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History of Arizona - History

History of Arizona - History

Arizona

A term probably coined by melding the word-, and and zone, to designate the dry area in the southwestern United States which was admitted to the Union as a state on 14 February 1912. as de

However, some authorities maintain that the name was derived from the Aztec Indian word Arizuma which can be translated as "silver bearing."

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(SwStr: t. 959; 1. 200'; b. 34"; dph. 17'6" (mean); dr. 8'; s. 15 k.;
cpl. 82; a. 4 32-pdrs., 1 30-pdr. P.r.; I 12-pdr. r.)

Arizona-an iron-hulled, side-wheel steamer laid down in 1858 at Wilmington, Del., by the shipbuilding firm, Harlan and Hollingsworth, and completed in 1859-operated out of New Orleans carrying passengers and cargo to and from ports along the gulf and Atlantic coasts of the United States. Her commercial service ended on 15 January 1862 when Confederate Major General Mansfield Lovell seized her at New Orleans along with 13 other steamers for use as a blockade runner.

No continuous record of her operations during the next year is extant, but sporadic reports suggest that the ship carried cotton from New Orleans and Mobile to Havana and returned to those ports with war materiel. Gaps exist in our knowledge of changes in the vessel's owners, name, and registry.

In an case, on 28 October 1862, the side-wheeler was operating under a ". provisional register of the English steamer Caroline. ." as she steamed from Havana with a cargo of munitions to be delivered to Mobile. That morning, a lookout on Montgomery's topmast head sighted the blockade runner. The Union screw gunboat immediately set out in pursuit of the stranger, beginning a six-hour chase. When Montgomery pulled within range of Caroline, she opened fire with her 30-pounder Parrott rifle and expended 17 shells before two hits brought the quarry to.

Two boats from the blockader rowed out to the former Arizona and one returned with her master, a man named Forbes, who claimed to have been bound for Matamoros, Mexico, not Mobile. "I do not take you for running the blockade," the flag officerwith tongue in cheek-replied, "but for your damned poor navigation. Any man bound for Matamoros from Havana and coming within twelve miles of Mobile light has no business to have a steamer."

Farragut sent the prize to Philadephia where she was condemned by admiralty court. The Federal Government purchased her on 23 January 1863. The Navy restored her original name, Arizona and placed her in commission on 9 March 1863, Lt. Daniel Upton in command.

Nine days later, the steamer stood down the Delaware River and headed for the Gulf of Mexico. En route south, she chased and overtook the cotton-laden sloop Aurelia off Mosquito Inlet, Fla., on 23 March and sent her to Port Royal.

Shortly before Arizona joined the West Gulf Blockading Squadron at New Orleans, Farragut had led a naval force up the Mississippi past Port Hudson to close off the flow of supplies down the Red River and across the Mississippi to Confederate armies fighting in the East. His warships met a fierce cannonade as they attempted to pass Port Hudson, and only the flagship Hartford and her consort Albatross made it safely through to the strategic stretch of the river between Port Hudson and Vicksburg.

Arizona played an important role in strengthening Farragut's drastically reduced force and opening up communications between its commander and the rest o his squadron. From New Orleans,
she proceeded to Berwick Bay to join a naval force commanded by Comdr. Augustus P. Cook which, in cooperation with troops commanded by Major General Nathaniel P. Banks, was operat- in the swampy backwaters of the Louisiana lowlands west of the Mississippi.

On 14 April, while carrying army units, she, Estrella, and Calhoun attacked CSS Queen of the West on Grand Gulf, a wide and still stretch of the Atchafalaya River. A shell from Calhoun set fire to cotton which her Southern captors had loaded on that former Ellet ram and blew up her boiler. The burning cottonclad drifted downstream for several hours before running aground and exploding. The three Union steamers also captured 90 members of the doomed vessel's crew who had jumped overboard to esca pe scalding.

Six days later, Clifton and Calhoun joined the same force and, working with four companies of Union infantry, took Fort Burton, a Southern battery consisting of two old siege guns implaced at Butte La Rose, La. This victory opened for Union ships a passage-through Atchafalaya Bay and the River of the same name-connecting the gulf with the Red and Mississippi Rivers. Thus, Farragut could bypass Port Hudson with supplies, messages, and ships.

After this path was clear, Arizona entered the Red River and descended it to its mouth where she met Hartford, Farragut's fla hi p. On 3 May, she was part of a three-ship reconnaissance
force that ascended the Red River until it encountered heavy fire from two large Confederate steamers, Grand Duke and Mary T., supported by Southern shore batteries and snipers. Since the
narrow channel prevented their maneuvering to bring their broadsides to bear on their attackers, the Union ships were compelled to retire.

As they descended, the Northern vessels met a large force led by Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter who ordered Arizona and Estella to join him in a much more powerful drive up the Red River. He allowed Albatross, the third ship, to return to the Mississippi to report to Farragut.

The next morning, Porter's force arrived at Fort DeRussy-an uncompleted stronghold the South had been building on the banks of the river-and found it abandoned. After partially destroying the fortifications, Porter continued on up stream to Alexandria which surrendered without resistance. Before Porter left the river, Arizona took part in a reconnaissance of the Black River, a tributary of the Red. On 10 May, she joined in an attack on Fort Beauregard at Harrisonburg, La., on the Ouachita River.

Following her return to the Mississippi, Arizona supported operations against Port Hudson which finally fell on 9 July-five days after the surrender of Vicksburg-removing t he last Southern hold on the river and finally cutting the Confederacy in two.

Arizona then returned to New Orleans for repairs. During this work Acting Master Howard Tibbito relieved Upton in command of the side-wheeler.

On 4 September, Arizona departed New Orleans and proceeded to Southwest Pass to embark 180 sharpshooters to be distributed among Clifton, Sachem, and herself in a forthcoming attack on Sabine Pass, Tex. She next proceeded to Atchafalaya Bay where she met her consorts and a group of Army transports, distributed her sharpshooters, and continued on to Sabine Pass.

On the morning of 8 September, the combined force crossed the bar and then split, with Sachem and Arizona advancing up the Louisiana (right) channel and Clifton and Granite City moving forward through the Texas (left) channel. When they arrived within range of the Confederate batteries they opened fire preparatory to landing the troops. The Southern gunners did not reply until the gunboats were within close range, but then countered with a devastating cannonade. A shot through her boiler totally disabled Sachem; another carried away Clifton's wheel rope, causing her to run aground under the Confederate guns. Crocker-who commanded Clifton as well as the whole naval force-fought his ship until I with 10 men killed and nine others wounded, he deemed it his duty "to stop the slaughter by showing the white flag After flooding her magazine to
prevent its exploding, Sachem also surrendered and was taken under tow by CSS Uncle Ben. With the loss of Clifton's and Sachem's firepower, the two remaining gunboats and troop
transports recrossed the bar and departed for New Orleans.

The Sabine Pass expedition had, in the words of Commodore H. H. Bell, "totally failed." Nevertheless, Major General Banks reported: "In all respects the cooperation of the naval authorities has been hearty and efficient ...Arizona subsequently served on blockade duty along the Texas coast, especially at Galveston.

Later in the year, yellow fever broke out on board Arizona, forcing her back to New Orleans until the shi Is company had returned to good health. During the month November, she had made trips to Calcasieu Pass, Vermilion Bay, and Mermentau Lake on convoy and transport trips, and on 10 December, she transported Capt. John B. Marchand to Forts St. Philip and Jackson to investigate a mutiny. In December 1863, she went to Berwick Bay and, when the rise of water permitted, entered Grand Lake and the Atchafalaya and remained there on constant blockade. In February 1864, she went to New Orleans and, when repaired, returned to Sabine Pass for blockade duty-one of 14 vessels under Capt. Marchand in USS Lackawanna. That duty lasted until September 1864 when she proceeded to New Orleans for repairs. There, she was fitted out for service as the flagship of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron. In January 1865, Lt. Comdr. George Brown took command of the ship.

On the evening of 27 February 1865, while underway from South West Pass to New Orleans, 38 miles below New Orleans, a fire broke out in the engineer's after storeroom and spread with great rapidity. Brown ordered the magazine flooded and, when no possibility of saving the ship remained, ordered the crew to the boats. Some leaped overboard and swam to shore. The vessel drifted to the west bank of the river, grounded, and burned until she exploded 35 minutes past midnight. Out of a crew of 98 on board four were missing.

Screw frigate Neshaminy (q.v.) was renamed Arizona on 15 May 1869.


History of Arizona State University

The history of Arizona State University began March 12, 1885 with the founding of the establishment originally named the Territorial Normal School at Tempe. The school was founded after John Samuel Armstrong first introduced House Bill 164, “An Act to Establish a Normal School in the Territory of Arizona” to the 13th Legislative Assembly of the Arizona Territory. Instruction was instituted on February 8, 1886 under the supervision of Principal Hiram Bradford Farmer. Land for the school was donated by Tempe residents George and Martha Wilson, allowing 33 students to meet in a single room. [1]


Relief

To Arizona’s two major physiographic divisions, the Colorado Plateau and the Basin and Range Province, geologists add the Transition Zone (or Central Highlands). The northeastern two-fifths of Arizona is part of the scenic Colorado Plateau. Far less rugged than adjacent portions of the plateau in Utah, these tablelands in Arizona consist mainly of plains interrupted by steplike escarpments. Although they are labeled mesas and plateaus, their ruggedness and inaccessibility have been exaggerated. The incomparable Grand Canyon of the Colorado River provides the major exception to what has proved to be an area easily traversed. Forest-clad volcanic mountains atop the plateaus provide the state’s highest points: Humphreys Peak, 12,633 feet (3,851 metres), in the San Francisco Mountains, and Baldy Mountain, 11,403 feet (3,476 metres), in the White Mountains.

More than 200 miles (320 km) of the southern border of the Colorado Plateau is marked by a series of giant escarpments known collectively as the Mogollon Rim. West and south of the rim, a number of streams follow narrow canyons or broad valleys south through the Transition Zone and into the Basin and Range Province. The Transition Zone bordering the plateaus comprises separated plateau blocks, rugged peaks, and isolated rolling uplands so forbidding that they remained mostly unexplored until the late 19th century. The zone marks the ecological border between the low deserts and the forested highlands it combines elements of both with, for example, the Spanish bayonet of the Sonoran Desert growing alongside the juniper characteristic of higher elevations.

The Basin and Range region of the southern and western third of the state contains the bulk of the population but none of the large canyons and mesas for which Arizona is famous. It consists largely of broad, open-ended basins or valleys of gentle slope. Isolated northwest-to-southeast–tending mountain ranges rise like islands in the desert plain.

Contrary to desert stereotypes, sand dunes are nearly nonexistent, and stony desert surfaces are seldom visible except in the far southwestern portion of the state. The younger soils of river floodplains provide the more-desirable soils for agriculture.


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PUBLICATIONS

The Journal of Arizona History
Each issue of The Journal of Arizona History features original research articles and an extensive book review section that focuses on new works on Arizona, the American West, and the border region. A subscription to the journal is a benefit of Arizona Historical Society membership. Members also receive access to archived issues through JSTOR and Project MUSE.

All AHS Members receive a copy of the journal. Individual copies can be purchased as well. The current Fall/Winter 2020 issue is $22.50. Prior year issues, if available, are $10 per copy. Special themed issues are $15 per copy. To order, visit the online store.

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To submit an article manuscript to The Journal of Arizona History, contact the editor, Dr. David Turpie, at [email protected] . Authors are encouraged to read the submission guidelines before submitting a manuscript.

The Journal of Arizona History

“Exploring Arizona’s Diverse Past”
A New Special Issue of The Journal of Arizona History
Autumn/Winter 2020
Guest Edited by Katherine Morrissey (University of Arizona)

“From Pima Villages to the Walker Mines: Anglos, Hispanos, and Natives in the Making of Civil War Arizona”
By Megan Kate Nelson (author of The Three-Cornered War)

“The Sediments of History: Placing Arizona in the Columbian Exchange”
By Thomas D. Finger (Northern Arizona University)

“The Twining Paths of Mormons and ‘Lamanites’: From Arizona to Latin America”
By Daniel Herman (Central Washington University)

“Engendering the Long Nineteenth Century and Mapping Gender onto Arizona History”
By Katherine Sarah Massoth (University of New Mexico)

“Beyond Border Spectacle: Oral History and Everyday Meaning in Chinese Mexican Tucson”
By Priscilla M. Martínez and Grace Peña Delgado (University of California–Santa Cruz)

“Yava-Who?: Yavapai History and (Mis)Representation in Arizona’s Indigenous Landscape”
By Maurice Crandall (Dartmouth College)

“On the Borders: Towns, Mobility, and Public Health in Mojave History”
By Juliet Larkin-Gilmore (University of Illinois)

“Change and Continuity in the Time of the Blob: Growth Politics in Postwar Arizona History”
By Andrew Needham (New York University)

“Barry and Beyond: Conservatism in Arizona before, during, and after Its Most Famous Representative”
By Geraldo Cadava (Northwestern University)

“From Senior Citizen to Sun Citian: Aging and Race in Neoliberal Retirement”
By Flannery Burke (Saint Louis University)

“Critical Indigenous Studies: A Lifetime of Theory and Practice”
By Jennifer Nez Denetdale (University of New Mexico)

“Navigating the Border: The Struggle for Indigenous Sovereignty in the Arizona-Sonora Borderlands”
By Eric V. Meeks (Northern Arizona University)

“Lead, Follow, or Get Out of the Way?: Arizona History and the Nation”
By Katherine Benton-Cohen (Georgetown University)

The Women’s Suffrage Movement in Arizona and Beyond: A Roundtable on Heidi Osselaer’s Winning Their Place - Summer 2020

Introduction
By Jaynie Adams

“Suffrage on the Frontier: How Arizona and Maine Women Pushed for Full Citizenship”
By Shannon M. Risk

“East Meets West: Comparing the New York and Arizona Woman Suffrage Campaigns”
By Karen Pastorello

“Responsible Citizens: Comparing Woman Suffrage in Arizona and South Dakota”
By Sara Egge

“They Think I have Forgotten all about the Past”: Suffragists’ Struggle for Acceptance in Politics in Arizona and Texas
By Rachel Michelle Gunter

“Where is Their Place? Mexican-Origin Women, Citizenship, and Suffrage in the Arizona Borderlands”
By Kif Augustine-Adams

Winning Their Place Roundtable: A Response
By Heidi J. Osselaer

“The Most Interesting Objects That Have Ever Arrived”: Imperialist Nostalgia, State Politics, Hybrid Nature, and the Fall and Rise of Arizona’s Elk, 1866–1914
By Michael A. Amundson

Barry Goldwater and the Election of 1964 - Spring 2020

Donald T. Critchlow and David B. Frisk guest editors

“Barry Goldwater and 1964: A Beginning and an End”
By David Farber

“Would Goldwater Have Made a Good President?”
By Donald T. Critchlow

“Johnson versus Goldwater: The 1964 Presidential Election”
By Nancy Beck Young

“The 1964 Election: A Closer Look”
By David B. Frisk

“Man of the West: Goldwater’s Reflection in the Oasis of Frontier Conservatism”
By Sean P. Cunningham

“Barry’s Boys and Goldwater Girls: Barry Goldwater and the Mobilization of Young Conservatives in the Early 1960s”
By Wayne Thorburn

“A Non-Issue: Barry Goldwater and the Absence of Religion in the Election of 1964”
By Vincent J. Cannato

“Evicted from the Party: Black Republicans and the 1964 Election”
By Joshua D. Farrington

“Mortaging the Future: Barry Goldwater, Lyndon Johnson, and Vietnam inthe 1964 Presidential Election”
By Andrew L. Johns

“‘The Media Were Not completely Fair to You’: Foreign Policy, the PRess, and the 1964 Goldwater Campaign”
By Lawrence R. Jurdem

Grand Canyon National Park at 100 - Winter 2019

Byron E. Pearson, guest editor

Nature and Environment of Grand Canyon

“These Dismal Abysses”: An Environmental History of Grand Canyon National Park
By Byron E. Pearson

“The Burro Evil”: The Removal of Feral Burros from Grand Canyon National Park, 1924–1983
By Abbie Harlow

Grand Canyon in Art and Literature

One Canyon, Countless Canyon Stories: Exploring the Narrative Grand Canyon
By Kim Engel-Pearson

Cultural Artifact and Work of Art: Grand Canyon Landscape Painting
By Amy Ilona Stein

Science and Tourism in Grand Canyon

Viewing Power and Place at the Grand Canyon: Grand View Point, 1880–1926
By Yolonda Youngs

An Interview with the Great Unconformity: Howie Usher, Scientist and River Guide
By Howie Usher, Amy Ilona Stein, and Byron E. Pearson

Law and Policy of Grand Canyon

Grand Canyon as Legal Creation
By Jason Anthony Robison

Grand Adaptation: A Dammed River and a Confluence of Interests
By Jennifer Sweeney and Paul Hirt

Rescaling Geography: Grand Canyon Exploratory and Topographic Mapping, 1777–1978
By Matthew Toro

One Hundred and Sixty Years of Grand Canyon Geological Mapping
By Karl Karlstrom, Laura Crossey, Peter Huntoon, George Billingsley, Michael Timmons, and Ryan Crow

AHS Books
Since 1975, the Arizona Historical Society has published more than twenty-five books about the culture and history of Arizona and the surrounding region. To order books, visit our new online store.

New Book Alert!
The Girl in the Iron Box: How an Arizona Kidnapping Stumped Hoover’s FBI by Paul Cool

At 3 o’clock in the afternoon of April 25, 1934, six-year-old June Robles stepped inside a Ford sedan on her way home from school and disappeared from the streets of Tucson, Arizona. With the Lindbergh kidnapping fresh in the minds of Depression-era Americans, the kidnapping sent shock waves across the country and through the sleepy desert community. After nineteen frantic days and nights, June Robles was discovered alive, buried in an iron box beneath the hot desert sand. Second only to the Lindbergh case, June Robles’s disappearance was the most notorious child abduction of the 1930s, setting in motion a massive manhunt in Tucson and around the country. It was the first major case that ambitious FBI director J. Edgar Hoover’s agents could not solve. Based on extensive research in newspapers, interviews, and FBI files,

Paul Cool recreates in absorbing detail the search for the missing girl, the massive local and national manhunt for her kidnappers, and Hoover’s obsessive involvement in the case.

The Girl in the Iron Box was named a Top Pick in Pima County Public Library’s 43rd annual Southwest Books of the Year!


History of Pinetop-Lakeside

1880s: The first settlers arrived in the area, primarily made up of six Latter-Day Saints (Mormon) families.
1884: Hans Hansen, Sr., a native of Denmark, was appointed by the church to represent the area as bishop of the Show Low ward.
1891: Bishop Hansen’s home burned down and he relocated from the Show Low area to Warren Ranch in Pinetop.
1893: Hansen bought a squatter’s right to a small log house in Woodland.
1890s: Farms and orchards started being developed which led to disputes over water rights. This was also the time formal schooling emerged.
1903-1904: Except for Adair Spring and Pinetop, the mountain’s freshwater sources dried and residents were forced to haul their water from the two available resources.
1904: Following the drought was the wettest season of the year. The heavy rainfall was said to have contributed to the decision to build a reservoir. Hansen scoped our several locations for dams and irrigation ditches, and the first dam on Rainbow Lake was built.
1905: A massive decline in sheep occurred and many of the local sheep farmers were forced to sell out.
1906: Pinetop was covered with countless mature trees and a handful of underbrush. With the emergence of the sawmills, old trees were cut down and new pines sprang up.
1984: The year when the communities of Lakeside and Pinetop incorporated as the “Town of Pinetop-Lakeside.”


Gold discovered in California. Gila Trail becomes one of the main routes to the gold fields.

Compromise of 1850 made establishment of the Territory of New Mexico possible, which included present-day Arizona.

Americans begin navigating the Colorado River by steamer. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers begins surveying Arizona.

Gadsden Purchase gives Arizona the land from the Gila River to present boundary.

American Dragoons (cavalry) occupy Tucson. Arizonans begin petitioning for separate territorial status.

Beale's camels and "Jackass Mail" stagecoach lines cross Arizona Fort Buchanan established on Sonoita Creek.

Butterfield Overland Stage Line crosses Arizona.

Period of gold discoveries, Gila River, Colorado River, and Bradshaw Mountains.

Bascom Affair pits Army against Chiricahua Apaches. The Civil War begins and U.S. military posts are abandoned in Arizona portion of New Mexico Territory.

The Confederate States of America claims Arizona as a confederate territory.

Battle at Glorieta Pass, New Mexico, ends Confederate westward thrust.

Fort Bowie is established at Glorieta Pass. Battle at Picacho Pass, near Casa Grande, is called westernmost battle of Civil War.

California Column occupies Arizona for Union.

Battle of Apache Pass between California Column and Apaches is largest in Arizona history.

Territory of Arizona is established. Provisional capital established at Fort Whipple.

President Abraham Lincoln appoints Arizona Territorial officials.

John A. Gurley is named Territorial Governor, but dies before taking office. Replaced by John N. Goodwin.

Territorial officials take the oath of office at Navajo Springs, Arizona on December 29.

Walker Party discovers gold in Bradshaw Mountains.

Weaver-Peeples party discovers placer gold at Rich Hill.

Wickenburg finds rich lode at Vulture Mine.

Territorial capitol moves from its provisional site at Camp Whipple to Prescott Original four counties are created (Yuma, Yavapai,Pima and Mohave).

Territorial capitol moves from Prescott to Tucson.

John Wesley Powell explores Grand Canyon.

Age of Silver open range cattle industry flourishes.

General Crook subdues central Arizona Apaches and Yavapais.

Territorial prison opens at Yuma.

Territorial capitol moves from Tucson back to Prescott silver discovered at Tombstone copper deposits found at Bisbee.

City of Phoenix incorporates Southern Pacific Railroad crosses southern Arizona.

Atlantic & Pacific (Santa Fe) railroad crosses northern Arizona.

Copper replaces gold and silver in economic importance in Arizona.

Territorial capitol moves from Prescott to Phoenix Legislators meet temporarily in the chambers of the Phoenix City Hall.

Moses H. Sherman and Marcellus E. Collins of Phoenix donate ten acres of land for a territorial capitolsite.

Phoenix linked by rail to northern and southern railroad lines.

Rough Riders fight in Cuba. Arizona resident, William "Buckey" O'Neill is killed in action at San Juan Hill.

Construction begins on a new capitol building in Phoenix completed in 1900 at a cost of approximately $136,000.

Capitol building dedicated on February 25.

Frank Murphy builds "Impossible Bradshaw Mountain Railroad."

Salt River Water Users' Association formed, first of its kind in the nation.

Referendum on joint Arizona-New Mexico Statehood is rejected in Arizona by a vote of 16,265 to 3,141.

Arizona Enabling Act passed by Congress Constitutional Convention meets population of Arizona exceeds 204,000 on the eve of statehood.

Theodore Roosevelt Dam completed President Taft vetoes admission of Arizona over recall of judges Arizona agrees to make the necessary changes in its constitution.


A Stripped Pine Tree Becomes a Landmark

Soon after Arizona became American territory from Mexico in 1848, the U.S. Congress began to explore the Nation’s new territories, sending out various parties to find resources, make maps and locate paths. Between 1857 and 1860, Lt. Edward Beale was sent to build a road across northern Arizona. He sent glowing reports to Congress, telling them how the Flagstaff area was rich in grasslands, water and timber. Once the Beale Road was established it became well traveled by emigrants going to California. The travelers noted Flagstaff’s resources as a treasure chest, but its isolation meant no nearby markets for farm products, meat or lumber and no way to ship goods to distant markets. One such party of emigrants came from Boston in 1876. Originally planning to settle in the Little Colorado River area near Winslow, they found the area already settled and decided to move on to California. On July 4, 1876, the group camped at a small spring with the peaks looming overhead. In honor of the nation’s centennial, they stripped a pine tree of its branches and bark and raised an American flag. When they moved on, their “flag staff” became a landmark for those who followed. That same year, a small group of sheep ranchers moved to the area and set up their ranches where they found grass and water. The isolation of the area was not a problem to them because wool did not spoil and could withstand the long, rough journey to market in Boston.


Telegraph Fire Becomes Sixth Largest In Recorded Arizona History

The massive Telegraph Fire east of Phoenix has grown to more than 170,000 acres. Crews, however, have made steady progress in recent days and report more than 70% containment. KNAU’s Ryan Heinsius reports.

Several small communities remain under evacuation as firefighters focus on protecting homes on the blaze’s southeastern edge. More than 40 structures have been destroyed since the wildfire was first reported nearly two weeks ago. The Telegraph Fire is now the sixth largest wildfire in Arizona history behind last year’s Bush Fire northeast of Mesa.

Earlier this week the human-caused Telegraph Fire merged with the mostly contained Mescal Fire that started June 1.

Elsewhere, crews have now contained more than half of the Slate Fire about 20 miles north of Flagstaff and have nearly fully contained a wildfire near Cornville that prompted evacuations earlier in the week.

Firefighters are currently battling at least eight active wildfires in Arizona.

Nearly all national forests and public lands in the state have implemented total bans on campfires and most other open flames as the region faces triple-digit temperatures and extreme drought.


History of Arizona Gold Mining

Gold mining in Arizona did not start to any appreciable extent until after the acquisition of the territory by the United States from Mexico in 1848 and 1853. What little mining was done by the Spanish and Mexican miners was for silver. A little placer gold was brought in to the churches by Indian converts from the dry working of gravels in the desert, but no systematic mining was done.

After the final occupation of Arizona in 1853, the only accessible part of the Territory was that around the old Mexican settlements of Tucson and Tubac. Considerable prospecting was done in this part of the Territory by American prospectors, and several silver mines and one copper mine were opened, but little or no gold mining was done. On the outbreak of the Civil War, the withdrawal of troops opened the door to Apache raids, and all mining ceased.

During the Civil War, prospectors entered the Territory with the California troops, and several exploring parties were organized to hunt for gold in the central part of the State, hitherto an unknown wilderness dominated by Apaches. Rich placers Were found near the Colorado River at Gila City, La Paz, and Quartzsite, and soon after the Rich Hill, Lynx Creek, Hassayampa, and Big Bug placers in the Bradshaw Mountains of central Arizona were discovered. Base metal mines and even silver mines were not sought, as only gold could be mined at a profit from this inaccessible and hazardous corner of the world. After the richer parts of the placers were exhausted, gold ledges were located and worked in the crudest manner. Most of the free-milling ore proved supeficial. Only one large deposit, the Vulture, Was exploited on a large scale.

At the end of the Civil War, troops were again withdrawn, resulting in ten years of chaos and bloody warfare With the Apaches. Little mining was done except around Prescott and Wickenburg where some protection was given by troops guarding Prescott, then the capital of the Territory.

Finally, in 1872, large reservations were set aside for the Indians and the first truce was declared. The country was then enjoying the post-Civil War period of high commodity prices. Gold was relatively low in price as compared with silver and copper. Prospecting for these two metals, on the establishment of peace with the Indians, took precedence over gold, resulting, in the succeeding ten years, in the discovery and exploitation of rich silver mines in the Bradshaws, Silver King, Signal, Globe, and Tombstone. This silver boom was followed after the completion of the two transcontinental railroads in 1881 by the discovery and early exploitation of nearly every copper deposit in the Territory.

From 1884 to 1893 the country Went through a severe deflation of commodity values. The copper and silver markets fell rapidly resulting in a relative rise in the price of gold. On the demonitization of silver in 1893, practically all silver mining ceased, and only the richest and largest copper mines continued to operate.

From 1893 to 1900, miners from all the old silver camps of the West again turned to the Search for gold, which resulted in Arizona in the discovery of numerous new gold deposits, more notably the Congress and Octave in the Bradshaw Mountains, the Mammoth north of Tucson, and the rich Harqua Hala, La Fortuna, and King of Arizona mines in the desert of Yuma County. The development of the cyanide process and of better concentration methods encouraged the reopening of numerous old mines near Prescott and the exploitation of the deeper base ore.

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the long period of stagnation ended and commodity prices again turned upwards. Gold mining became less attractive, and the miners in Arizona turned their attention to copper. From 1900 until the business Collapse of 1929 and 1930, gold mining was subordinate to base metal mining. The only exceptions were the discovery and exploitation of the rich vein deposits of the Gold Road, Tom Reed, United Eastern, and others, in the Oatman district. Gold mining also continued on a reduced scale in the older rnines of the Bradshaw Mountains and in those of Yurna County.

On the collapse of Commodity prices in 1930, miners again turned their attention to gold. The first result was the search for new placers and the reworking of old fields, with indifferent results. The higher gold prices that were established by the United States in 1933 have revived activity in most of the old gold camps and stimulated prospecting throughout the State. In 1933, production was about 12 per cent greater than in 1932.

Arizona has produced more non-ferrous metallic wealth than any state or territory in the Union. While most of this production has been in copper, nearly every copper mining operation in the state has yielded important quantities of gold.

As a gold producer, Arizona ranks seventh in the United States. In the following table, the Arizona gold production is shown segregated as to its source. As is seen, about 40 per cent has come as a by-product of copper and lead mining, chiefly after 1900.

Text and images from Arizona Lode Gold Mines and Gold Mining, Arizona Bureau of Mines. Original 1934, revised 1967


History of Chino Valley

When Lt. Amiel Whipple of the U.S. Army Calvary first scouted this area, he noted the great expanses of grassland before him, called by the Mexicans “de china,” from which the valley derives its name. The abundant grass was harvested as hay for livestock and served as the primary feed for the U.S. Calvary in this area.

Chino Valley has the distinction of being home to Arizona’s first territorial government, which was established in 1864, 150 years ago, at Del Rio Springs just north of Chino Valley. According to the Chino Valley Historical Society, military leaders chose this site because it offered “good water, firewood within 2 or 3 miles and building timber of the best quality. The neighborhood abounds in deer, antelope, turkeys and other varieties of game.” Del Rio Springs was also the source of “the river” (del rio), later to be known as the Verde River.

To celebrate the 150th anniversary of Del Rio Springs’ designation as the site of Arizona’s first territorial capital, the Chino Valley Historical Society hosted “Governor Goodwin Arrives,” a recreation of the first Governor’s arrival at the site, complete with an eighteen gun salute, historical costumes, and a dutch oven barbecue. The program was attended by an overflow crowd of local citizens and officials, and produced for broadcast on Channel 13, Prescott’s public access cable television channel. A commemorative DVD is also available for purchase.

A few months after Goodwin’s arrival, Fort Whipple was moved from Del Rio Springs to Prescott in order to provide protection for the population of gold miners located there. Fort Whipple is now a beautiful collection of stately white structures which house the many services of the U.S. Veterans’ Administration.

Arizona’s territorial leaders opened the door to our beautiful valley, and it didn’t take long for settlers to start homesteading the land and growing hay, corn and wheat, thus beginning Chino Valley’s long history of farming and ranching. The Del Rio Springs area became central Arizona’s largest ranch at that time. Later, the city of Prescott bought the Springs and surrounding land in order to provide water to its residents through a 19-mile pipeline. The city also sold water to the Santa Fe Railroad, which in turn sold the water to Ash Fork and the Grand Canyon. Today the land is privately owned, and Del Rio Springs Partners recognizes its historical significance and continues to work with the community and state to preserve it.

The railroad came through Chino Valley in 1887 and signaled a new era for our town. First was the Prescott and Arizona Central and then the Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix line. The standard gauge railroad served to transfer materials between the Santa Fe railroad and the nearby mining town of Jerome, which was served by the United Verde and Pacific narrow gauge railroad. Jerome Junction station was built just east of Chino Valley and came to include a coal and water depot, Wells Fargo office, Post Office, stockyards, a school, a hotel and a saloon. When the railroad abandoned the narrow gauge railway, most of the buildings were moved to Chino Valley, and the Jerome Junction Hotel was renovated and moved to the grounds of Knotts Berry Farm. The Jerome Junction site can still be seen when traveling East on Perkinsville Road.

In 1909, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad joined with the Fred Harvey organization to provide the Fred Harvey Houses along the train route with milk, eggs, meat and vegetables produced at the nearby Del Rio farm. This longtime and beneficial arrangement ended in 1956, as railroads declined and activity moved closer to the State Highway 89.

Beginning in the 1910s, as railroad activity decreased at Jerome Junction, settlement activity moved toward the central area of Chino Valley. The Hassayampa Alfalfa Farms, Prescott Farms, and others, were promotional companies that encouraged agricultural growth in Chino Valley.

Just to the north of Chino Valley and Del Rio Springs lies the rural community of Paulden followed by Hells Canyon, which once challenged stagecoach travels until a railroad bridge was built across it and the small settlement of Drake, which is now home to the Drake Cement Plant.

Chino Valley homesteaders became Chino Valley farmers and ranchers who persevered through changing climates, social priorities and increasing costs to be successful with cattle, dairy cows and crops such as alfalfa. Ranches and farms continue to drive the economy of Chino Valley today, and this rural quality is what attracts many new residents to our quiet town.


Watch the video: Γέρων Εφραίμ της Αριζόνα ρωσικό ντοκυμαντέρ (January 2022).