History Podcasts

Day 209 August 16 2011 - History

Day 209 August 16 2011 - History

11:50AM THE PRESIDENT delivers opening remarks at the White House Rural Economic Forum Northeast Iowa Community College

12:35PM THE PRESIDENT participates in a breakout session hosted by Small Business Administrator Karen Mills Northeast Iowa Community College

12:55PM THE PRESIDENT participates in a breakout session hosted by Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack Northeast Iowa Community College

2:00PM THE PRESIDENT is interviewed by KSDK Saint Louis, Missouri and WDAF Kansas City, MO Northeast Iowa Community College

2:30PM THE PRESIDENT delivers closing remarks at the Rural Economic Forum Northeast Iowa Community College


Amazon.com, Inc. (AMZN)

Cindy Liu, eMarketer Senior Forecasting Analyst, joins Yahoo Finance’s Adam Shapiro and Seana Smith to discuss all thing Amazon Prime day: from how it is expected to perform to what it means for consumers.

Place A Bag On Your Car Mirror When Traveling

Brilliant Car Cleaning Hacks Local Dealers Wish You Didn’t Know

Prime Day hasn’t achieved the ɼultural significance' Amazon wants: analyst

Sucharita Kodali, Forrester Research Retail Analyst, joins Yahoo Finance Live to discuss Amazon looking to replicate China's 11/11 success, retailers competing with Amazon Prime Day and the future of e-commerce.

Amazon-MGM to Be Reviewed by FTC Led by Tech Critic Khan

(Bloomberg) -- Amazon.com Inc.’s takeover of movie studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer will be reviewed by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, which is now led by one of the most prominent critics of dominant technology companies.The FTC will oversee the antitrust investigation of the deal instead of the Justice Department, according to a person familiar with the matter. Lina Khan, a former Columbia Law School professor who is an outspoken advocate of aggressive enforcement against tech platforms, took ov

UPDATE 1-Teamsters union steps up efforts to organize Amazon workers

The International Brotherhood of Teamsters, a labor union in the United States and Canada, is stepping up efforts to unionize workers at Amazon.com Inc by creating a company-specific division to aid workers, it said on Tuesday. Representatives from 500 unions, which together account for 1.4 million workers in the United States, have come together at the 30th international convention of Teamsters to support and help improve the livelihoods of Amazon workers. The union tweeted that delegates will vote on a resolution to make the campaign at Amazon a 'top priority'.

Microsoft Rises to Join Apple in Exclusive $2 Trillion Club

(Bloomberg) -- Microsoft Corp. took its place in the history books as just the second U.S. public company to reach a $2 trillion market value, buoyed by bets its dominance in cloud computing and enterprise software will expand further in a post-coronavirus world.Its shares rose as much as 1.2% in New York on Tuesday, enough for the software company to briefly join Apple Inc. as one of only two companies trading at such a lofty value before closing pennies short of the mark at $265.51. Saudi Aram

Mom's Payback - She Bought Neighbor's Property

After so much drama and many police visits, she got the upper hand. Who would’ve thought that a small piece of paper has such power?

Total E-Commerce Sales On Amazon Prime Day Could Top $11 Billion

Amazon Prime Day sales kicked off at a brisk place, with the first 24 hours of the 48-hour event expected to top $5.6 billion.

Bezos and Branson Race to Space: Here's What It Means for Investors

Earlier this month, Jeff Bezos announced what he intends to do once he steps down as CEO of Amazon. Bezos intends to travel to space, along with his brother and one other passenger, on the inaugural commercial flight for his Blue Origin rocket start-up. On this clip from Motley Fool Live, recorded on June 10, Motley Fool contributor Lou Whiteman talks with "Industry Focus" host Nick Sciple about what it means for the industry and how investors should view these billionaires shooting for the stars.

Jim Cramer: Where Have All the Workers Gone?

Where did all the workers go? What happened to them? This is THE question of the moment and we must find out because no one seems to know. We do know that there are almost double the number of people who are looking for work and can be considered unemployed versus the months before the pandemic began - 5 million versus 10 million - yet the mismatch of workers is palpable and is causing havoc with just about every company in the U.

UPDATE 1-Amazon sees Prime Day sales boost amid supply chain snags

Amazon.com Inc's Prime Day saw strong online sales growth in the United States on Monday even as supply chain snafus and a robust spending appetite limited the level of discounts on popular products like electronics. Total online sales across all U.S. retailers jumped 8.7% from last year's levels to $5.6 billion, data from Adobe's Digital Economy Index released on Tuesday showed. Amazon uses deals to boost the number of subscribers to its loyalty club Prime.

New FTC chair Lina Khan is Big Tech’s biggest nightmare

The newly appointed chair of the powerful Federal Trade Commission, an agency with broad authority to police America’s biggest corporations including its tech giants, has been one of Silicon Valley’s chief critics, earning her the bromide of being leader of the "hipster antitrust" movement among young scholars. They want to expand existing antitrust law to better target issues like corporate concentration and income inequality.

Amazon sees Prime Day sales boost amid supply chain snags

Amazon.com Inc's Prime Day saw strong online sales growth in the United States on Monday even as supply chain snafus and a robust spending appetite limited the level of discounts on popular products like electronics. Total online sales across all U.S. retailers jumped 8.7% from last year's levels to $5.6 billion, data from Adobe's Digital Economy Index released on Tuesday showed. Amazon uses deals to boost the number of subscribers to its loyalty club Prime.

FTC to review Amazon deal for MGM, source says

The Federal Trade Commission, whose new chairwoman has been critical of Amazon.com , will review the company's planned purchase of MGM, a source familiar with the matter said. Amazon said in May that it would buy the U.S. movie studio, home to the James Bond franchise, in an $8.45 billion deal that would give it a huge library of films and TV shows to compete with streaming rivals led by Netflix and Disney+. The Wall Street Journal was the first to report that the FTC would review the deal.

FTC to review Amazon’s planned $8.45 billion purchase of MGM: report

The MGM deal, which would greatly expand content on the Amazon Prime Video streaming platform with the James Bond franchise and TV fare like "The Handmaid's Tale," will fall under the purview of the FTC and its new chair, Lina Khan, according to a Wall Street Journal report Tuesday.

Amazon Bid for MGM to Get FTC Antitrust Review (Report)

Amazon’s $8.5 billion deal to acquire MGM will be subject to an antitrust review by the Federal Trade Commission, the Wall Street Journal reported, citing anonymous sources. Last month, Amazon announced a definitive agreement to acquire MGM and its well-stocked library of 4,000 movies and 17,000 TV shows, including the storied James Bond film franchise. […]

Workers Are Asking Amazon to Clean Up its Act: The Warehouse Investor Takeaway

Over 600 Amazon workers are so distraught, they've signed a petition demanding Amazon stop polluting in poor neighborhoods.

Amazon’s Prime Day U.S. Shoppers Spending Less Per Order So Far

(Bloomberg) -- Amazon.com Inc. shoppers in the U.S. spent less per order during the first 32 hours of the annual Prime Day sale than the previous two years, according to Numerator, suggesting shoppers are flocking to the site to buy diapers and cereal rather than flat-screen televisions and laptops.The average Amazon order was $47.14 in the first 32 hours of the event, down from $54.64 last year, when Prime Day fell in October. Order size also trailed the $58.91 in 2019, when Prime Day was in Ju

Analysis: India e-commerce rules cast cloud over Amazon, Walmart and local rivals

New Indian e-commerce rules will raise costs for all online retailers but particularly Amazon and Walmart's Flipkart as they may have to review their business structures, senior industry sources told Reuters. India's Ministry of Consumer Affairs outlined plans on Monday which include limiting "flash sales" by online retailers, reining in a private label push, compelling them to appoint compliance officers and impose a "fall-back liability" if a seller is negligent.

EU’s Google Ad Tech Probe Strikes at Heart of Business Model

(Bloomberg) -- Google faces a sweeping European Union probe into its advertising technology, a move that strikes at the heart of the tech giant’s business model.The European Commission said Tuesday its new confrontation with the Alphabet Inc. unit will focus on concerns the company may be illegally favoring its own online display advertising technologies, squeezing out rivals.“This is probably the probe that many people were waiting for because it goes to the core of Google’s business,” said Ait

Is Google Stock A Buy? Internet Search Giant Could Finally Be Best FANG Stock In 2021

Here's what a fundamental and technical analysis says about Google stock. GOOGL stock buybacks remain high as web search and YouTube advertising rebound. But cloud computing growth is key.

Is Snowflake Stock A Buy? Software Maker Sets Path To $10 Billion In Revenue By 2028

Snowflake stock, the biggest software IPO ever, has pulled back. Here is what technical analysis says about buying SNOW stock.

10 Best Dividend Stocks to Buy Now According to Billionaire Leon Cooperman

In this article we discuss the 10 best dividend stocks to buy now according to billionaire Leon Cooperman. If you want to skip our detailed analysis of Cooperman’s history and hedge fund performance, go directly to the 5 Best Dividend Stocks to Buy Now According to Billionaire Leon Cooperman. Billionaire Leon Cooperman, who oversees Omega Advisors, […]

15 Oldest Companies In The World

In this article we are going to list the 15 Oldest Companies In The World. Click to skip ahead and jump to the 5 Oldest Companies In The World. We might think of older civilizations as uneducated, unkempt and without rules and regulations, but nothing further could be from the truth. True, we aren’t going […]

U.K. Delivery Startup Dija Said to Explore Sale Amid Competition

(Bloomberg) -- U.K. grocery startup Dija is exploring options including a sale or a merger with a rival just months after officially launching in London, according to people familiar with the matter.Dija, founded by former employees of Deliveroo Plc in 2020, is among a raft of new companies in Europe that promise to deliver household goods and convenience items to customers within 10 minutes.Dija is also exploring raising a new round of funding, a separate person familiar with the company’s plan

Amazon Plan to Buy MGM Is Said to Be Subject of FTC Review

Amazon and MGM last month unveiled an $8.45 billion deal to combine. A media report says the plan will be reviewed by the FTC.


Background

Formal slavery was legal until 1865 in most of the area that is now the United States. Many slaves were of African origin and many slave owners were of European descent, although some other groups also had slaves. By 1860, there were about four million slaves in the United States. On April 16, 1862, Abraham Lincoln, who was the US president at the time, signed the Compensated Emancipation Act, which freed more than 3000 slaves in the District of Columbia. However, slavery did not officially end in the rest of the United States until after the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 until 1865.

The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution formally ended slavery in the US. It was proposed on January 31, 1865, and ratified by 30 of the then 36 states in the same year. However, it was only ratified in Mississippi in 1995. Slavery and the racial divisions, upon which it was based, have had and continue to have huge implications for individuals and American society as a whole.

Emancipation Day in Washington DC marks the anniversary of the signing of the Compensated Emancipation Act. On January 4, 2005, legislation was signed to make Emancipation Day an official public holiday in the District of Columbia. Elsewhere in the United States, the emancipation of slaves is celebrated in Florida (May 20), Puerto Rico (March 22) and Texas (June 19). There are also similar events in many countries in the Caribbean, including Anguilla, Bahamas, Bermuda, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and the Turks and Caicos Islands. Many of these events occur during the first week of August as slavery was abolished in the British Empire on August 1, 1834.

Emancipation Day Observances

YearWeekdayDateNameHoliday TypeArea
2016птн15 апрEmancipation Day observedState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2016сбт16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2017вск16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2017пнд17 апрEmancipation Day observedState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2018пнд16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2019втр16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2020чтв16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2021птн16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2022птн15 апрEmancipation Day observedState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2022сбт16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2023вск16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2023пнд17 апрEmancipation Day observedState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2024втр16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2025срд16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia
2026чтв16 апрEmancipation DayState holidayDistrict of Columbia

While we diligently research and update our holiday dates, some of the information in the table above may be preliminary. If you find an error, please let us know.

Other Names and Languages

EnglishEmancipation Day
Arabicيوم التحرر
GermanTag der Sklavenbefreiung (Emancipation Day)
Hebrewיום שחרור העבדים
Korean노예 해방의 날
NorwegianSlaveriets opphør
SpanishDía de la Emancipación

Other Holidays in апрель 2022 in the United States

  • 1 апр , Pascua Florida Day
  • 2 апр , Pascua Florida Day
  • 3 апр , Ramadan Starts
  • 6 апр , National Tartan Day
  • 10 апр , Palm Sunday
  • 12 апр , National Library Workers' Day
  • 13 апр , Thomas Jefferson's Birthday
  • 14 апр , Maundy Thursday
  • 15 апр , Passover Eve
  • 16 апр , Holy Saturday
  • 17 апр , Easter Sunday
  • 18 апр , Easter Monday
  • 21 апр , San Jacinto Day
  • 22 апр , Orthodox Good Friday
  • 23 апр , Last Day of Passover
  • 24 апр , Orthodox Easter
  • 25 апр , Orthodox Easter Monday
  • 26 апр , Confederate Heroes' Day
  • 27 апр , Yom HaShoah
  • 28 апр , Lailat al-Qadr
  • 29 апр , Arbor Day

Fun Holidays on 16 апрель 2022 г.

Eggs Benedict Day

Eggs Benedict Day on April 16 encourages people to make and enjoy eggs benedicts for all their meals. More

Wear Pajamas to Work Day

Wear your pajamas to work on this fun and silly holiday. More


Fukushima accident

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Fukushima accident, also called Fukushima nuclear accident or Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, accident in 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi (“Number One”) plant in northern Japan, the second worst nuclear accident in the history of nuclear power generation. The site is on Japan’s Pacific coast, in northeastern Fukushima prefecture about 100 km (60 miles) south of Sendai. The facility, operated by the Tokyo Electric and Power Company (TEPCO), was made up of six boiling-water reactors constructed between 1971 and 1979. At the time of the accident, only reactors 1–3 were operational, and reactor 4 served as temporary storage for spent fuel rods.

TEPCO officials reported that tsunami waves generated by the main shock of the Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011, damaged the backup generators at the Fukushima Daiichi plant. Although all three of the reactors that were operating were successfully shut down, the loss of power caused cooling systems to fail in each of them within the first few days of the disaster. Rising residual heat within each reactor’s core caused the fuel rods in reactors 1, 2, and 3 to overheat and partially melt down, leading at times to the release of radiation. Melted material fell to the bottom of the containment vessels in reactors 1 and 2 and bored sizable holes in the floor of each vessel—a fact that emerged in late May. Those holes partially exposed the nuclear material in the cores. Explosions resulting from the buildup of pressurized hydrogen gas occurred in the outer containment buildings enclosing reactors 1 and 3 on March 12 and March 14, respectively. Workers sought to cool and stabilize the three cores by pumping seawater and boric acid into them. Because of concerns over possible radiation exposure, government officials established a 30-km (18-mile) no-fly zone around the facility, and a land area of 20-km (12.5-mile) radius around the plant—which covered nearly 600 square km (approximately 232 square miles)—was evacuated.

A third explosion occurred on March 15 in the building surrounding reactor 2. At that time the explosion was thought to have damaged the containment vessel housing the fuel rods. (In actuality, the explosion punched a second hole in the containment vessel the first hole had been created earlier by melted nuclear material that passed through the bottom of the vessel.) In response, government officials designated a wider zone, extending to a radius of 30 km around the plant, within which residents were asked to remain indoors. The explosion, along with a fire touched off by rising temperatures in spent fuel rods stored in reactor 4, led to the release of higher levels of radiation from the plant.

In the days that followed, some 47,000 residents left their homes, many people in areas adjacent to the 20-km evacuation warning zone also prepared to leave, and workers at the plant made several attempts to cool the reactors using truck-mounted water cannons and water dropped from helicopters. Those efforts met with some success, which temporarily slowed the release of radiation however, they were suspended several times after rising steam or smoke signaled an increased risk of radiation exposure.

As workers continued their attempts to cool the reactors, the appearance of increased levels of radiation in some local food and water supplies prompted Japanese and international officials to issue warnings about their consumption. At the end of March, the evacuation zone was expanded to 30 km around the plant, and ocean water near the plant was discovered to have been contaminated with high levels of iodine-131, which resulted from leakage of radioactive water through cracks in trenches and tunnels between the plant and the ocean. On April 6 plant officials announced that those cracks had been sealed, and later that month workers began to pump the irradiated water to an on-site storage building until it could be properly treated.

On April 12 nuclear regulators elevated the severity level of the nuclear emergency from 5 to 7—the highest level on the scale created by the International Atomic Energy Agency—placing it in the same category as the Chernobyl accident, which had occurred in the Soviet Union in 1986. It was not until the middle of December 2011 that Japanese Prime Minister Noda Yoshihiko declared the facility stable, after the cold shutdown of the reactors was completed.

As the fallout pattern became better understood, an additional corridor of land covering roughly 207 square km (80 square miles) and stretching away from the initial 20-km zone was also designated for evacuation in the months following the disaster. Months later, radiation levels remained high in the evacuation zone, and government officials remarked that the area might be uninhabitable for decades. However, they also announced that radiation levels had declined enough in some towns located just beyond the original 20-km evacuation warning zone that residents could return to their homes there. Although many areas located within the 20-km evacuation warning zone and the expanded zone (an area called the “difficult-to-return” zone) continued to remain off-limits due to high radiation levels, officials began to allow limited activities (business activities and visitation but no lodging) in other previously evacuated areas with moderately high radiation levels. Beginning in July 2013, evacuation orders were lifted in some areas characterized by lower levels of radiation both within and beyond the 20-km evacuation warning zone. By March 2017 all evacuation orders in the areas outside the difficult-to-return zone (which continued to sequester some 371 square km [about 143 square miles]) had been lifted. A 2016 study on the effects of the accident on fish and marine products showed that the contamination level had decreased dramatically over time, though the radioactivity of some species, especially sedentary rockfish, remained elevated within the exclusion zone.

A second, but smaller, nuclear accident took place in August 2013 when approximately 300 tonnes (330 tons) of irradiated water used in ongoing cooling operations in reactors 1, 2, and 3 was discharged into the landscape surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi facility. TEPCO officials reported that the leak was the result of an open valve in the short barrier wall that surrounded several of the tanks used in radioactive water storage. The leak was severe enough to prompt Japan’s Nuclear Regulation Authority to classify it as a level-3 nuclear incident.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.


Important Events From This day in History August 16th

Celebrating Birthdays Today
Steve Carell
Born: 16th August 1962 Acton, Massachusetts, U.S.
Known For : Steve Carell American comedian, actor and producer best known for his role on the hit TV Series "The Office". He has also built up a large number of nominations and awards including 2006 Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in Television Comedy. His Movies include Bruce Almighty, The 40-Year-Old Virgin, Evan Almighty and Get Smart I and II.

Madonna
Born: Madonna Louise Ciccone 16th August 1958 Bay City, Michigan, United States
Known For : Madonna is one of the world's top music stars and the best-selling female rock artist of modern times, her career spans three decades and she has managed to stay at the top of the music business by changing her persona, image and music to bring in each new generation. Since her first album "Madonna" to her latest release "Celebration" she has released 11 Studio albums, 2 Live albums, 5 Compilation albums, and 3 Soundtracks amassing "7 Number 1's in the US" the number 1's include Like a Virgin (1984), True Blue (1986), Like a Prayer (1989), Music (2000), American Life (2003), Confessions on a Dance Floor (2005) and Hard Candy (2008).


August 2011 Calendar

View or download the 2011 calendar.
Go to 2011 Calendar.

DateSunriseSunsetLength of day
August 1, 20115:5220:1214h 20m
August 2, 20115:5320:1114h 18m
August 3, 20115:5420:0914h 15m
August 4, 20115:5520:0814h 13m
August 5, 20115:5620:0714h 11m
August 6, 20115:5720:0614h 9m
August 7, 20115:5820:0514h 7m
August 8, 20115:5920:0414h 5m
August 9, 20116:0020:0214h 2m
August 10, 20116:0120:0114h 0m
August 11, 20116:0220:0013h 58m
August 12, 20116:0319:5813h 55m
August 13, 20116:0419:5713h 53m
August 14, 20116:0519:5613h 51m
August 15, 20116:0619:5413h 48m
August 16, 20116:0719:5313h 46m
August 17, 20116:0819:5213h 44m
August 18, 20116:0919:5013h 41m
August 19, 20116:1019:4913h 39m
August 20, 20116:1119:4713h 36m
August 21, 20116:1219:4613h 34m
August 22, 20116:1319:4413h 31m
August 23, 20116:1419:4313h 29m
August 24, 20116:1519:4113h 26m
August 25, 20116:1619:4013h 24m
August 26, 20116:1719:3813h 21m
August 27, 20116:1819:3713h 19m
August 28, 20116:1919:3513h 16m
August 29, 20116:2019:3313h 13m
August 30, 20116:2119:3213h 11m
August 31, 20116:2219:3013h 8m

The sunrise and sunset are calculated from New York. All the times in the August 2011 calendar may differ when you eg live east or west in the United States. To see the sunrise and sunset in your region select a city above this list.


88 Food And Drink Holidays You Need To Mark On Your Calendars For Free Food

Besides the typical holidays that call for extravagant food spreads and homemade meals, there are tons of national food days that should be on your radar. They don't all require a celebration but if you're ever looking for an excuse to have a themed dinner or to drink a certain liquor by the truck load&mdashyou should keep some of these days in mind.

Not only can you use, say, National Tequila Day (July 24) or National Cookie Day (December 4) as a reason to show off your bartending and baking skills at home, but so many restaurants offer free and cheap meals in honor of these days. That means discounted meals, desserts, and drinks will pop up at different times through out the year, so you have to keep an eye out. These are all of the national food and drink days worth noting on your calendar:


August 2010 Calendar

View or download the 2010 calendar.
Go to 2010 Calendar.

DateSunriseSunsetLength of day
August 1, 20105:5220:1214h 20m
August 2, 20105:5320:1114h 18m
August 3, 20105:5420:0914h 15m
August 4, 20105:5520:0814h 13m
August 5, 20105:5620:0714h 11m
August 6, 20105:5720:0614h 9m
August 7, 20105:5820:0514h 7m
August 8, 20105:5920:0414h 5m
August 9, 20106:0020:0214h 2m
August 10, 20106:0120:0114h 0m
August 11, 20106:0220:0013h 58m
August 12, 20106:0319:5813h 55m
August 13, 20106:0419:5713h 53m
August 14, 20106:0519:5613h 51m
August 15, 20106:0619:5413h 48m
August 16, 20106:0719:5313h 46m
August 17, 20106:0819:5213h 44m
August 18, 20106:0919:5013h 41m
August 19, 20106:1019:4913h 39m
August 20, 20106:1119:4713h 36m
August 21, 20106:1219:4613h 34m
August 22, 20106:1319:4413h 31m
August 23, 20106:1419:4313h 29m
August 24, 20106:1519:4113h 26m
August 25, 20106:1619:4013h 24m
August 26, 20106:1719:3813h 21m
August 27, 20106:1819:3713h 19m
August 28, 20106:1919:3513h 16m
August 29, 20106:2019:3313h 13m
August 30, 20106:2119:3213h 11m
August 31, 20106:2219:3013h 8m

The sunrise and sunset are calculated from New York. All the times in the August 2010 calendar may differ when you eg live east or west in the United States. To see the sunrise and sunset in your region select a city above this list.


July 2011 Calendar

View or download the 2011 calendar.
Go to 2011 Calendar.

DateSunriseSunsetLength of day
July 1, 20115:2820:3115h 3m
July 2, 20115:2920:3115h 2m
July 3, 20115:2920:3115h 2m
July 4, 20115:3020:3115h 1m
July 5, 20115:3120:3014h 59m
July 6, 20115:3120:3014h 59m
July 7, 20115:3220:3014h 58m
July 8, 20115:3220:2914h 57m
July 9, 20115:3320:2914h 56m
July 10, 20115:3420:2914h 55m
July 11, 20115:3420:2814h 54m
July 12, 20115:3520:2814h 53m
July 13, 20115:3620:2714h 51m
July 14, 20115:3720:2714h 50m
July 15, 20115:3720:2614h 49m
July 16, 20115:3820:2514h 47m
July 17, 20115:3920:2514h 46m
July 18, 20115:4020:2414h 44m
July 19, 20115:4120:2314h 42m
July 20, 20115:4220:2314h 41m
July 21, 20115:4220:2214h 40m
July 22, 20115:4320:2114h 38m
July 23, 20115:4420:2014h 36m
July 24, 20115:4520:2014h 35m
July 25, 20115:4620:1914h 33m
July 26, 20115:4720:1814h 31m
July 27, 20115:4820:1714h 29m
July 28, 20115:4920:1614h 27m
July 29, 20115:5020:1514h 25m
July 30, 20115:5020:1414h 24m
July 31, 20115:5120:1314h 22m

The sunrise and sunset are calculated from New York. All the times in the July 2011 calendar may differ when you eg live east or west in the United States. To see the sunrise and sunset in your region select a city above this list.


August 15, 1971: A Date Which Has Lived In Infamy

In their impossibly good book Money, Markets, and Sovereignty (2009), Benn Steil and Manuel Hinds make the point that over the last four thousand years, the only period in which humanity has not consistently based its currency in metal, specifically gold, is the last forty. That’s right. Ever since President Richard M. Nixon announced forty years ago today, on August 15, 1971, that the U.S. would no longer officially trade dollars for gold, we have been enjoying a new era of human history.

Enjoying not being the mot juste. Out of the gate, we got the 1970s, what with their stagflation, a real stock market performance worse than that of the 1930s, and a crisis of confidence such had never bedeviled the American people before. There were go-go years in the 1980s and 1990s, to be sure, when stocks increased 15-fold and the tech revolution changed the world. But now we have our woebegotten 2000s, where stocks lose ground against the price level year after year, 9% unemployment is the new normal, and explosive government spending and Federal Reserve blowouts can’t create a job.

Since 1971, that is, we’ve had two completely unacceptable periods of economic performance bounding one highly salient one. The control being the price of gold. The stuff went from $35 at Nixon’s announcement to $800 by 1980. On the implementation of Ronald Reagan’s economic plan in the early 1980s, gold promptly settled to ten times the Nixon level, or $350, and parked there for two decades. As the George W. Bush presidency came into its own in the early 2000s, gold started a classic curve of acceleration such that it went from the $350 par to today’s $1700 in almost perfect exponential fashion.

You wonder why people don’t just say, OK, stabilize the price of gold. Conduct monetary and fiscal policy such that the gold markets are content to sit tight, and marvel at the economic results. Do otherwise, and have a rendezvous with the 1970s/our own day. Rarely in the history of political economy are choices so stark, so obvious. You start to think you’re being had.

Nixon, for one, thought gold-price stability was bogus. It’s clear as a bell why he went off gold. We have the White House tape recordings from the previous week to let us know. (These culminate, as they must, on Friday the 13 th , 1971, as choppers take the administration economic crew to a secret location…Camp David.) Nixon thought that gold would go through the roof on being de-linked, in that the Federal Reserve would print money like crazy now that the currency was not collateralized, and this overprinting would effect jobs, jobs, jobs.

Unemployment, you see, had just gone from 4% to 6% – quaint numbers, no? – and Nixon was “not about to be a hero” (his words) on inflation at the expense of unemployment. Money must be printed, and if gold was a bar to this, gold must go. At any rate, Nixon was confident he could take care of any resultant inflation by outlawing it.

No kidding. The real energy exerted that fateful week was devoted not to the gold question per se, but to what extraordinary, untoward, and secret means the administration could devise to prevent the general price inflation which surely was to follow the elimination of convertibility. A rigorous regime of wage and price controls was settled on. The enforcement mechanism was to be IRS audits and getting shut out of federal contracts for those who raised prices after August 15.

The secrecy? It was to prevent prices from going up before the announcement of going off gold and the wage-price controls, an announcement cleverly made on Sunday night (the 15 th ) to a comatose nation. These guys were on the cusp of one of the most momentous monetary decisions in world history, and the major worry was what groceries were going to cost for a few days. In case anyone’s wondering, double-digit inflation was another scourge of the 1970s.

Sometimes history begins as farce, to coin a phrase. Well, farces also initiate learning curves, and at this remove, it’s time to reflect on the accumulated wisdom. To wit: Gold that naturally settles to par reflects sound and desirable economic policy. Along with this lemma: Gold that whipsaws, specifically balloons, means you’re doing public policy all wrong. Lessons for today include an about-face into monetary restraint, tax reform, and a spending cut-and-cap.

When Nixon’s policy became clear to the Fed Chairman, Arthur Burns, that August week, Burns exclaimed, “What a tragedy for mankind!” It’s high time to put the whole thing, farce, tragedy, you name it, into the historical dustbin and return to the gold-based monetary system we were so near to in the 1980s, and which for eras before had supervised unexampled economic runs at the standard of the industrial revolution.


Watch the video: He Took A Photo Of His Pregnant Wife, But When He Saw The Photo (November 2021).