizabeth Stewart, married 1380 David Lindsay, 1st Earl of Crawford
        • Egidia Stewart, married 1387 Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale

        The confusion about the circumstances of his first marriage would later lead to conflict amongst the descendants of his first marriage (which included James I of Scotland) and the unquestionably legitimate descendants of his second marriage.

        Robert had also eight illegitimate children, mostly by unknown mothers.

        Robert was first known as Robert the Steward, the 7th High Steward of Scotland. He was the grandson of King Robert "The Bruce", but is described as lacking the courage and vigour of his grandfather. During the English imprisonment of King David II of Scotland, Robert ruled in his place. King David failed to produce any male heirs and on his death the throne passed to (this) Robert the Steward. When Robert II came to the throne, a fourteen-year truce with England still had twelve years to run, although unofficial warfare with England continued along the border. Full scale war broke out in 1385 as a by-product of the Hundred Years' War between England and France. Scotland became involved through assistance to France. Throughout this period Robert II was ever weak in his control of the state. In 1384 he appointed his heir John, Earl of Carrick (later to become King Robert III), to enforce authority on his behalf. He died 6 years later.

        Robert resided primarily at Stirling Castle. Following the Wars of Independence, his grandfather, King Robert The Bruce, had torn down Stirling Castle so that it could not be occupied by the English. Robert Stewart began the project of rebuilding Stirling. The North Tower of the present castle is the only remnant of the castle built by King Robert II. (See photo above.)

        Robert married in 1347 to Elizabeth MURE Countess of Strathearn b: ABT 1315 in Rowallan, Ayrshire, Scotland. They had the following children:

        Has Children John STEWART King Robert III Of Scots b: 1337 in Scotland. He was father of:

        David STEWART, Duke of Rothesay, Regent of Scotland. He was heir to the thrown and died under suspicious circumstances, possibly murdered by his uncle, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany.

        King James I. After his brother David was murdered, James feared for his own life and fled from Scotland to France, however his ship was intercepted by English pirates and he was sent to London as a prisoner for 18 years. During his imprisonment, his uncle Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, became Regent of Scotland and ruled in James' absence. Robert, the Duke, made no serious effort to have James freed.

        Has No Children Walter STEWART Earl of Fife b: ABT 1339 in Scotland

        Has Children Robert STEWART 1st Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland b: ABT 1341 in Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland

        • Alexander STEWART Lord of Badenoch and Earl of Buchan b: ABT 1343 in Scotland
        • Elizabeth STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1344 in Scotland
        • Isabella STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1346 in Scotland
        • Jean STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1348 in Scotland
        • Katherine STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1350 in Scotland
        • Margaret STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1352 in Scotland
        • Marjorie STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1354 in Scotland

        King Robert II had other children by other women who are not presented here as they are not directly relevant to the story of the Stewarts of Balquhidder

        Robert II (2 March 1316 – 19 April 1390) reigned as King of Scots from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce and of his first wife Isabella of Mar.

        Edward Bruce was named heir to the throne but he died without legitimate children on 3 December 1318 in a battle near Dundalk in Ireland. Marjorie by this time had died in a riding accident - probably in 1317. Parliament decreed her infant son, Robert Stewart, as heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 March 1324 on the birth of a son, David, to King Robert and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. Robert Stewart inherited the title of High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, and a Parliament held in July 1326 confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. In 1329 King Robert I died and the six year-old David succeeded to the throne with Sir Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray appointed Guardian of Scotland.

        Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol, assisted by the English and Scottish nobles disinherited by Robert I, invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill on 10 July 1333. Robert fought at Halidon, where his uncle and former guardian, Sir James Stewart, was killed. Following this battle, Robert's lands in the west were given by Balliol to his supporter David Strathbogie, the titular Earl of Atholl. Robert took refuge in the fortress of Dumbarton Castle in the Clyde estuary to join his uncle, King David. In May 1334 David escaped to France leaving Robert and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray as joint Guardians of the kingdom. Robert succeeded in regaining his lands but following Randolph's capture by the English in July 1335, his possessions were once again targeted by the forces of Balliol and King Edward III of England. This may have persuaded Robert to submit to Balliol and the English king and may explain his removal as Guardian by September 1335. The Guardianship transferred to Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell but following his death in 1338 Robert was re-appointed and retained the office until King David returned from France in June 1341. Robert accompanied David into battle at Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 but he and Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March escaped or fled the field and David was taken prisoner. In October 1357, the king was ransomed for 100,000 marks to be paid in installments over ten years.

        Robert married Elizabeth Mure around 1348, legitimising his four sons and five daughters. His subsequent marriage to Euphemia de Ross in 1355 produced two sons and two surviving daughters and provided the basis of a future dispute regarding the line of succession. Robert joined a rebellion against David in 1363, but submitted to him following a threat to his right of succession. In 1364 David presented a proposal to Parliament that would cancel the remaining ransom debt if it was agreed that a Plantagenet heir would inherit the Scottish throne should he die without issue. This was rejected and Robert succeeded to the throne at the age of 55 following David's unexpected death in 1371. England still controlled large sectors in the Lothians and in the border country so King Robert allowed his southern earls to engage in actions in the English zones to regain their territories, halted trade with England and renewed treaties with France. By 1384 the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands, but following the commencement of Anglo-French peace talks, Robert was reluctant to commit Scotland to all-out war and obtained Scotland's inclusion in the peace treaty. Robert's peace strategy was a factor in the virtual coup in 1384 when he lost control of the country, first to his eldest son, John, Earl of Carrick, afterwards King Robert III, and then from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert, Earl of Fife, afterwards the first Duke of Albany. Robert II died in Dundonald Castle in 1390 and was buried at Scone Abbey. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_Scotland http://www.thepeerage.com/p10210.htm#i102097 Robert II (2 March 1316 – 19 April 1390) reigned as King of Scots from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce and of his first wife Isabella of Mar.

        Edward Bruce was named heir to the throne but he died without legitimate children on 3 December 1318 in a battle near Dundalk in Ireland. Marjorie by this time had died in a riding accident - probably in 1317. Parliament decreed her infant son, Robert Stewart, as heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 March 1324 on the birth of a son, David, to King Robert and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. Robert Stewart inherited the title of High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, and a Parliament held in July 1326 confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. In 1329 King Robert I died and the six-year-old David succeeded to the throne with Sir Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray appointed Guardian of Scotland.

        Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol, assisted by the English and Scottish nobles disinherited by Robert I, invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333. Robert fought at Halidon, where his uncle and former guardian, Sir James Stewart, was killed. Following this battle, Robert's lands in the west were given by Balliol to his supporter David Strathbogie, the titular Earl of Atholl. Robert took refuge in the fortress of Dumbarton Castle in the Clyde estuary to join his uncle, King David. In May 1334 David escaped to France leaving Robert and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray as joint Guardians of the kingdom. Robert succeeded in regaining his lands but following Randolph's capture by the English in July 1335, his possessions were once again targeted by the forces of Balliol and King Edward III of England. This may have persuaded Robert to submit to Balliol and the English king and may explain his removal as Guardian by September 1335. The Guardianship transferred to Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell but following his death in 1338 Robert was re-appointed and retained the office until King David returned from France in June 1341. Robert accompanied David into battle at Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 but he and Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March escaped or fled the field and David was taken prisoner. In October 1357, the king was ransomed for 100,000 marks to be paid in installments over ten years.

        Robert married Elizabeth Mure around 1348, legitimising his four sons and five daughters. His subsequent marriage to Euphemia de Ross in 1355 produced two sons and two surviving daughters and provided the basis of a future dispute regarding the line of succession. Robert joined a rebellion against David in 1363 but submitted to him following a threat to his right of succession. In 1364, David presented a proposal to Parliament that would cancel the remaining ransom debt if it was agreed that a Plantagenet heir would inherit the Scottish throne should he die without issue. This was rejected and Robert succeeded to the throne at the age of 55 following David's unexpected death in 1371. England still controlled large sectors in the Lothians and in the border country so King Robert allowed his southern earls to engage in actions in the English zones to regain their territories, halted trade with England and renewed treaties with France. By 1384, the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands, but following the commencement of Anglo-French peace talks, Robert was reluctant to commit Scotland to all-out war and obtained Scotland's inclusion in the peace treaty. Robert's peace strategy was a factor in the virtual coup in 1384 when he lost control of the country, first to his eldest son, John, Earl of Carrick, afterwards King Robert III, and then from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert, Earl of Fife, afterwards the first Duke of Albany. Robert II died in Dundonald Castle in 1390 and was buried at Scone Abbey.

        Contents [show] Heir presumptive[edit] Robert Stewart, born in 1316, was the only child of Walter Stewart, High Steward of Scotland and King Robert I's daughter Marjorie Bruce, who died probably in 1317 following a riding accident.[1] He had the upbringing of a Gaelic noble on the Stewart lands in Bute, Clydeside, and in Renfrew.[1] In 1315 parliament removed Marjorie's right as heir to her father in favour of her uncle, Edward Bruce.[2] Edward was killed at the Battle of Faughart, near Dundalk on 14 October 1318,[3] resulting in a hastily arranged Parliament in December to enact a new entail naming Marjorie's son, Robert, as heir should the king die without a successor.[4] The birth of a son, afterwards David II, to King Robert on 5 March 1324 cancelled Robert Stewart's position as heir presumptive, but a Parliament at Cambuskenneth in July 1326 restored him in the line of succession should David die without an heir.[2] This reinstatement of his status was accompanied by the gift of lands in Argyll, Roxburghshire and the Lothians.[5]

        High Steward of Scotland[edit] Renewed war for independence[edit] Main article: Second War of Scottish Independence

        Dumbarton Castle on Dumbarton Rock where Robert Stewart and King David took refuge in 1333 The first war of independence began in the reign of King John Balliol.[6] His short reign was bedeviled by Edward I's insistence on his overlordship of Scotland. The Scottish leadership concluded that only war could release the country from the English king's continued weakening of Balliol's sovereignty and so finalised a treaty of reciprocal assistance with France in October 1295.[7] The Scots forayed into England in March 1296—this incursion together with the French treaty angered the English king and provoked an invasion of Scotland taking Berwick on 30 March before defeating the Scots army at Dunbar on 27 April.[8] John Balliol submitted to Edward and resigned the throne to him before being sent to London as a prisoner. Despite this, resistance to the English led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray had emerged in the name of King John Balliol.[8] On their deaths, Robert the Bruce continued to resist the English and eventually succeeded in defeating the forces of Edward II of England and gained the Scottish throne for himself.[7]

        David Bruce, aged five, became king on 7 June 1329 on the death of his father Robert. Walter the Steward had died earlier on 9 April 1327,[9] and the orphaned eleven-year-old Robert was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, Sir James Stewart of Durrisdeer,[2] who along with Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, and William Lindsey, Archdeacon of St Andrews were appointed as joint Guardians of the kingdom.[10] David's accession kindled the second independence war which threatened Robert's position as heir.[11] In 1332 Edward Balliol, son of the deposed John Balliol, spearheaded an attack on the Bruce sovereignty with the tacit support of King Edward III of England and the explicit endorsement of 'the disinherited'.[12] Edward Balliol's forces delivered heavy defeats on the Bruce supporters at Dupplin Moor on 11 August 1332 and again at Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333, at which the 17-year-old Robert participated.[10] Robert's estates were overrun by Balliol, who granted them to David Strathbogie, titular earl of Atholl, but Robert evaded capture and gained protection at Dumbarton Castle where King David was also taking refuge.[11] Very few other strongholds remained in Scottish hands in the winter of 1333—only the castles of Kildrummy (held by Christian Bruce, elder sister of Robert I and wife of Andrew Murray of Bothwell), Loch Leven, Loch Doon, and Urquhart held out against Balliol forces.[13]

        Dairsie Castle where the 1335 Parliament was held In May 1334, the situation looked dire for the house of Bruce and David II gained safety in France.[11] Robert set about winning back his lands in the west of Scotland.[10] Strathbogie came over to the Bruce interest after disagreements with his fellow 'disinherited' but his fierce opposition to Randolph came to a head at a Parliament held at Dairsie Castle in early 1335 when Strathbogie received the support of Robert.[14] Strathbogie once again changed sides and submitted to the English king in August and was made Warden of Scotland. It seems that Strathbogie may also have persuaded Robert to submit to Edward and Balliol—Sir Thomas Gray, in his Scalacronica claimed that he had actually done so𠅊nd may explain his removal as Guardian around this time.[15] The Bruce resistance to Balliol may have been verging on collapse in 1335 but a turn-round in its fortunes began with the appearance of Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell as a potent war leader at the Battle of Culblean.[16] Murray had been captured in 1332, ransomed himself in 1334, and immediately sped north to lay siege to Dundarg Castle in Buchan held by Sir Henry de Beaumont, with the castle falling on 23 December 1334.[17] Murray was appointed Guardian at Dunfermline during the winter of 1335𠄶 while he was besieging Cupar Castle in Fife. He died at his castle in Avoch in 1338 and Robert resumed the Guardianship.[18] Murray's campaign put an end to any chance of Edward III having full lasting control over the south of Scotland and Edward's failure in the six-month siege of Dunbar Castle confirmed this.[19] Balliol lost many of his major supporters to the Bruce side and the main English garrisons began to fall to the Scots𠅌upar in the spring or summer of 1339, Perth taken by Robert also in 1339 and Edinburgh by William, Earl of Douglas in April 1341.[20]

        John Randolph, released from English custody in a prisoner-exchange in 1341, visited David II in Normandy before returning to Scotland. Just as Randolph was a favourite of the king, David II mistrusted Robert Stewart with his powerful positions of heir presumptive and Guardian of Scotland.[21] At the beginning of June 1341, the kingdom appeared sufficiently stable to allow the king to return to a land where his nobles, while fighting for the Bruce cause, had considerably increased their own power bases.[22] On 17 October 1346, Robert accompanied David into battle at Neville's Cross, where many Scottish nobles including Randolph, died�vid II was wounded and captured while Robert and Patrick, earl of March had apparently fled the field.[10]

        King David's captivity[edit] Petitions to the Pope, 1342� [23]

        The kings of France and Scotland, bishops William of St. Andrews, William of Glasgow, William of Aberdeen, Richard of Dunkeld, Martin of Argyle, Adam of Brechin, and Maurice of Dunblane. Signification that although Elizabeth Mor and Isabella Boutellier, noble damsels of the diocese of Glasgow, are related in the third and fourth degrees of kindred, Robert Steward of Scotland, lord of Stragrifis, in the diocese of Glasgow, the king's nephew, carnally knew first Isabella, and afterwards, in ignorance of their kindred, Elizabeth, who was herself related to Robert in the fourth degree of kindred, living with her for some time and having many children of both sexes by her the above king and bishops therefore pray the pope that for the sake of the said offspring, who are fair to behold (aspectibus gratiose), to grant a dispensation to Robert and Elizabeth to intermarry, and to declare their offspring legitimate.

        To be granted by the diocesan, at whose discretion one or more chapelries are to be founded by Robert.

        With the king now imprisoned in England and Randolph dead, the Guardianship once again fell to Robert.[24] In 1347 he took the important step of ensuring the legitimation of his four sons, John, Earl of Carrick (the future King Robert III), Walter, Lord of Fife (d. 1362), Robert (the future Duke of Albany) and Alexander, Lord of Badenoch (and future Earl of Buchan), and six daughters by petitioning Pope Clement VI to allow a canon law marriage to Elizabeth Mure.[25]

        Even though an English prisoner, David retained influence in Scotland and Robert had his Guardianship removed by parliament and given jointly to the earls of Mar and Ross and the lord of Douglas—this did not last and Robert was once again appointed Guardian by the Parliament of February 1352.[26] The paroled David attended this Parliament to present to Robert and the members of the Three Estates the conditions for his release. These contained no ransom demand, but required the Scots to name the English prince John of Gaunt as heir presumptive. The Council rejected these terms, with Robert opposed to a proposal that threatened his right of succession.[27] The king had no option but to return to captivity—the English chronicler Henry Knighton wrote of the event:[28]

        . the Scots refused to have their King unless he entirely renounced the influence of the English, and similarly refused to submit themselves to them. And they warned him that they would neither ransom him nor allow him to be ransomed unless he pardoned them for all their acts and injuries that they had done, and all the offences that they had committed during the time of captivity, and he should give them security for that, or otherwise they threatened to choose another king to rule them. By 1354 ongoing negotiations for the king's release reached the stage where a proposal of a straight ransom payment of 90,000 marks to be repaid over nine years, guaranteed by the provision of 20 high-ranking hostages, was agreed—this understanding was destroyed by Robert when he bound the Scots to a French action against the English in 1355.[29] The capture of Berwick together with the presence of the French on English soil jolted Edward III into moving against the Scots—in January 1356 Edward led his forces into the south-east of Scotland and burned Edinburgh and Haddington and much of the Lothians in a campaign that became known as the 'Burnt Candlemas'.[30] After Edward's victory over France in September, the Scots resumed negotiations for David's release ending in October 1357 with the Treaty of Berwick. Its terms were that in turn for David's freedom, a ransom of 100,000 marks would be paid in annual installments over ten years—only the first two payments were completed initially and nothing further until 1366.[31] This failure to honour the conditions of the Berwick treaty allowed Edward to continue to press for a Plantagenet successor to David—terms that were totally rejected by the Scottish Council and probably by Robert himself.[32] This may have been the cause of a brief rebellion in 1363 by Robert and the earls of Douglas and March.[33] Later French inducements couldn't bring David to their aid and the country remained at peace with England until he unexpectedly died on 21 February 1371.[34]

        King of Scots[edit] Consolidation of Stewart power and personal rule[edit]

        Robert II depicted on his great seal David was buried at Holyrood Abbey almost immediately but an armed protest by William, Earl of Douglas delayed Robert II's coronation until 26 March 1371.[35] The reasons for the incident remain unclear but may have involved a dispute regarding Robert's right of succession,[36] or may have been directed against George Dunbar, Earl of March and the southern Justiciar, Robert Erskine.[37] It was resolved by Robert giving his daughter Isabella in marriage to Douglas's son, James and with Douglas replacing Erskine as Justiciar south of the Forth.[38] Robert's accession did affect some others who held offices from David II. In particular, George Dunbar's brother John Dunbar, the Lord of Fife who lost his claim on Fife and Sir Robert Erskine's son, Sir Thomas Erskine who lost control of Edinburgh Castle.[39]

        The Stewarts greatly increased their holdings in the west, in Atholl, and in the far north: the earldoms of Fife and Menteith went to Robert II's second surviving son Robert, the earldoms of Buchan and Ross (along with the lordship of Badenoch) to his fourth son Alexander and the earldoms of Strathearn and Caithness to the eldest son of his second marriage, David.[40] Importantly, King Robert's sons-in-law were John MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, John Dunbar, Earl of Moray and James who would become the 2nd Earl of Douglas.[40] Robert's sons, John, Earl of Carrick, the king's heir, and Robert, Earl of Fife, were made keepers of the castles of Edinburgh and Stirling respectively, while Alexander, Lord of Badenoch and Ross, and afterwards Earl of Buchan, became the king's Justiciar and lieutenant in the north of the Kingdom.[10] This build-up of the Stewart family power did not appear to cause resentment among the senior magnates—the king generally did not threaten their territories or local rule and where titles were transferred to his sons the individuals affected were usually very well rewarded.[10] This style of kingship was very different from his predecessor's�vid tried to dominate his nobles whereas Robert's strategy was to delegate authority to his powerful sons and earls and this generally worked for the first decade of his reign.[40] Robert II was to have influence over eight of the fifteen earldoms either through his sons directly or by strategic marriages of his daughters to powerful lords.[40]

        Robert the warrior and knight: the reverse side of Robert II's Great Seal, enhanced as a 19th-century steel engraving In 1373, Robert ensured the future security of the Stewart dynasty by having Parliament pass entailments regarding the succession. At this time, none of his sons had heirs so it became necessary for a system to be devised to define precisely the circumstances in which each of his sons could inherit the crown—none of this would take precedence over normal succession by Primogeniture.[41][42] By 1375, the king had commissioned John Barbour to write the poem, The Brus, a history intended to bolster the public image of the Stewarts as the genuine heirs of Robert I. It described the patriotic acts of both Sir James, the Black Douglas and Walter the Steward, the king's father, in their support of Bruce.[40] Robert II's rule during the 1370s saw the country's finances stabilised and greatly improved due in part to the flourishing wool trade, reduced calls on the public purse and by the halting of his predecessor's ransom money on the death of Edward III of England.[10] Robert II—unlike David II whose kingship was predominantly Lothian and therefore lowland based𠅍id not restrict his attention to one sector of his kingdom but frequently visited the more remote areas of the north and west among his Gaelic lords.[43]

        Robert II ruled over a country that continued to have English enclaves within its borders and Scots who gave their allegiance to the king of England—the important castles of Berwick, Jedburgh, Lochmaben and Roxburgh had English garrisons and controlled southern Berwickshire, Teviotdale and large areas in Annandale and Tweeddale.[44] In June 1371, Robert agreed to a defensive treaty with the French, and although there were no outright hostilities during 1372, the English garrisons were reinforced and placed under an increased state of vigilance.[45] Attacks on the English held zones, with the near-certain backing of Robert, began in 1373 and accelerated in the years 1375𠄷. This indicated that a central decision had probably been taken for the escalation of conflict rather than the previous small-scale marauding attacks by the border barons.[46] In 1376, the Earl of March successfully recovered Annandale, but then found himself constrained by the Bruges Anglo-French truce.[47]

        Dunfermline Abbey which received Coldingham Priory as daughter house from King Robert In his dealings with Edward III, Robert blamed his border magnates for the escalating attacks on the English zones, but regardless of this the Scots retained the recaptured lands, which were often portioned out among minor lords, so securing their interest in preventing English re-possession.[48] Despite Robert's further condemnations of his border lords, all the signs were that Robert backed the growing successful Scottish militancy following Edward III's death in 1377.[10] In a charter dated 25 July 1378 the king decreed that Coldingham Priory would no longer be a daughter house of the English Durham Priory but was to be attached to Dunfermline Abbey.[49] In early February the Scots𠅊pparently unaware of the conclusion of an Anglo-French truce on 26 January 1384 that included the Scots in the cease-fire𠅌onducted an all-out attack on the English zones winning back Lochmaben Castle and Teviotdale.[50] John of Gaunt led a reciprocal English attack that took him as far as Edinburgh, where he was bought off by the burgesses, but destroyed Haddington.[51] Carrick and James, Earl of Douglas (his father William had died in April),[52] wanted a retaliatory strike for the Gaunt raid. Robert may have concluded that as the French had reneged on a previous agreement to send assistance in 1383 and then having entered into a truce with England, that any military action would have been met with retaliation and exclusion from the forthcoming Boulogne peace talks.[52][53] On 2 June 1384, Robert resolved to send Walter Wardlaw, Bishop of Glasgow to the Anglo-French peace talks, yet Carrick ignored this and allowed raids into the north of England to take place.[53] Despite this, by 26 July, the Scots were part of the truce that would expire in October. Robert called a Council in September, probably for working out how to proceed when the truce concluded, and to decide how the war was to proceed thereafter.[54]

        Loss of authority and death[edit]

        A medieval tapestry depicting the Battle of Otterburn where Carrick's close ally, James, Earl of Douglas was killed Robert's son, John, Earl of Carrick, had become the foremost Stewart magnate south of the Forth just as Alexander, Earl of Buchan was in the north.[55] Alexander's activities and methods of royal administration, enforced by Gaelic mercenaries, drew criticism from northern earls and bishops and from his younger half-brother David, Earl of Strathearn. These complaints damaged the king's standing within the Council leading to criticism of his ability to curb Buchan's activities.[56] Robert's differences with the Carrick affinity regarding the conduct of the war and his continued failure or unwillingness to deal with Buchan in the north led to the political convulsion of November 1384 when the Council removed the king's authority to govern and appointed Carrick as lieutenant of the kingdom𠅊 coup d’état had taken place.[40][57] With Robert sidelined, there was now no impediment in the way of war. In June 1385, a force of 1200 French soldiers joined the Scots in a campaign that involved the Earl of Douglas and two of Robert's sons, John, Earl of Carrick and Robert, Earl of Fife.[58] The skirmishes saw small gains but a quarrel between the French and Scottish commanders saw the abandonment of an attack on the important castle of Roxburgh.[59]

        Dundonald Castle, where Robert II died in 1390 The victory of the Scots over the English at the Battle of Otterburn in Northumberland in August 1388 set in motion Carrick's fall from power. One of the Scottish casualties was Carrick's close ally James, Earl of Douglas. Douglas died without an heir, which led to various claims upon the title and estate�rrick backed Malcolm Drummond, the husband of Douglas's sister, while Fife sided with the successful appellant, Sir Archibald Douglas, lord of Galloway who possessed an entail on the Douglas estates.[60] Fife, now with his powerful Douglas ally, and those who supported the king ensured a countercoup at the December Council meeting when the guardianship of Scotland passed from Carrick (who had recently been badly injured from a horse-kick) to Fife.[60][61] Many had also approved of Fife's intention to properly resolve the situation of lawlessness in the north and in particular the activities of his younger brother, Buchan.[61] Fife relieved Buchan of his offices of lieutenant of the north and justiciar north of the Forth. The latter role was given to Fife's son, Murdoch Stewart. Robert II toured the north-east of the kingdom in late January 1390, perhaps to reinforce the changed political scene in the north following Buchan's removal from authority.[62] In March, Robert returned to Dundonald Castle in Ayrshire where he died on 19 April and was buried at Scone on 25 April.[63]

        Historiography[edit] The reign of Robert II has undergone a re-appraisal since the works of historians Gordon Donaldson (1967) and Ranald Nicholson (1974). Donaldson admits to a paucity of knowledge (at the time that he was writing) regarding Robert's reign and accepts that the early chroniclers writing near to his reign found little to criticise.[64] Robert's career before and after he succeeded to the throne is described by Donaldson as "to say the least, undistinguished, and his reign did nothing to add lustre to it." [65] Donaldson goes further and debates the legality of the canon law marriage of Robert and Elizabeth Mure following the papal dispensation, but acknowledges that the Acts of Succession in 1371 and 1372, although sealing the matter in the eyes of Parliament, did not end the generational feud of the descendants of Elizabeth Mure and of Euphemia Ross.[66] Robert's earlier participation in combat at the battles of Halidon and Neville's Cross, according to Donaldson, had made him wary of sanctioning military expeditions against the English and that any such actions by his barons were concealed from him.[67] Similarly, Nicholson described Robert's reign as deficient and that his lack of the skills of governance led to internal strife. Nicholson asserts that the Earl of Douglas was bought off following his armed demonstration just before Robert's coronation, and associates this with the doubt surrounding the legitimacy of Robert's sons with Elizabeth Mure.[68]

        In contrast, the historians Stephen Boardman (2007), Alexander Grant (1984 & 1992) and Michael Lynch (1992) give a more even-handed appraisal of Robert II's life.[68] Modern historians show a kingdom that had become wealthier and more stable particularly during the first decade of his rule.[10] Boardman explains that Robert II was subjected to negative propaganda while he was High Steward�vid II's followers denigrated his conduct during his lieutenancies and described them as "tyranny"𠅊nd again later as king when the supporters of his son John, Earl of Carrick said that Robert was a king lacking drive and accomplishments, weighed down by age and unfit to govern.[69][70] Robert II's association with Gaelic Scotland also drew criticism. He grew up in his ancestral lands in the west and was completely at ease with the Gaelic language and culture and possessed a potent relationship with the Gaelic lords in the Hebrides, upper Perthshire and Argyll. Throughout his reign, Robert spent long periods in his Gaelic heartlands and complaints at the time in Lowland Scotland seem to have been influenced by the view that the king was too much involved in Gaelic concerns.[71] Boardman also asserts that much of the negative views held of Robert II find their origins in the writings of the French chronicler Jean Froissart who recorded that '[the king] had red bleared eyes, of the colour of sandalwood, which clearly showed that he was no valiant man, but one who would remain at home than march to the field'.[72] Contrary to Froissart's view, the early Scottish chroniclers𠅊ndrew of Wyntoun and Walter Bower (who both utilised a source that was nearly contemporary with Robert II)𠅊nd later 15th and 16th century Scottish chroniclers and poets showed 'Robert II as a Scottish patriotic hero, a defender of the integrity of the Scottish kingdom, and as the direct heir to Robert I'.[73]

        Grant (1992) acknowledges that Robert II's reign in terms of foreign and domestic policy was "not so unsuccessful".[74] As far as William, Earl of Douglas's reaction was concerned when he staged an armed demonstration before Robert's coronation, Grant does not hold to the view that Douglas was in some way demonstrating against Robert's legitimate right to the throne, but more an assertion that royal patronage should not continue as in the time of David II. Grant also advocates that the demonstration was aimed at father and son Robert and Thomas Erskine, who held the castles of Edinburgh, Stirling and Dumbarton from Robert's predecessor.[74] Grant seriously called into question the dependability of Froissart's writings as an effective source for Robert II's reign.[75] Influential magnate coalitions headed by Carrick, having undermined the king's position, manipulated the Council of November 1384 to effectively oust Robert II from any real power.[76] Grant gives little weight to the asserted senility of Robert, and suggests that the deposition of Carrick in 1388, and then the resolution to join the Anglo-French truce of 1389, were both at the instigation of Robert II.[77] Yet power was not handed back to Robert II but to Carrick's younger brother, Robert, earl of Fife which once again saw the king at the disposition of one of his sons.[78] Despite this, the now unknown source whom both Wyntoun and Bower relied on made the point that Fife deferred to his father on affairs of state emphasising the difference in styles in the guardianships of his two sons.[79]

        Michael Lynch points out that Robert II's reign from 1371 until the lieutenancy of Carrick in 1384 had been one exemplified by continued prosperity and stability - a time which Abbot Bower described as a period of "tranquility, prosperity and peace".[80] Lynch suggests that the troubles of the 1450s between James II and the Douglases (which some historians have interpreted as the legacy of Robert II's policy of encouraging powerful lordships), was in fact a continuation of David II's build-up of local lords in the Marches and Galloway—Robert was satisfied with government to leave alone the Douglas and the Stewart earls in their fiefdoms.[81] The weakening of government if anything, Lynch suggests, came not before the 1384 coup but after it, despite the fact that the coup had at its root Robert II's favouring of his third son, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan (known as the Wolf of Badenoch).[82]

        Fictional portrayals[edit] Robert II has been depicted in historical novels. They include:

        The Three Perils of Man or, War, women, and witchcraft (1822) by James Hogg. The tale takes place in the reign of Robert II whose "country enjoyed happiness and peace, all save a part adjoining to the borders of England." Part of the action takes place at Linlithgow Palace, where Robert promises to marry his daughter Margaret Stewart "to the knight who shall take that castle of Roxburgh out of the hands of the English". With Margaret adding her own terms, that "in case of his attempting and failing in the undertaking, he shall forfeit all his lands, castles, towns, and towers to me." In the absence of volunteers, Margaret vows to take the Castle herself, defeating Lord Musgrave and his mistress Jane Howard.[83] The Lords of Misrule (1976) by Nigel Tranter. Covers events from c. 1388 to 1390. Depicting the last years of Robert II and the rise of Robert III of Scotland to the throne. As the elderly king has grown "feeble, weary and half-blind", his sons, daughters and other nobles campaign for power. An ungoverned Scotland is ravaged by their conflicts. Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, and Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, are prominently featured.[84] Courting Favour (2000) by Nigel Tranter. Follows the career of John Dunbar, Earl of Moray in the courts of David II of Scotland and Robert II. John is a son-in-law to the latter and serves him as a diplomat.[85] Marriages and issue[edit] In 1336, he first married Elizabeth Mure (died 1355), daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan. The marriage was criticized for being uncanonical, so he remarried her in 1349 after receiving a papal dispensation in 1347.

        From this union, ten children reached adulthood:

        John (died 1406), who became King of Scotland as Robert III, married Anabella Drummond. Walter (died in 1363), husband of Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Fife. Robert, Earl of Fife and from 1398 Duke of Albany (died 1420), married in 1361 Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith, and his second wife in 1381 Muriella Keith (died in 1449). Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan (died 1405), nicknamed "The Wolf of Badenoch", married in 1382 to Euphemia of Ross. Margaret, married John of Islay, Lord of the Isles. Marjorie, married John Dunbar, Earl of Moray, then Sir Alexander Keith. Elizabeth married Thomas de la Hay, Lord High Constable of Scotland. Isabella (died 1410), married James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas (died in 1388), followed in 1389 by David Edmonstone. Johanna (Jean), married Sir John Keith (died 1375), then John Lyon, Lord of Glamis (died 1383) and finally Sir James Sandilands. Katherine, married Sir Robert Logan of Grugar and Restalrig, Lord High Admiral of Scotland. In 1355, Robert married his second wife Euphemia de Ross (died 1387), daughter of Hugh, Earl of Ross. They had four children:

        David Stewart, Earl of Strathearn, born about 1356 and died in 1389. Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl, born about 1360, beheaded at Edinburgh in 1437 for being involved in the assassination of King James I. Elizabeth, who married in 1380 David Lindsay, 1st Earl of Crawford. Egidia, who married in 1387 William Douglas of Nithsdale. King Robert II has also many illegitimate children with several mistresses, including four sons with his favorite Mariota Cardeny, daughter of Sir Cardeny, and widow of Alexander Mac Naugthon:

        Alexander Stewart, of Inverlunan Sir John Stewart, of Cardeny James Stewart, of Abernethy and Kinfauna Walter Stewart Other issue born by unknown women:

        John Stewart, sheriff of Bute Thomas Stewart, archdeacon of St Andrews Alexander Stewart, canon of Glasgow Maria or Mary Stewart, wife of Sir John de Danielstoun and mother of Sir Robert de Danielstoun of that Ilk (ancestor of Cunningham of Kilmaurs, and Maxwell of Calderwood)[86] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_Scotland Scottish monarch. Son of Walter, Steward of Scotland and Marjory Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. He served as Regent for David II twice, while David was in exile in France and again while imprisoned in England. Robert succeeded David in 1371, and was crowned at Scone on March 26. His first marriage to Elizabeth Mure and the 9 children of the union were declared illegitimate, as the couple were too closely related. A Papal dispensation was acquired in 1347, but to many it still wasn't enough. Upon the death of his first wife he married Euphemia Ross, who would become his queen, in 1355. They had four children. The question of the legitimacy of his first marriage would later play a big part in the succession. Robert is thought to have had 21 or more children in total, including at least 8 illegitimate children by various mistresses. It was said about Robert that "A more tender heart no man could have". Most of his 19-year reign was troubled by wars he could play little part in. He allowed his son Robert, Earl of Carrick (later Robert III), to act in his stead most of the time. Old and infirm, he died at Dundonald Castle at the age of 74. http://genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00006037&tree=LEO

        Robert II, The Steward, King of Scots was born 2 March 1316. He died 19 April 1390 in Dundonald Castle in 1390 and lies buried at Scone Abbey. He was also known as Robert, High Steward of Scots and by his Gaelic Name, Roibert II Stiྛhairt.

        Ruled: 22 February 1371 to 19 April 1390

        Preceded by: David II (Dàibhidh Bruis) Ruled 7 June 1329 - 22 Febuary 1371

        Succeeded by Robert III Ruled 19 April 1390 - 4 April 1406

        Robert Stewart, born in 1316, was the only child of Walter Stewart, High Steward of Scotland. He had the upbringing of a Gaelic noble on the Stewart lands in Bute, Clydeside, and in Renfrew. [Wiki]

        Son of: Walter Steward 1293 - 9 Apr 1326 and Marjorie Bruce December 1296 - 2 March 1316 (Daughter of Robert I)

        Married: 1.Elizabeth Mure c.1348

        Children: 1.John Stewart, Earl of Carrick 2.Walter Stewart, Lord of Fife (d. 1362) 3.Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife and Monteith 4.Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, Lord of Badenoch and Ross 5.Margaret Stewart 6.Marjory Stewart 7.Isabella Stewart 8.Katherine Stewart 9.Elizabeth Stewart

        Children: 1.David Stewart, 1st Earl of Caithness, Earl of Strathearn 2.Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl 3.Margaret Stewart 4.Elizabeth Stewart 5.Egidia Stewart

        Illegitimate children of with Mariota de Cardney 1.Alexander Stewart of Innerlunan 2.Sir John Stewart of Cardney 3.James Stewart of Abernethy & Kinfaun 4.Walter Stewart 5.Possible Unknown Daughter(s)

        Illegitimate children with Moira Leitch 1.Sir John Stewart of Bute 2.Possible Unknown Daughter(s)

        Illegitimate children with Unknown 1.Sir John Stewart of Dundonald 2.Thomas Stewart, Bishop of St Andrews 3.Alexander Stewart, Canon of Glasgow 4.James Stewart, Canon of Glasgow 5.Possible Unknown Daughter(s)


        Watch the video: Framlingham Church (June 2022).


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