History Podcasts

Yellowstone III - History

Yellowstone III - History

Yellowstone III

(AD-41: dp. 21,916; 1. 641'10"; b. 86'0" dr. 24'0"; s.
20.0 k.; cpl. 1,600; a. 1 6"; cl. SamusiGompere)

The third Yellowstone (AD-41) was laid down on 2 June 1977 at San Diego, Calif., by the National Steel and Shipbuilding Co.; launched on 27 January 1979 and sponsored by Mrs. Donald C. Davis, the wife of Admiral Donald C. Davis, the Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet. Yellowstone is slated to be delivered to the Navy in mid-January of 1980 and should join the fleet in the middle of the year.

A chunk of Yellowstone the size of Chicago has been pulsing. Why?

An injection of magma under Norris Geyser Basin may be why the region is five inches higher today than it was 20 years ago.

In northwestern Wyoming, in the center of Yellowstone National Park, a bubbling caldera is the scar of a 640,000-year-old, gargantuan volcanic eruption. The 3,472-square-mile park encompassing the caldera is filled with geologic wonderlands of sprouting geysers and effervescing pools, all ultimately driven by magma and superheated fluids churning in the rock below the surface.

One of these areas, Norris Geyser Basin to the northwest of the caldera, contains more than 500 hydrothermal features. These tempestuous geysers and pools often change from day to day, but a much larger transformation has been taking place as well: For more than two decades, an area larger than Chicago centered near the basin has been inflating and deflating by several inches in erratic bursts. In a hyperactive volcanic region like Yellowstone, the exact causes of any specific movement are difficult to pin down. But a recent study in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth may help explain why this pocket of land has been breathing in and out.

“In all likelihood, Norris has been a center of deformation for a very long time,” says Daniel Dzurisin, a research geologist at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Cascades Volcano Observatory and one of the co-authors of the new research.

Scientists used decades of satellite-based radar and GPS data of Norris Geyser Basin to model what may have occurred below its surface based on the changes above. In the late 1990s, a body of magma intruded beneath Norris, and fluids trapped within the magma bubbled out and made their way through the rocky labyrinth above them. As the fluids got stuck and pressure built up, the ground would rise, and when the fluids were able to escape elsewhere, the ground deflated. Today, magma-derived fluids could sit close to the surface, just a mile or so below the ground.

To be clear, the new research does not indicate that the supervolcano that created Yellowstone’s caldera—which last erupted 640,000 years ago—is any more likely to erupt now. Instead, these geologic movements may help explain why the park’s Steamboat Geyser, the world’s tallest active geyser, has been erupting at a record-breaking pace since March 2018. Researchers also speculate that the changes below Norris may mean a slightly increased chance of hydrothermal explosions taking place in the basin. (Get a peek inside Yellowstone's supervolcano.)

The geology of Yellowstone is complex and elusive, and investigations of the subsurface are particularly challenging. But researchers agree that the injection of a large body of magma and the fluids that escaped during the event are plausible explanations for the rising and falling ground.

“We’re only just beginning to understand just how dynamic [Norris Geyser Basin] is,” says Michael Poland, the scientist-in-charge at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Yellowstone Volcano Observatory who wasn’t involved in the new research.


Lowenstern, J. B., Christiansen, R. L., Smith, R. B., Morgan, L.A., & Heasler, H. (2005). Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions - What's in Yellowstone's Future?. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet , 2005-3024, 6 p.

Brantley, S. R., Lowenstern, J. B., Smith, R. B., Heasler, H., Waters, A. C., Waite, G. & Wicks, C. (2004). Tracking Changes in Yellowstone's Restless Volcanic System. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet , 100-03, 4 p.

Field Guides

Morgan, L. A., Shanks, W. P., Lowenstern, J. B., Farrell, J. M. & Robinson, J. E. (2017). Geologic field-trip guide to the volcanic and hydrothermal landscape of the Yellowstone Plateau. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report , 2017-5022-P, 100 p. doi:10.3133/sir20175022P

Vazquez, J. A., Stelten, M., Bindeman, I. N. & Cooper, K. M. (2017). A field trip guide to the petrology of Quaternary volcanism on the Yellowstone Plateau. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2017-5022-Q, 68 p. doi:10.3133/sir20175022Q

Smith, R. B. and Siegel, L. J. (2000). Windows Into the Earth: The Geology of Yellowstone And Grand Teton Parks, Oxford University Press, Chapter 9, Yellowstone Tour, A detailed geologic field guide with map, illustrations, pictures, etc. keyed to auto mileage.

Fournier, R. O., Christiansen, R. L., Hutchinson, R. A. & Pierce, K. L. (1994). A field-trip guide to Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho volcanic, hydrothermal, and glacial activity in the region. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin , 2099, 46 p. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/b2099

Geologic Maps

Flynn, K., Wall, B. G., White, D. E., Hutchinson, R. A., Keith, T. E., Clor, L. & Robinson, J. E. (2008). Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series , 324

Hazards Assessments and Reports

Christiansen, R. L., Lowenstern, J. B., Smith, R. B., Heasler, H., Morgan, L. A., Nathenson, M., Mastin, L. G., Muffler, L. P. & Robinson, J. E. (2007). Preliminary Assessment of Volcanic and Hydrothermal Hazards in Yellowstone National Park and Vicinity. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report , 2007-1071, 98 p.

Journal Articles

Evans, W. C., Bergfeld, D., McGeehin, J. P., King, J. C. & Heasler, H. (2010). Tree-ring 14C links seismic swarm to CO2 spike at Yellowstone, USA. Geology , 38, 1075-1078. doi:10.1130/G31345.1 http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/38/12/1075.abstract

Farrell, J., Smith, R. B., Taira, T., Chang, W. & Puskas, C. M. (2010). Dynamics and rapid migration of the energetic 2008-2009 Yellowstone Lake earthquake swarm. Geophysical Research Letters , 37 doi:10.1029/2010GL044605

Smith, R. B., Jordan, M., Puskas, C. M., Farrell, J., Waite, G. & Husen, S. (2009). Geodynamics of the Yellowstone hotspot and mantle plume: Seismic and GPS imaging, kinematics, and mantle flow. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research , 188, 26-56. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.08.020

Wicks, C., Thatcher, W., Dzurisin, D. & Svarc, J. (2006). Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera. Nature , 440, p 72-75. doi:10.1038/nature04507

Smith, R. B. & Braile, L. W. (1994). The Yellowstone Hotspot. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research , 61, 121-129, 135-187. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(94)90002-7

Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone

[This photograph is from a series] taken by William H. Jackson, the photographer accompanying the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories directed by Ferdinand V. Hayden. Medical doctor and geologist Dr. Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden selected more than 30 scientists, technical personnel, and artists, including photographer William Henry Jackson and painter Thomas Moran, to join the survey of the Yellowstone region in northwest Wyoming territory. Since most members of Congress had never seen the area with their own eyes, Moran's drawings and Jackson's photographs, along with Hayden's descriptions, had likely influenced the Committee's appreciation of Yellowstone's artistic works of nature. On March 1, two days after the House Committee on Public Lands issued its report, President Ulysses S. Grant signed the Act Establishing Yellowstone National Park into law. It became the first national park, not only in the United States, but anywhere in the world. See the painting, The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, by Thomas Moran on the website of the Smithsonian American Art Museum.

Text adapted from “Letter from Thomas Moran to Ferdinand Hayden and Paintings by Thomas Moran” in the May/June 2012 National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication Social Education.

Whiskey Myers Receives Massive Boost After “Yellowstone” Appearance

Fans of the Texas Music Southern Rock band Whiskey Myers had fair warning they would be featured prominently in the most recent episode of the Paramount Network’s original series Yellowstone starring Kevin Costner, but nobody had an idea it would result in such an incredible boost in exposure and sales for the band. TV and movie placements happen pretty often for independent bands these days, and in lieu of radio it is one stream of exposure and revenue for bands otherwise ignored by mainstream media. But it rarely results in the massive boost Whiskey Myers has enjoyed.

On the fourth episode of Yellowstone, Whiskey Myers wasn’t just featured as part of the soundtrack, the band was filmed performing in a bar, which resulted in the nearly two million viewers crashing the internet to try and find more information and music from the band. In the aftermath of the episode, the band’s most recent album Mud went #1 on the iTunes country chart, and Top 20 all genre on the hourly-updating aggregator. Also their album Firewater came in at #3 in country, and the album Early Morning Shakes came in at #9. On the iTunes country songs chart, the song “Stone” was in the Top 10. At the time of posting, all three albums from Whiskey Myers were still in the iTunes Top 10 in country.

“Getting asked to be on ‘Yellowstone’ was a cool opportunity and we are very honored to be a part of it since we are all big fans,” says lead vocalist and guitarist Cody Cannon. “It’s really awesome to see people reacting to our music, taking a two-year-old album to the No. 1 spot on iTunes. We are very thankful that people are digging it.”

“I’m very humbled by how positive the reaction has been with all the fan interaction digging the music,” says guitarist John Jeffers. “We knew that you just have to hang in there and put out quality music, and timing will present itself. After working at this dream for 10 years it’s exciting to have our moment to shine on a national stage.”

At the time the episode aired, Whiskey Myers was in the studio working on a new record. As interest swelled, the band also decided to make their records available for $5.99 for a limited time to facilitate new fans getting their taste. Originally formed in 2007 in the east Texas town of Palestine by Cody Cannon and Cody Tate, Whiskey Myers has become Red Dirt and Texas music’s go-to Southern Rock band. Their last two records were produced by Dave Cobb, and they’ve continued to build a strong fan base from energetic shows and quality songs.

The series Yellowstone centers around the famous American National Park and the conflicts that arise between the shared borders of a large cattle ranch, an Indian reservation, land developers, and the park itself. It was created by Taylor Sheridan who is originally from Texas himself, and made a name developing Sons of Anarchy, as well as the movie Hell or High Water, which also featured a lot of independent and classic country music. Hell or High Water was also nominated for Best Picture at the Oscars. Sheridan is given credit for revitalizing the modern Western.

“I was standing on set explaining my idea for a scene in a honky tonk, so I played the team Whiskey Myers’ ‘Stone’ and told them I wanted something like that at the end,” says Taylor Sheridan. “Our producer John Linson said ‘Why not just use that?’ so I got Cody’s number and called him, pitched him the scenes and asked if they wanted to come be in the show. Thankfully, they said yes. I think Whiskey Myers is generating some of the most exciting music in the country genre. And rock, for that matter. And alt-country. And Americana… I love ’em.”

Other cool performers featured on Yellowstone have been the Texas music female supergroup The Trishas, Whitey Morgan, and Chris Stapleton. A clip from the Whiskey Myers appearance on Yellowstone can be seen below, and stay tuned for more information on their new album coming soon.

All The Songs & Artists Featured on Season 3 of ‘Yellowstone’

Ryan Bingham / Colter Wall / Cody Jinks / Tyler Childers / Lainey Wilson

The season finale for the Paramount Network’s signature summer series Yellowstone ended in a cliffhanger Sunday night (8-23), and it also ended another successful run for the series in both the ratings department, and in featuring all manner of cool country and roots artists and songs throughout the season.

During Season 3 of the Kevin Costner-led series, music from Colter Wall, Cody Jinks, Tyler Childers, Elle King, Charley Crockett, Sturgill Simpson, Red Shahan, and so many more made it into key moments, often sparking interest in the songs and artists themselves. This was certainly the case when the song “Condemned” by viral star Zach Bryan played during the ending scene of Episode 2. Ryan Bingham also made a re-appearance in Season 3, not just in the soundtrack, but as one of the recurring characters.

The benefit of an appearance on Yellowstone for a band is not just hypothetical. When Whiskey Myers not only had some songs featured during Season 1, but also made a personal appearance during a scene itself, it shot up their sales, and is given credit for one of the reasons why the band is on the rise, including recently hitting #1 on the charts with their latest self-titled album. In lieu of mainstream radio play, shows like Yellowstone can really help spread the word about independent artists.

Yellowstone centers around the famous American National Park and the conflicts that arise between the shared borders of a large cattle ranch, an Indian reservation, land developers, and the park itself. It was created by Taylor Sheridan who is originally from Texas, and made a name developing Sons of Anarchy, as well as the movie Hell or High Water, both of which featured lots of independent and classic country music as well. Sheridan is often given credit for revitalizing the modern Western. Yellowstone‘s music supervisor is Andrea von Foerster.

You can see some of the songs featured in Season 1 of Yellowstone here, and all of the songs in Season 2 of Yellowstone here, and find all of the songs ands the respectives episodes and scenes for Season 3 below:

Episode 1- You’re The Indian Now6/21/2020

  • Kevin Costner & Modern West – “Dark Thoughts Ride” (scene with Beth and Kayce)
  • Cody Jinks – “Mama Song” (At the new barn)
  • Honey Country – “Cigarette” (At the liquor store)
  • Colter Wall (feat. Belle Plaine) – “Caroline” (By the campfire)

Episode 2 – Freight Trains and Monsters6/28/2020

  • Blackberry Smoke – “Sleeping Dogs” (Dancing at the ranch)
  • The Cadillac Three- “Party Like You” (Horse thieves at the trailer)
  • Tyler Childers – “Lady May” (At Yellowstone Rance)
  • Zach Bryan – “Condemned” (Ending scene)

Episode 3 – An Acceptable Surrender – 7/5/2020


The Rocket III Project started in 1998 led by Triumph Product Range Manager Ross Clifford and started with a lot of research – especially in the US, where big cruisers were selling well. [4] The main competitors were the Harley-Davidson Ultraglide and the Honda Gold Wing so the initial idea was to develop a 1,600 cc performance cruiser.

The in-house designer was John Mockett, [5] designer of the Hesketh V1000, the Tiger and the new "retro" Bonneville. He started work with David Stride, Gareth Davies and Rod Scivyer working around an in-line three cylinder engine. At the start of the project an in-line four and V6 engine configurations were looked at but the longitudinally mounted triple design led to the design concept code named C15XB Series S1.

Mockett experimented with 'futuristic' styling that included "raygun" mufflers and a large chrome rear mudguard, but consumer focus groups did not like it. The S2 model was a simplified version with a more traditional rear mudguard and several features that were to make it through to the final design. Once again, the feedback from market research was that it was still too radical so the lines were simplified and smoothed out to create the Series S3.

Part of the reason for the secrecy was competition from other manufacturers. Yamaha had launched the 1,670 cubic centimetres (102 cu in) Road Star Warrior in 2002, and Honda had launched the VTX1800, so Triumph decided to up the ante and go for a displacement of 2,294 cc.

The first engine was built in summer 2002 and tested in the autumn. Twin butterfly valves for each throttle body were used to increase control and allow the ECU to vary the mixture flow and ignition map according to the gear selected and speed. The specification of twin spark plugs per cylinder and multi-hole fuel injectors by Mark Jenner (fuelling, ignition and emission design engineer) allowed the Rocket III to meet the Euro IV emissions limits at launch. The torque curve is modified for each gear ratio, enabling over 90% of the engine’s torque output at 2,000 rpm, giving the high levels of flexibility that the designers needed. The 1,500 W starter motor on the Rocket III puts out as much power as the engine on the very first Triumph motorcycle, Siegfried Bettmann's 1902 1.75 horsepower (1.30 kW) single. [6]

The final design of the S3 prototype had a large tubular steel twin-spine frame, designed by James Colbrook. [7] Andy Earnshaw was responsible for designing the gearbox and shaft drive to a 240/50ZR16 bike specific rear tyre. High specification front brakes were Daytona 955i twin four-piston callipers with 320 mm floating discs and the rear brake, developed specifically for the purpose, was a single twin piston calliper and 316 mm disc. Ride handling is controlled by purpose built rear shocks and a Triumph first, 43 mm 'inverted' front forks. [6]

In 2003, the prototype was renamed the 'Rocket', following market research, continuing the heritage of the BSA Rocket 3/Triumph Trident motorcycles. It was unveiled in the US on 20 August 2003, in San Antonio, Texas. [8] The Rocket's European launch was at the International Motorcycle Show in Milan, Italy on 16 September 2003. Sold in the UK from the spring of 2004, it was awarded 'Machine of the Year' by Motor Cycle News at the 2004 NEC Motorcycle Show. The Australian launch was in Sydney in August 2004, with 230 deposits taken before any had been shipped into the country. [9]

In 2018, Mark Holmes, known for long distance motorcycle riding became the first person to circumnavigate the world on a Triumph Motorcycles Ltd Rocket III. Mark rode a limited edition Rocket X, number 190 / 500, departing from London on 1st. April 2017, and returning on 22nd. August 2018. He covered nearly 39,000 miles, over 5 continents, in 506 days. [10] [11] [12]

Despite extensive market research, the Rocket III has had difficulty finding its niche. Originally intended to break into the US's lucrative cruiser market, the Triumph struggled to find acceptance among Harley-Davidson's ultra-traditional riders, who have barely come to terms with Harley-Davidson's own V-Rod. [13] The 2009 Thunderbird competes more successfully with Harley-Davidson bikes. [14] Triumph is spreading its focus: the Rocket III is now in the "musclebike" and "streetfighter" market, where the Yamaha V-Max has found success, [13] [15] while the Rocket III Touring is making inroads to the market for large touring machines. [14]

"Motor Cycle News" said of the Rocket III: "It is the biggest, most bad-ass motorcycle money can buy. The Triumph Rocket III is an incredible experience and bravo to Triumph for making it. Compared to a Harley, the Rocket III is a steal. It’s better braked, faster, handles better and it’s British. Secondhand values remain high and providing you keep to 3-4000 miles a year it won’t depreciate faster than a Harley, either". [16]

Rocket III Edit

The original model was released in 2004. This model trim is no longer available. The Rocket III Roadster is now the only version available. This model was awarded Motorcycle Cruiser magazine's 2004 Bike of the Year, Motorcyclist's 2004 Cruiser of the Year, and Cruising Rider magazine 2005 Bike of the Year. [17] This model is the newest exhibit at the UK National Motorcycle Museum.

Rocket III Classic Edit

Introduced in 2006, the Classic version has rider floorboards, different shaped silencers (mufflers) and 'pullback' handlebars. More colour choices were added and the pillion seat was modified to improve comfort.

In June 2007, Triumph used 'viral marketing' to promote the Rocket III Classic by posting a well-made spoof production video to YouTube and bike enthusiast websites, [18] As of September 2012 [update] , the video had more than 1.2 million views. [19]

Rocket III Roadster Edit

The 2010 Roadster is the most powerful bike in the Rocket III line-up, with a claimed 163 lb⋅ft (221 N⋅m) torque and 146 bhp (109 kW) power, as well as a dual exhaust, one per side, instead of the previous 2 and 1 layout. Triumph calls it "the ultimate muscle streetfighter". [20]

Rocket III Tourer Edit

The short-lived 2007 Tourer Limited Edition Model was just a Classic Model with the addition of a windscreen, panniers (saddlebags), backrest and luggage rack from the factory, and a choice of two-tone paint schemes

Rocket III Touring Edit

Triumph began developing the Rocket III Touring version in February 2004 following the launch of the original model, to target the large cruiser market which represents 50% of all US motorcycle sales. [21] As well as a new design for the steel frame and swinging arm, the Touring model has more torque at lower revs – 150 lb-ft at 2500 rpm, but less horsepower at the top end 106 hp (79 kW) @ 6,000 rpm (claimed). [2] New features include tank mounted instruments and a scrolling switch on the handlebar to set the clock and indicate fuel ranges. [22] The five-spoke design used on the Rocket III was replaced with billet aluminium slotted wheels and narrower tyres were specified to improve steering with a 180/70 x 16 rear tyre to make it easier to fit detachable panniers that come as standard, together with a removable windscreen and Kayaba rear shock absorbers. The Rocket III Touring was discontinued in 2017.

7. The U.S. Army ran the park for over 30 years.

Cavalry troop performing drills at Yellowstone. (Creidt: B.L. Singley/Library of Congress/Getty Images)

During its early years, Yellowstone suffered due to meager government funding and a series of ineffective superintendents. Tourists vandalized the park’s geysers and rock formations, and poachers and private interests hunted its wild game and harvested its timber. The damage was only slowed in 1886, when a U.S. Army cavalry company was dispatched to administer Yellowstone and stand guard over its natural treasures. The troops immediately went to work expelling squatters, rounding up poachers and enforcing regulations, and by 1894 their successes had encouraged Congress to pass a new law protecting the park’s wildlife. Army forces would remain the wardens of Yellowstone until 1918, when they handed the reigns to the newly created National Parks Service.

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At Yellowstone National Park Lodges, you’re invited to discover or rediscover the magic of the world’s first national park, Yellowstone. As proud stewards of the park and this truly extraordinary American wonder, we’ll help you find your ultimate Yellowstone experience—all while working to protect and preserve the park for future generations.

Yellowstone continues to provide inspiration for the people of the world and is a reflection of American values and ideals. From lodging, camping and dining to finding your way, things to do or applying for a job, find the information you need for planning a uniquely memorable visit to the extraordinary destination of Yellowstone National Park.


In the early stages of Operation Barbarossa, the Wehrmacht felt the need for a more mobile and more powerful anti-tank solution than the existing towed anti-tank guns, such as the 3.7 cm Pak 36, or self-propelled tank destroyers, such as the Panzerjäger I (mounted with the 4.7 cm PaK (t)). This need became urgent in 1942, when anti-tank shells fired from said anti-tank guns failed to penetrate the armor of new Soviet tanks, such as the T-34 and KV-1.

As an interim solution, it was decided to use captured French vehicles, such as the Lorraine (Marder I), obsolete tanks in surplus, such as the German Panzer II (Marder II), and Czech-supplied Panzer 38(t) (Marder III) as the base for the production of makeshift tank destroyers. The result was the Marder series, which were armed with either captured Soviet 76.2mm F-22 Model 1936 divisional field guns, or German 7.5 cm PaK 40 anti-tank guns mounted in later versions. Due to weight, space, and time constraints, the Marder series had relatively thin armor when compared to other armored vehicles of the era. This thin upper armor formed a gunshield, only protecting the crew from shrapnel and small arms fire on the front and sides. All Marder series had open tops—although some were issued with canvas tops to protect the crew from the elements. In this regard, the Marder was more of a gun carriage than a proper Panzerjäger that could exchange fire with enemy tanks.

Marder III, Sd.Kfz. 139 Edit

While the Panzer 38(t) had largely become obsolete as a tank in early 1942, it was still an excellent and plentiful platform for adaptation into a tank destroyer, among other roles. Since the Soviet 76.2 mm field gun was captured in large quantities, the decision was made to mate this gun to the Panzer 38(t).

To do so, the mass production of the Panzer 38(t) Ausf. G was halted, and a modified superstructure was bolted onto the standard tank chassis in lieu of a gun turret. This upper structure mounted the gun and an extended Gun shield, giving only limited protection for the commander, gunner, and the loader. Armor protection overall ranged from 10 to 50 mm, with no armor at all above and behind the gun compartment, which the crew occupied. It had a higher silhouette than the original Panzer 38 (t), which made it more vulnerable to enemy fire.

In German service, the Soviet gun was redesignated 7.62 cm PaK 36(r), and rechambered for the more powerful German PaK 40 cartridge. [ citation needed ] Thirty rounds of ammunition were stored inside the vehicle. Apart from the main gun, there was a 7.92 mm machine gun mounted in the hull.

This tank destroyer was put into production as the Panzerjäger 38(t) für 7.62 cm PaK 36(r), Sd.Kfz. 139. A total of 344 vehicles were built in three series from April to November 1942. Chassis numbers were 1360–1479, 1527–1600, and 1601–1750. [1]

Marder III Ausf. H, Sd.Kfz. 138 Edit

This next variant of the Marder III fielded the standard 7.5 cm PaK 40 German anti-tank gun on a slightly modified Panzer 38(t) Ausf. H chassis. This chassis still had the engine in the rear of the vehicle, but, unlike the previous model, this vehicle utilized the fighting compartment of the Panzer 38 in the center. This allowed the crew to stay low in the center of the vehicle, lowering their exposure to small arms fire and shell fragments. However, because of the rear-mounted engine, there was only enough room for two men to stand in the center. Large side armor gave additional protection for the crew. Despite this, the thin horseshoe-shaped armor only protected the front and sides the rear and the top were exposed. Thirty-eight rounds of ammunition for the gun were carried. As with the Sd.Kfz.139, this vehicle also carried a Czech-manufactured 7.92 mm machine gun in the hull.

The full name of the Ausf. H was the 7.5 cm PaK 40/3 auf Panzerkampfwagen 38(t) Ausf. H, Sd.Kfz. 138. A total of 275 vehicles were built in two series from November 1942 to April 1943. An additional 175 vehicles were converted from Panzer 38(t)'s in 1943. Chassis numbers of new vehicles were 1751–2075 and 2121–2147 (overlapping with simultaneous Grille production). [1]

Marder III Ausf. M, Sd.Kfz. 138 Edit

The last Marder III variant was based on the Geschützwagen 38(t) Ausf. M, a purpose-designed vehicle for self-propelled gun use, again armed with the 75 mm PaK 40 anti-tank gun. Ausf. M was the final variant of the Marder series, and was a significant improvement over previous models, with its lower silhouette, sloped armor, and much more functional fighting compartment. In this variant, the engine was moved from the rear to the middle between driver and the rest of the crew. Because there was no engine in the rear, the gun and the crew did not have to sit on top of the engine deck as in previous models. The fighting compartment could be lowered down to the bottom floor level where the engine used to be, which decreased crew exposure and visibility. Unlike the previous two Marder III variants, the fighting compartment was closed at the rear, protecting the crew up to their midsection. It stayed open-topped. The machine gun port at the front was eliminated in the Ausf. M in favor of an MG 34 or MG 42 carried by the crew. In the previous two models, the commander served as a gunner. However, in the Ausf. M, the radio man moved to the rear, with the commander and gunner, to serve as a loader. Only 27 rounds of 7.5 cm ammunition were carried, but combat effectiveness increased because the vehicle commander was freed from manning the gun.

Watch the video: A Brief History of Yellowstone National Park. National Geographic (November 2021).