History Podcasts

8 Crucial Innovations in the Invention of Photography

8 Crucial Innovations in the Invention of Photography

1. Camera Obscura: 5th century B.C.

Long before there was the camera, there was the camera obscura. Literally translated as “dark chamber,” these devices consisted of darkened rooms or enclosed boxes with a tiny opening on one side. When sunlight passed through this “pinhole” and into the chamber, it projected a hazy picture of the outside world onto a wall or screen. This optical phenomenon was almost certainly known to the ancients—both Aristotle and the Chinese philosopher Mozi mentioned it—but a full account of how it worked didn’t arrive until the 11th century, when the Arab scholar Alhazen described a working model. The camera obscura later became a popular tool during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, particularly after inventors began using biconvex lenses to brighten its images. Astronomers used it to protect their eyes while observing the sun and solar eclipses, and artists employed it as an aid in portraiture and landscape painting.

2. Photochemistry: 18th and 19th centuries.

While the camera obscura allowed for the viewing of images in real time, several centuries passed before inventors stumbled upon a method for permanently preserving them using chemicals. A major breakthrough came in 1725, when the German professor Johann Heinrich Schulze found that silver salts darkened when exposed to light. Fascinated, Schulze cut the letters out of a piece of paper and placed it on top of a silver mixture. “Before long,” he recounted, “I found that the sun’s rays…wrote the words and sentences so accurately or distinctly on the chalk sediment, that many people…were led to attribute the result to all kinds of artifices.” Others later built on Schulze’s research, and in 1827, a French inventor named Joseph Nicéphore Niépce used a camera obscura and a pewter plate coated with a light-sensitive material called Bitumen of Judea to capture and “fix” an image. His eight-hour-long exposure of the courtyard of his home is now considered the world’s first photograph.

3. Daguerreotype: 1837

Photography’s next giant leap came courtesy of Louis Daguerre, a French artist and inventor who partnered with Niépce in the late 1820s. In 1837, Daguerre discovered that exposing iodized silver plates to light left behind a faint image that could be developed using mercury fumes. The new technique not only produced a sharper and more refined picture, but it also cut the exposure time down from several hours to around 10 or 20 minutes. Daguerre christened his new process the “Daguerreotype,” and in 1839, he agreed to make it public in exchange for a pension from the French government. After some tweaking to shorten the exposure process to less than a minute, his invention swept across the world and gave rise to a booming portrait industry, particularly in the United States.

4. Calotype: 1841

Around the same time that “Daguerreotypomania” was taking hold, the British inventor William Henry Fox Talbot unveiled his own photographic process called the “Calotype.” This method traded the Daguerreotype’s metal plates for sheets of high-quality photosensitive paper. When exposed to light, the paper produced a latent image that could be developed and preserved by rinsing it with hyposulphite. The results were slightly fuzzier than Daguerreotypes, but they offered one key advantage: ease of reproduction. Unlike Daguerreotypes, which only made one-off images, the Calotype allowed photographers to produce endless copies of a picture from a single negative. This process would later become one of the basic principles of photography.

5. The Wet-Collodion Process: 1851

Daguerreotypes and Calotypes were both rendered obsolete in 1851, after a sculptor named Frederick Scott Archer pioneered a new photographic method that combined crisp image quality with negatives that could be easily copied. Archer’s secret was a chemical called collodion, a medical dressing that also proved highly effective as a means for coating light-sensitive solutions onto glass plates. While these “wet plates” reduced exposure times to only a few seconds, using them was often quite the chore. The plates had to be exposed and processed before the collodion mixture dried and hardened, so photographers were forced to travel with portable darkroom tents or wagons if they wanted to take pictures in the field. Despite this drawback, the wet-collodion process’s unparalleled quality and cheap cost made it an instant success. One of its most famous practitioners was Mathew Brady, who used wet plates to produce thousands of stunning battlefield photos during the Civil War.

6. Dry Plates: 1871-1878

For most of the 1800s, the panoply of noxious solutions and mixtures involved in using a camera made photography difficult for anyone without a working knowledge of chemistry. That finally changed in the 1870s, when Robert L. Maddox and others perfected a new type of photographic plate that preserved silver salts in gelatin. Since they retained their light-sensitivity for long periods of time, these “dry” plates could be prepackaged and mass-produced, freeing photographers from the annoying task of prepping and developing their own wet plates on the fly. Dry plates also offered much quicker exposures, allowing cameras to more clearly capture moving objects. In the 1880s, photographer Eadweard Muybridge used dry plate cameras to conduct a series of famous studies of humans and animals in motion. His experiments have since been cited as a crucial step in the development of cinema.

7. Flexible Roll Film: 1884-1889

Photography didn’t truly become accessible to amateurs until the mid-1880s, when inventor George Eastman began producing film on rolls. Film was more lightweight and resilient than clunky glass plates, and the use of a roll allowed photographers to take multiple pictures in quick succession. In 1888, Eastman used flexible film as the primary selling point of his first Kodak camera, a small, 100-exposure model that customers could use and then send back to the manufacturer to have their photos developed. Eastman’s camera was remarkably easy to use—he marketed it to Victorian shutterbugs under the slogan “You press the button, we do the rest”—but its coated paper film produced fairly low quality photos. Film would improve by leaps and bounds with the introduction of celluloid a year later, and remained the standard means of photography for nearly a century until the advent of digital cameras.

8. Autochrome: 1907

The yearning for color photography was practically as old as the medium itself itself, but a viable method didn’t arrive until 1907. That was the year the French brothers Louis and Auguste Lumière—perhaps better known as early pioneers of cinema—began marketing an additive color process they dubbed “Autochrome.” The Lumieres found the key to their invention in a most unlikely place: the potato. By adding tiny grains of dyed potato starch to a panchromatic emulsion, they were able to produce vivid, painterly images that put all past attempts at color to shame. Autochrome would reign as the world’s most popular color film technique until 1935, when a more sophisticated color process arrived in the form of the Eastman Kodak Company’s legendary Kodachrome film.


History of photography

The history of photography began in remote antiquity with the discovery of two critical principles: camera obscura image projection and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. There are no artifacts or descriptions that indicate any attempt to capture images with light sensitive materials prior to the 18th century.

Around 1717, Johann Heinrich Schulze captured cut-out letters on a bottle of a light-sensitive slurry, but he apparently never thought of making the results durable. Around 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented, although unsuccessful attempt at capturing camera images in permanent form. His experiments did produce detailed photograms, but Wedgwood and his associate Humphry Davy found no way to fix these images.

In the mid-1820s, Nicéphore Niépce first managed to fix an image that was captured with a camera, but at least eight hours or even several days of exposure in the camera were required and the earliest results were very crude. Niépce's associate Louis Daguerre went on to develop the daguerreotype process, the first publicly announced and commercially viable photographic process. The daguerreotype required only minutes of exposure in the camera, and produced clear, finely detailed results. The details were introduced to the world in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography. [2] [3] The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by William Henry Fox Talbot and demonstrated in 1839 soon after news about the daguerreotype reached Talbot. Subsequent innovations made photography easier and more versatile. New materials reduced the required camera exposure time from minutes to seconds, and eventually to a small fraction of a second new photographic media were more economical, sensitive or convenient. Since the 1850s, the collodion process with its glass-based photographic plates combined the high quality known from the Daguerreotype with the multiple print options known from the calotype and was commonly used for decades. Roll films popularized casual use by amateurs. In the mid-20th century, developments made it possible for amateurs to take pictures in natural color as well as in black-and-white.

The commercial introduction of computer-based electronic digital cameras in the 1990s soon revolutionized photography. During the first decade of the 21st century, traditional film-based photochemical methods were increasingly marginalized as the practical advantages of the new technology became widely appreciated and the image quality of moderately priced digital cameras was continually improved. Especially since cameras became a standard feature on smartphones, taking pictures (and instantly publishing them online) has become a ubiquitous everyday practice around the world.


1819-1824 — Invention of photoengraving

After the Gaïacum resin, Niépce used another resin, consisting of mineral: asphalt or bitumen of Judea. He demonstrated that under light action this resin became non-soluble with his usual solvent.
From 1822 on, he succeeded in reproducing drawings put in contact with bitumen coated bases (glass plates, calcareous stones, then copper or tin plates). Afterwards, he used the aqua fortis process to etch the images made with acid, which were then printed on paper. This process was to remain for quite a while the base of photoengraving used to print photos and graphical documents.

Principle and technique

In order to reproduce drawings, around 1822-1823, Niépce conceived what we now call the contact print. He explains clearly how he applied varnish to the verso of an etching to make the paper translucid, and once dry, he applied this etching directly in contact with the copper or tin plate coated with bitumen varnish. He exposed the lot in full daylight during three to four hours, then rinced the plate in lavender oil diluted with white kerosene. The bitumen that had been protected from the effect of light under the lines of the drawing then dissolved and let appear the raw metal. On the other hand, the light transmitted through the translucid paper had made the bitumen non-soluble and remained on the plate after the lavender oil rinse. The bitumen image was the drawing’s negative: the back is colored in the dark bitumen brown and the lines are represented by the raw metal.

Then, Niépce invented a process that would allow to get the drawing etched in the metal. It was by means of the well known and simple principle of aqua fortis. The plate carrying the bitumen of Judea is dipped in an acid bath that bites the metal where it is not protected, meaning the places corresponding to the lines of the drawing. Because the bitumen varnish is acid resistant, the acid can penetrate down to the metal. Once the lines are etched in the plate, Niépce eliminated the bitumen varnish from the metal base to keep only the etched drawing on it.

The first successful results of this method can be dated to 1822, as far as contact reproductions are concerned, because this year Niépce made a copy the portrait of Pope Pius VII on a glass plate. This was not yet an acid etched engraving. The earliest attempts of etching in 1823 are not on metal but on lithographic stones. A Dijon-based printer produced paper prints from those stones. Thus, Niépce got the proof that his process — by means of contact reproduction — allowed for the multiplication of originals through printing.
In 1825, he etched his images on copper, from 1826 onwards on tin.

The acid process is perfectly appropriate to reproductions of line drawings, in which gradations are represented by hatchings. In the case of images with continuous tones, these are reproduced by various thicknesses of bitumen that acid etching cannot render, as the acid solution cannot permeate the varnish. Niépce understood this phenomenon and worked continuously to reproduce etchings. Many museums throughout the world preserve metal plates etched by the inventor with this process.
The Niépce Museum owns ten of those metal plates on which Nicéphore reproduced engravings. Other Niépce etched metal plates are preserved at “La Societe française de Photographie”, at “The Royal Photographic Society” or in Janine Niépce’s collection. Yet, after his numerous failures to etch continuous tones images obtained with a camera obscura, Niépce gradually gave up acid etching and stopped completely after July 1827.


9 tech innovations that changed the film industry (through the ages)

One industry that has been expansively affected by technological changes is film. Both mechanical and digital innovations have influenced everything from equipment to distribution, changing how films are made and the manner in which we consume them.

With the medium being just around 120 years old, we take a look at the biggest tech innovations that, through time, changed film for the better.

Movie camera – late 1800s

The movie camera – a camera that could capture a sequence of photographs onto filmstrip in quick succession – was a late invention of the 1800s, and without it we wouldn’t have the visual medium that we all love to enjoy while in dark rooms chomping on popcorn and answering our cellphones.

Trying to date which movie camera was invented first is like trying to determine what the first movie of all time was: futile.

For as many people who say Louis Le Prince’s camera in 1888 was first, an equal number will say it was William Friese-Greene’s in 1889. Someone’s bound to argue the Chinese invented it earlier.

Despite many technical displays of ‘moving images’ around the time, I would argue that it was the Lumière brothers who took the medium to the masses and influenced early pioneers such as George Méliès, who arguably was the first person to add narrative to moving images.

The Lumière brothers held some of the earliest screenings of projected images in 1895, where their film, The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Station, notoriously showed a train entering a station (literally moving towards the screen).

Allegedly the audience ran away from the screen because they thought it was real. The stuff of legend.

Synchronous sound – 1920s

Before sound could be captured simultaneously to picture, there was the golden age of silent films.

This era was famous for over the top (slapstick) acting, the use of intertitles (titles between shots), and live-music accompaniment to films in theatres. Even early projectionists are credited to have done live sound effects for films too (surely one of the most fun jobs in the last century).

But it all meant there were narrative limitations.

The process of synching sound had been achieved in 1914 with The Photo-Drama of Creation, in which slides and phonograph records were synched up. But it was Warner Brothers’ “Vitaphone” that took the system to feature films.

Recording sound effects (including dialogue) and adding musical scores all started with the major motion picture The Jazz Singer (1927) which is regarded as the first film to have synchronised dialogue – and singing for that matter.

Screenwriting and acting slowly took on a whole new meaning, and new genres were formed, as dialogue became a key component of films marking the beginning of ‘the talkies’.

Colour – 1939 (or 1917)

There’s nothing wrong with a good black and white film, after all last year’s Oscar winner for best film – The Artist – proved that black and white films can still provoke an emotive experience for today’s audiences.

Regardless, colour changed film for the better. Not only because it gave the medium the ability to mimic life more realistically than ever before, but it also led to more narrative possibilities, with the prime example being The Wizard of Oz (1939) which famously depicted Dorothy’s Kansas in black and white, but then brought Oz to magical life in Technicolour.

Film was never the same again… until The Artist of course.

There were examples of older colour films as early as 1917, but most have been lost.

Green screen – 1940

Early digital compositing started in the 1940s with the ‘traveling matte’ – a process that was used to superimpose backdrops with actors performing against a blank, coloured wall. These screens’ colours have changed throughout the decades, but the process and effect have remained the same.

It is a time-consuming technique in which a scene is filmed against the coloured (green) screen, then re-filmed with a filter on the lens that removes all the coloured (green) areas of the film.

Lastly, the layers are composited together in a final recording by laying them over each other one frame at a time. You can’t help but respect the technique.

It allowed for actors to be ‘anywhere in the world’ and also create optical illusions, all the while saving on production costs.

The fantasy film The Thief of Bagdad (1940) is thought to be the first to use a blue-screen effect with its rather entertaining ‘genie’.

Lightweight/portable equipment – 1950s-1960s

Hollywood was famous for building huge studios and sets in its early days. Film always had a larger than life mystique about it. However once lightweight cameras and smaller sound recording devices became available, there was a shift in the style and themes explored in film.

The most famous movement to make use of this tech change was the French New Wave starting in 1950. The revolutionary movement made use of the new equipment that could capture images on location, and a new grittier, documentary visual-style emerged that allowed filmmakers to explore social issues where they happened… on the streets.

This gonzo-style of filmmaking influenced many modern filmmakers including none other than Quentin Tarentino (don’t tell him I told you). Perhaps the most famous French New Wave film is Jean-Luc Godard’s Breathless (1960) which is still as exhilarating and fresh as it was over 50 years ago.

Camera rigs: the dolly (1907) and steadicam (1976)

The dolly and steadicam are inventions that signify benchmark camera techniques. You’ll be hard pressed to find a major motion picture that doesn’t make use of either or both of these inventions.

The dolly, to put it simply, is the placing of the camera on wheels that move along tracks. The subsequent smooth movement means that you can follow people walking and talking (a lá The West Wing) or get sweeping opening shots, especially when you combine it with a crane.

One particularly difficult, yet visual striking, effect on film is the ‘zolly shot’, where the cameraman zooms while moving a camera on a dolly to get shots like the one below.

The steadicam was the solution to many a cameraman’s problem – getting the smoothness of a dolly system, but with the freedom of hand-held shooting.

Effectively a rig that places the camera on more than one point on the human body, the steadicam utilises the cameraman’s back, shoulders and chest/stomach to support the camera as well as his hands.

The result is famous shots such as the boy riding his scooter in The Shining(1980), and the ambitious Russian Ark (2002/3), a film that consists of one 96 minute-long take.

Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) – 1969 (HD video in 2009)

The move from film and celluloid to digital cameras was a big one in cinema history, especially for amateur and budget filmmakers.

The ability to record onto memory cards and internal storage, and not use chemicals, saved on production costs and time. The compact nature of these cameras was also a plus for aspiring filmmakers, because setup times were reduced.

Since Nikon’s D90 (2009), the first DSLR to film at 24 frames per second (film standard) in HD video, the quality difference between digital and film has became minimal.

Each new model of DSLR further reduces that quality difference, indicating that digital cameras will overtake film cameras as the industry standard in the near future.

For proof of just how ingrained DSLR’s are in the industry check out this list of films shot in digital.

Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI) – 1973

It’s hard to believe that there were once films with absolutely no CGI, but you have to go back 40 years to 1973, and the sci-fi Westworld, to find the first use of computer-generated imagery in film. Aptly it was a 2-D digital rendition of a robotic-cowboy’s vision… we wouldn’t want it any other way.

Its sequel Futureworld (1976) and Tron (1982), then introduced 3-D to the masses, and the rest is history. Science fiction and fantasy filmmakers rejoiced because they finally had the tools to visually depict the world and themes their characters explored.

Pixar created the first feature-length computer-animated movie in Toy Story (1995) and nowadays it’s more and more uncommon for films not to make use of CGI in one way or another, as it often saves on production costs.

A prime example where CGI would have been a cheaper option is in the infamous Kevin Costner would-be blockbuster, Waterworld (1995), where everything was built on a giant set rather than created in CGI… it only went over budget by US$75-million, a huge sum back in the day.

The internet – 1990s

The internet has to make this list because it has changed, and is changing the manner in which films are consumed and distributed, not to mention the types of films we watch and who is making them.

Instant access, worldwide distribution and everyone with a cellphone are now all players in the video-creation game. What was once a medium of the few – those who could afford the equipment – is now the most democratised (and sought-out) medium available. We all want video, and we want it now.

New formats (web shows, podcasts) and new ways of accessing video (streaming, downloading) means that the power has shifted from the industry to the consumers. It’s all very Romantic, and it pisses off the powers that be to no end.

The industry has to realise that the medium is moving into an age of digitally made, and digitally distributed movies.

Not only must the industry adapt to find new ways of monetising digital consumption so that the legal ways of accessing films becomes more appealing than piracy, so must filmmakers, old and new, otherwise they run the risk of being left behind.

Technology is arguably having its most profound and pronounced effect on film in this day and age. It’s an exciting age in film history — the digital era.

If you think we’ve left something out on this list that deserves to be there, or you’d like to share your thoughts on the next big tech innovation in film please let us know in the comments.


Early experiments

Nicéphore Niépce, an amateur inventor living near Chalon-sur-Saône, a city 189 miles (304 km) southeast of Paris, was interested in lithography, a process in which drawings are copied or drawn by hand onto lithographic stone and then printed in ink. Not artistically trained, Niépce devised a method by which light could draw the pictures he needed. He oiled an engraving to make it transparent and then placed it on a plate coated with a light-sensitive solution of bitumen of Judea (a type of asphalt) and lavender oil and exposed the setup to sunlight. After a few hours, the solution under the light areas of the engraving hardened, while that under the dark areas remained soft and could be washed away, leaving a permanent, accurate copy of the engraving. Calling the process heliography (“sun drawing”), Niépce succeeded from 1822 onward in copying oiled engravings onto lithographic stone, glass, and zinc and from 1826 onto pewter plates.

In 1826/27, using a camera obscura fitted with a pewter plate, Niépce produced the first successful photograph from nature, a view of the courtyard of his country estate, Gras, from an upper window of the house. The exposure time was about eight hours, during which the sun moved from east to west so that it appears to shine on both sides of the building.

Niépce produced his most successful copy of an engraving, a portrait of Cardinal d’Amboise, in 1826. It was exposed in about three hours, and in February 1827 he had the pewter plate etched to form a printing plate and had two prints pulled. Paper prints were the final aim of Niépce’s heliographic process, yet all his other attempts, whether made by using a camera or by means of engravings, were underexposed and too weak to be etched. Nevertheless, Niépce’s discoveries showed the path that others were to follow with more success.


Modern Photography - History and Concepts

Although Nicephore Niepce is credited as the inventor of photography he experimented with early photography techniques throughout the 1820s (the earliest surviving photograph dates from around 1826), his photographs required an extremely long exposure time and the results were imperfect. Louis Daguerre refined Niepce's work during the 1830s resulting in the creation of the daguerreotype which only needed a few minutes of exposure and produced a sharp, clear image. The details of this process were released in 1839 and this date is considered to be the start of photography as a viable medium. Subsequent discoveries and developments, including those by Henry Fox Talbot, continued to make photography easier and more affordable.

In its earliest forms, photography was seen as a scientific tool and its first practical usage was in botany and archeology. Despite innovations in the fields of artistic photography this use remained important with photographers such as Eadweard Muybridge, known for his studies of movement in the 1870s, continuing to exploit its scientific applications. As the medium spread and became more accessible, photographers began to experiment, producing portraits as well as tableaux, the latter often inspired by historical and literary works. There were a number of key figures in this move including John Edwin Mayall, Julia Margaret Cameron, Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll), and Oscar Rejlander in the UK. In the United States photographers such as F. Holland Day, Alfred Stieglitz, and Edward Steichen led the way with Stieglitz notably introducing photography into museum collections and art galleries.

As part of an attempt to have their work recognized alongside other, more established, art forms, these photographers adopted the language and values of fine art. This can be seen in Henry Fox Talbot's book The Pencil of Nature (1844). This was one of the first collections of photographs to be published commercially and each image was accompanied by a short description explaining the scene and the processes involved in its capture. The book utilizes art terminology and clearly demonstrates how Talbot understood the photograph in terms of the painted image.

Pictorialism: Photography as Art

Between 1889 and 1914, the international Pictorialist movement developed. Pictorialists emphasized beauty over factual accuracy, producing soft focus images with painterly qualities. To achieve this they invented a variety of darkroom techniques to alter the image during the developing process often adding color, visible brushstrokes, or other surface manipulation.

New photographic societies, focusing on the Pictorialist style helped to define and spread the movement. Groups included the Linked Ring Society (1892) in England, the Club de Paris (1894) in France, and the Vienna Camera Club (1891) in Austria. The Photo-Secession group (1902) in New York became one of the most influential Pictorialist groups and counted Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Clarence H. White , Frank Eugene, F. Holland Day, and Gertrude Käsebier amongst its members.

Straight Photography

Originating around 1904, Straight Photography sought to make a truthful record of what the photographer saw. It is usually considered the first movement of Modern Photography and the point at which photographers ceased trying to imitate established artistic modes. On the whole, images were neither manipulated in the taking or by post-production darkroom processes (although there is some significant variation relating to this point). Images tended to emphasize careful framing, sharp focus, and clear detail, utilizing these traits to distinguish photography from other visual media. Photographers took pictures of the world around them. And industrialization led to an increase in urban photography, particularly a great variety of street scenes.

The style was widely promoted by Alfred Stieglitz as a more pure form of photography than Pictorialism (which he first heralded, but later moved away from). Other key figures of the movement included Paul Strand (who produced some of the first, iconic images and influenced Stieglitz), Ansel Adams and Edward Weston who founded Group f/64 in the early 1930s and produced images with a focus on the American West. Ultimately, Straight Photography served as the foundation for the majority of photographic innovations over the next 60 years, encompassing Photojournalism, Documentary Photography, Street Photography and "The Snapshot Aesthetic".

Futurism

It seemed at first that still photography would not suit the artistic goals of the Italian Futurists who were in thrall to speed, dynamism, and violent energy. It was only with the invention of "photodynamism" in 1911 that Futurism made its own contribution to modern photography. The term was introduced by brothers Anton Giulio and Arturo Bragaglia who used their camera to induce a sense of "visual vertigo" by creating photographic movement through multiple exposures. Indeed, Anton had published the first of three editions of his book Fotodinamismo Futurista in 1911 and his theories were well received in photographic circles and widely adopted by other European avant-garde artists. These early experiments in movement and portraiture - Fortunato Depero, for example, produced a series of "gestural" self-portraits during the first wave - more or less defined Futurist photography until Marinetti and Tato published the "Manifesto of Futurist Photography" in April 1930.

The manifesto gave birth to a decade that is widely considered the most productive in Italian photographic arts. It was a decade that saw photography merge with other Futurist art forms including dance, painting, and performance art. Filippo Masoero for instance developed novel conceptions of space and movement by photographing Italian cities from the cockpit of an aeroplane. And, like other European schools, the Futurists were drawn to the moving image too: "the expressive medium most adapted to the complex sensibility of a Futurist artist" as its manifesto put it. Though little remains of early experimental Futurist cinema, Anton Bragaglia's 1917 full-length futuristic melodrama Thais stands as a widely exhibited testimonial to the movement's cinematic legacy.

Constructivism and Bauhaus

The artistic method of both Constructivism and Bauhaus embraced the idea of a new technology for a new world. Their photography (like their art generally) was characterized by a precision and geometric simplicity that saw the artist assume the mantle of technician. While a large group experimented with the medium, the two outstanding figures in Russian constructivist photography were El Lissitzky and Aleksander Rodchenko, both of whom were invested in the idea that modern art should help "construct" (hence Constructivism) rather than merely reflect or represent the real world. El Lissitzky was a qualified architect who had produced "modern" self-portraits that equated the role of the photographer with that of an engineer. In his famous 1924 Self-portrait, known as The Constructor, for instance, El Lissitzky forms the centre of a geometric montage featuring a superimposed hand with compass, a drawn circle (produced by the compass presumably) and modern (san serif) typography. Rodchenko, on the other hand, was widely regarded a photojournalist but, having submitted six photographs, including Mother and Courtyard of Vhutemas Seen From Above, to the 1928 Ten Years of Soviet Photography exhibition, he was awarded a special prize for inventing a new genre altogether - "technical photography" - which was a blend (or construction) of documentary and art photography.

The Bauhaus might be similarly defined by two pioneering artists, László Moholy-Nagy and Walter Peterhans . Until their appointment to the Bauhaus School in 1929, the Bauhaus camera had been used simply for documentation purposes. Having established a dedicated photography school (within the advertising department) the two men developed a culture of avant-garde experimentation based on the School's two aesthetic positions known as the "Nueue Optik" (New Vision) and the Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity). In this spirit, Moholy-Nagy produced a series of still life compositions that he called "photograms" (making images by placing objects on photographic paper and exposing them to light) that were inspired by Man Ray's well known "Rayographs". Peterhans, meanwhile, was best known for his still-life images of everyday objects whose shapes and textures he revealed through painstaking lighting strategies that lent his objects an otherworldly effect.

Dada and Surrealist Photography

Driven by the devastating effects of World War I, the large and international movements Dada and Surrealism sought to create a new kind of art that reflected the chaos and absurdity of modern life. More preoccupied with concepts than aesthetics, they broke down the traditional barriers between different types of art, utilizing photography as an important medium for expression (Surrealist Film was a force and a deeply explored topic as well). Photographs followed the tenets of the movements presenting objects which had been disassociated from their usual context, distorted human forms, and photographic composites. These images aimed to invert viewers' understanding of what was normal and offer new perspectives on social and political issues.

Working in Paris between 1897 and 1927, Eugene Atget viewed himself as a documentary photographer, capturing the sights of the old city. His work, however had a profound impact on many Surrealists from Andre Breton to Pablo Picasso. Man Ray purchased a number of his photographs in the 1920s and was inspired by his use of light and reflection and his images of shop mannequins. As one of the most prolific photographers of the Surrealist movement, Man Ray created some of its most famous photographs including Le Violon d'Ingres (1924). Additionally, he experimented with a range of techniques including solarization and photograms (which he called Rayographs) in which objects were laid directly onto light sensitive paper.

Photomontage also became an important technique and this was pioneered by artists including George Grosz, John Heartfield, and Hannah Hoch who were all associated with the Berlin Dada branch. Photomontage first appeared in 1916 and early works pointed out the futility of war the medium continued to be used for political and social comment throughout World War I. Photomontage was, later, adopted by the Surrealists and can be seen in the work of Salvador Dalí. Other photographers associated with Surrealism include Brassaï, Dora Maar, Raoul Ubac , Claude Cahun, and, Manuel Álvarez Bravo .

Fashion Photography

Although there are earlier examples of high fashion being depicted in photographs, the first modern fashion shoot is attributed to Edward Steichen, who photographed gowns designed by Paul Poiret for the April 1911 issue of the magazine Art et Decoration. These images were genre defining in that they did not just record the appearance of the clothing but also conveyed a sense of the garment and its wearer. The field of fashion photography grew rapidly during the 1920s and '30s, with magazines such as Vogue and Harper's Bazaar leading the way and employing famous in-house photographers including Horst P. Horst, George Hoyningen-Huene, Cecil Beaton and Martin Munkacsi.

In the post-war period new names in the field emerged such as Lillian Bassman, Norman Parkinson, Richard Avedon, Irving Penn and David Bailey with many of these photographers favoring a more spontaneous and energetic approach. Irving Penn noted his role was "selling dreams not clothes" and consequently images became increasingly focused on modern women and their activities. Penn's statement also captures the tension between art and commerce which is apparent in fashion photography and this overlap continues to drive creativity and innovation within the field.

Photojournalism

The golden age of Photojournalism began in the 1930s in Europe and became associated, in the post-World War II period with magazines such as Paris Match and Life. Photojournalists relied on photography to document and tell a news story, sometimes as part of a journalistic written account and sometimes independently in a photo-essay. Proponents adhered to strict standards of honesty and objectivity to record events. Noted early photojournalists include Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa , Margaret Bourke-White, Agustí Centelles, Tony Vaccaro, and Erich Salomon.

Documentary Photography

Documentary Photography has close links with Photojournalism, bearing many of the same hallmarks with both terms being used to describe photography that chronicles people or places, recording significant historical events. Documentary photographers, however, tended to be less influenced by the need to capture breaking news or to explain and entertain through their photographs. This enabled them to engage in longer term projects, recording what they saw and experienced over a period of time and this often allowed them to highlight the need for reform in some capacity.

Although in existence much earlier (there is a large body of documentary photographs relating to the American Civil War), this style of photography came to popular attention around 1935, when the Farm Security Administration in the USA recruited notable photographers including Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Gordon Parks, Russell Lee, and Jack Delano to document the American way of life. The program ran until 1944 and amassed an extensive pictorial record of Americans during the Great Depression.

Abstract Photography

Abstract photography refers to non-objective images that can be created by using photographic materials, processes, or equipment. Like all works of abstract art, the resulting images do not represent the object world, yet may have associations with it. The earliest examples of abstract photography appeared in the mid-19 th century in images of scientific experiments that were later viewed from an artistic standpoint. The first intentionally abstract photographs were Alvin Langdon Coburn's Vortographs in 1916. László Moholy-Nagy's photograms and Man Ray's Rayographs are noted examples of abstract photography in the 1920s. Abstract photography became a more defined movement following World War II, due to photographers such as Aaron Siskind, Henry Holmes Smith, Lotte Jacobi, and Minor White.

Street Photography and Snapshot Aesthetic

Street photography depicts spontaneous encounters or situations on the city street. An early pioneer of the genre was Paul Martin who shot unposed images of people in London during the late-19 th and early 20 th century. This idea of spontaneity and capturing people's daily activities was further developed during the 1930s by the Mass Observation Project which sought to record life on the streets of Britain through transcripts of conversations and candid photographs. In the early 1950s Henri Cartier-Bresson developed the concept of 'the decisive moment'. This was the point when "form and content, vision and composition merged into a transcendent whole" and he applied this idea to his both his street and Documentary Photography. Other key practitioners of the style were Helen Levitt, who captured life in New York City's close-knit neighborhoods in the 1940s and 1950s, and Joan Colóm, who explored the Raval neighborhood of Barcelona in the 1960s.

The Snapshot Aesthetic is closely associated with Street Photography and developed with the introduction of the hand-held camera, which enabled photographers to capture a precisely observed instant of everyday life. Early practitioners include Lisette Model and, most famously, Robert Frank whose book The Americans (1958) was hugely influential in post-war American photography. The Museum of Modern Art's 1963 exhibition of Henri Lartique's previously unknown snapshots was pivotal in the acceptance of the genre into mainstream photographic circles. Other photographers such as Garry Winogrand, Joel Meyerowitz, Nan Goldin, and Wolfgang Tillmans subsequently adopted the snapshot aesthetic to emphasize everyday, even banal, subject matter and images - images that were often blurry, askew, or erratically framed - resembling the snapshots of an amateur photographer.

Postmodern Photography

Photographic innovations have kept pace with developments in art generally, and just as Postmodernism superseded Modernism, a similar pattern followed within photography. Postmodern photography avails itself thus of all previous photographic and artistic styles and movements while acting as a tool for conceptual artists who will typically utilize a range of media in the production of their work.

The general ethos that brings the various strands of Postmodern art together is that there are "no rules" and Postmodern art will very often ask the spectator to reflect on what art is, or, what art should be. Indeed, one of the defining features of Postmodern photography is the idea of the "banal", and photographers such as Lee Friedlander, William Eggleston, Jeff Wall, and Andreas Gursky have all sought to re-examine "banal" (or "boring") subject matter through their camera. These photographers share a preference for color too a quite clear departure from Modern photography which had typically been rendered in sharp or expressionistic monochrome.

One of the most influential essays on postmodern photography was Walter Benjamin's "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1936). In it, Benjamin directly addressed the idea of originality and authenticity in art, both key concerns for Postmodernism. Benjamin put the argument that "mechanical reproduction" (photography, in other words) had revolutionized the art world. Before the invention of the camera, to appreciate art, one visited an art gallery. By "making many reproductions," however, the camera had allowed copies of the artwork to "meet" the spectator in her or his own environment. Though the copy lacked the "aura" that surrounded the original work, Benjamin still saw this as a positive step forward - a "shattering of tradition" as he called it - because mass-reproduction made art more widely accessible and thereby more democratic.

The idea that fine art could lend itself to mass-reproduction was popular with Postmodernists because it challenged the "elitist" label that was often attached to the idea of the fine arts. Many of these ideas were explored initially through Pop Art and in the new freedom that allowed artists to integrate high culture with popular (or consumer) culture.

The catalyst for the shift in postmodern thought was Roland Barthes's famous 1968 essay "The Death of the Author". Barthes's argument was that knowing what the artist's objectives were (their worldview) was irrelevant to reading the work of art and that true meaning "belonged," not to the artist/creator at all, but rather to the spectator/viewer. The spectator was then free to interpret the artwork as she or he wished and the idea - or "myth" - of the male modernist genius (Jackson Pollock or Andy Warhol) was effectively debunked. In theory, this meant that there were no right or wrong way to interpret art and as such there could be no one defining truth - only truths. This reverse in thinking led to the collapse of the old modernist hierarchies (often referred to as the "grand narratives") and a new generation of politically motivated artists emerged, most of whom were concerned with exploring the idea of identity through the Postmodern concept of "the self". In the field of photography, artists such as Cindy Sherman, Barbara Kruger, Robert Mapplethorpe, Molly Landreth, Zanele Muholi and Jeff Sheng exemplified this ideological swing.

It is tempting to think that somehow the old modernist ideals had been destroyed once and for all but in reality high art and postmodernism would bleed into one another. Indeed, Conceptual art practices dominated the art world during the 1970s and '80s and photography, as practiced by the likes of John Hilliard , Sherrie Levine, John Baldessari, and Ed Ruscha, featured prominently in the Conceptual sphere.

As a result of the steady innovation of photographic artists, the photograph is now almost universally accepted as a work of art and most American and European art museums have a photographic department, devoted to collecting and exhibiting photography. Having said that, some institutions have been slow to acknowledge the importance of Modern Photography, not least Tate Modern in London that only began growing its collection in 2009 having previously viewed photography as no more than an applied, or common, art.


The Nineteenth Century: The Invention of Photography

In 1839 a new means of visual representation was announced to a startled world: photography. Although the medium was immediately and enthusiastically embraced by the public at large, photographers themselves spent the ensuing decades experimenting with techniques and debating the nature of this new invention. The works in this section suggest the range of questions addressed by these earliest practitioners. Was photography best understood as an art or a science? What subjects should photographs depict, what purpose should they serve, and what should they look like? Should photographers work within the aesthetics established in other arts, such as painting, or explore characteristics that seemed unique to the medium? This first generation of photographers became part scientists as they mastered a baffling array of new processes and learned how to handle their equipment and material. Yet they also grappled with aesthetic issues, such as how to convey the tone, texture, and detail of multicolored reality in a monochrome medium. They often explored the same subjects that had fascinated artists for centuries — portraits, landscapes, genre scenes, and still lifes — but they also discovered and exploited the distinctive ways in which the camera frames and presents the world.

William Henry Fox Talbot, British, 1800–1877, A Scene in York: York Minster from Lop Lane, 1845, salted paper print, Edward J. Lenkin Fund, Melvin and Thelma Lenkin Fund, and Stephen G. Stein Fund, 2011.57.1

A British polymath equally adept in astronomy, chemistry, Egyptology, physics, and philosophy, Talbot spent years inventing a photographic process that created paper negatives, which were then used to make positive prints—the conceptual basis of nearly all photography until the digital age. Calotypes, as he came to call them, are softer in effect than daguerreotypes, the other process announced in 1839. Though steeped in the sciences, Talbot understood the ability of his invention to make striking works of art. Here the partially obstructed view of the cathedral rising from the confines of the city gives a sense of discovery, of having just turned the corner and encountered this scene.

David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, Scottish, 1802–1870, and Scottish, 1821–1848, David Octavius Hill at the Gate of Rock House, Edinburgh, 1843–1847, salted paper print, Paul Mellon Fund, 2007.29.27

In the mid-1840s, the Scottish team of Hill, a painter, and Adamson, a photographer who had opened the first photography studio in Edinburgh, produced some of the finest pictures made with the newly invented medium. Theirs was a true partnership of technical skills and creativity. In the four brief years of their alliance before Adamson’s untimely death, they created some three thousand portraits and pictures of local life. This picture of Hill, made at the entrance to his studio, is characteristic of the partners’ deft harnessing of light and shadow to model the subject’s face, suggesting a psychological intensity.

Albert Sands Southworth and Josiah Johnson Hawes, American, 1811–1894, and American, 1808–1901, The Letter, c. 1850, daguerreotype, Patrons’ Permanent Fund, 1999.94.1

Working together in Boston, the portrait photographers Southworth and Hawes aimed to capture the character of their subjects using the daguerreotype process. Invented in France and one of the two photographic processes introduced to the public in early 1839, the daguerreotype is made by exposing a silver-coated copper plate to light and then treating it with chemicals to bring out the image. The heyday of the technique was the 1840s and 1850s, when it was used primarily for making portraits. The daguerreotype’s long exposure time usually resulted in frontal, frozen postures and stern facial expressions this picture’s pyramidal composition and strong sentiments of friendship and companionship are characteristic of Southworth and Hawes’s innovative approach.

Roger Fenton, British, 1819–1869, Moscow, Domes of Churches in the Kremlin, 1852, salted paper print, Paul Mellon Fund, 2005.52.1

Trained as a lawyer and painter, Fenton photographed for only eleven years, yet he was one of Britain’s most influential and skilled practitioners. The first official photographer to the British Museum, he was also one of the founders of the Photographic Society, an organization he hoped would establish photography’s importance in modern life. He constantly tested the limits of his practice, even hauling his cumbersome equipment abroad to places such as Russia, where he made this photograph as part of a remarkable series of architectural views of the Kremlin.

Roger Fenton, British, 1819–1869, Fruit and Flowers, 1860, albumen print, Paul Mellon Fund, 2005.52.4

Gustave Le Gray, French, 1820–1884, The Pont du Carrousel, Paris: View to the West from the Pont des Arts, 1856–1858, albumen print, Patrons’ Permanent Fund, 1995.36.94

Early Decades of Photography in France (Slides 6–9)

In the second half of the nineteenth century, some photographers in France, hired by governmental agencies to make photographic inventories or simply catering to the growing demand for pictures of Paris, drew on the medium’s documentary abilities to record the nation’s architectural patrimony and the modernization of Paris. Others explored the camera’s artistic potential by capturing the ephemeral moods of nature in the French countryside. Though photographers faced difficulties in carting around heavy equipment and operating in the field, they learned how to master the elements that directly affected their pictures, from securing the right vantage point to dealing with movement, light, and changing atmospheric conditions during long exposure times.

Charles Marville, French, 1813–1879, Hôtel de la Marine, 1864–1870, albumen print, Diana and Mallory Walker Fund, 2006.23.1

Édouard-Denis Baldus, French, 1813–1889, Toulon, Train Station, c. 1861, albumen print, Patrons’ Permanent Fund, 1995.36.10

Eugène Cuvelier, French, 1837–1900, Belle-Croix, 1860s, albumen print, Gail and Benjamin Jacobs for the Millennium Fund, 2007.115.1

Julia Margaret Cameron, British, 1815–1879, The Mountain Nymph, Sweet Liberty, June 1866, albumen print, New Century Fund, 1997.97.1

Ensconced in the intellectual and artistic circles of midcentury England, Cameron manipulated focus and light to create poetic pictures rich in references to literature, mythology, and history. Her monumental views of life-sized heads were unprecedented, and with them she hoped to define a new mode of photography that would rival the expressive power of painting and sculpture. The title of this work alludes to John Milton’s mid-seventeenth-century poem “L’Allegro.” Describing the happy life of one who finds pleasure and beauty in the countryside, the poem includes the lines:

Come, and trip it as ye go
On the light fantastic toe
And in thy right hand lead with thee,
The mountain nymph, sweet Liberty.

Maria Harriet Elizabeth Cator, British, 1831–1881, Cator Family Album (detail), 1866–1877, collage of watercolor and albumen prints in bound volume, Pepita Milmore Memorial Fund, 2014.174.1

In mid-nineteenth-century Britain, upper-class women frequently created collages out of small, commercial portrait photographs of family and friends, cutting out heads and figures and pasting them onto paper that they then embellished with drawings and watercolor. Made decades before the twentieth-century avant-garde discovered the provocative allure of photocollage, these inventive, witty, and whimsical pictures undermined the standards of respectability seen in much studio portrait photography of the time.

Carleton E. Watkins, American, 1829–1916, Piwac, Vernal Falls, 300 feet, Yosemite, 1861, albumen print, Gift of Mary and David Robinson, 1995.35.23

The westward expansion of America opened up new opportunities for photographers such as Watkins and William Bell (see the following slide). Joining government survey expeditions, hired by railroad companies, or catering to tourists and the growing demand for grand views of nature, they created photographic landscapes that reached a broad audience of scientists, businessmen, and engineers, as well as curious members of the middle class. Watkins’s photographs of the sublime Yosemite Valley, which often recall landscape paintings of similar majestic subjects, helped convince Congress to pass a bill in 1864 protecting the area from development and commercial exploitation.

William H. Bell, American, born England, 1830–1910, Grand Cañon, Colorado River, Near Paria Creek, Looking West, 1872, in Geographical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Seasons of 1871, 1872, and 1873 (1873), albumen print in bound volume, Corcoran Collection (Gift of William Wilson Corcoran, 1886)

Guillaume-Benjamin-Amant Duchenne (de Boulogne), French, 1806–1875, Plate 63, Fright, from Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine (The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression) (1862), 1854–1855, albumen print, Pepita Milmore Memorial Fund

A neurologist, physiologist, and photographer, Duchenne de Boulogne conducted a series of experiments in the mid-1850s in which he applied electrical currents to various facial muscles to study how they produce expressions of emotion. Convinced that these electrically-induced expressions accurately rendered internal feelings, he then photographed his subjects to establish a precise visual lexicon of human emotions, such as pain, surprise, fear, and sadness. In 1862 he included this photograph representing fright in a treatise on physiognomy (a pseudoscience that assumes a relationship between external appearance and internal character), which enjoyed broad popularity among artists and scientists.

Eadweard Muybridge, American, born England, 1830–1904, Plate 365, Head-spring, a flying pigeon interfering, from Animal Locomotion, 1887, collotype, Corcoran Collection (Museum purchase, 1887)

Muybridge’s experiments in the 1880s revolutionized the understanding of movement and inspired scientists and artists alike. Using banks of cameras equipped with precisely triggered shutters, he captured sequences of pictures of people and animals moving and performing simple actions, such as climbing stairs or, as here, performing a head-spring. Showing small increments of movements, his work made visible what once was imperceptible to the human eye and laid the foundation for motion pictures.


Top 100 Famous Inventions and Greatest Ideas of All Time

Many ideas and invention designs are groundbreaking. They have the potential to completely change the way we perceive the world and carry out our daily duties. Some inventions are so ahead of their time that they set the path for future generations to build on. Brilliant people build gadgets, vehicles, and just about anything else you can think of.

Throughout history, human civilizations have witnessed engineering marvels from time to time that help improve the quality of life, and in some cases, are overwhelmingly destructive. Here are the top 100 most famous inventions and ideas of all time you should know about.

Although fire wasn’t technically invented, the ability to control fire was both fundamental and crucial for human civilization. Ancient humans who walked the Earth around two million years ago discovered and used fire for their benefit, but it wasn’t until 125,000 years ago that fire was fully utilized to the point where it was considered a tool.

Apart from giving us warmth in the cold and light in the dark, fire led us to develop skills like cooking. The ability to prepare healthier food and cleaner drinking water helped ensure not only human survival, but also higher intelligence due to proper nutrient intake.

Many people think that the wheel is the greatest invention of all time. Around 3500 B.C.E., the Mesopotamians invented the wheel, but mainly for pottery-making. It took about three centuries before the first wheel was attached to a chariot and it could only get better after that.

In our modern life, we take the wheel as a ubiquitous piece of engineering that we rarely pay attention to. Before this invention came to surface, humans were limited in terms of transportation and haulage. That being said, the wheel was only one part of another life-changing invention: the wheel-and-axle. In other words, the idea of attaching a wheel to a non-moving platform in a proper configuration so the two could work together.

Just like a building, human civilization would crumble without nails. Before these metal fasteners came to be, wooden structures were built by attaching each piece to another one-by-one through exhausting geometrical work. Nails have been used since around 3400 B.C.E. by the people of Ancient Egypt. They were fully developed in Ancient Rome when people learned how to cast and shape metals.

Screws, on the other hand, were used for the first time in Ancient Greece around 2 nd century B.C.E. You may find it hard to believe, but until the early 1800s, most nails were made from hand-wrought iron. Blacksmiths had to hammer the iron and make an arrow-like shape out of it. One of the first nail-making machines appeared in the 1790s.

4. Optical Lenses

The development of optical lenses was pioneered by the Mesopotamians and Egyptians. Nowadays, optical lenses are used in various tools, like telescopes and microscopes. Magnifying lenses led humans to better understand far-away objects like stars and other planets, as well as microscopic organisms.

The use of optical lenses as aids for the weak-sighted started in the 13 th century, and about four centuries later, the microscope and telescope became available. Magnifying lenses expanded our knowledge of various fields of study including biology, astronomy, archeology, chemistry, and physics.

Magnetic compasses have lost their place as the prominent navigational equipment to global positioning systems and satellites, but their importance in history — especially in the field of land and sea exploration — will always be remembered. A lodestone, a naturally magnetized mineral, was used to make early compasses in China around 300–200 B.C.E.

Before these compasses, navigational systems mainly relied on astronomical signs. The compass was the single object that brought us to the Age of Discovery. It played an important role in the development of European countries in their efforts to gain wealth and power that eventually led to the Industrial Revolution.

6. Paper Currency

Before money, trade was the commercial exchange of goods and services. Money took various forms throughout history including precious metals, coins, foods, vegetables, livestock, and basically anything else useful as tradable bartering assets. Again, China was the first to make use of paper money in the 9 th century, and Europe followed suit in the late 1600s.

Despite having no intrinsic value and initially being used as legal-binding notes issued by banks as a promise of future payments, paper money soon became the most common bartering asset to purchase goods and services. Paper money started a new era of trade that transformed the face of economics at a global scale.

7. Gunpowder

Gunpowder was invented in China and made available around the same time as paper money. Gunpowder has always been a major factor in military and warfare. It took part in deciding the course of history through wars.

8. Printing Press

Thanks to Johannes Gutenberg, the spread of knowledge and historical records reached an unprecedented pace. In 1439, he revolutionized note-making, turning it from a hand-written form to a printed one. He devised the equipment that would allow ink to be transferred to pieces of paper repeatedly, making the entire process of writing much quicker than it had ever been before.

Prior to the Internet, no single innovation contributed more to educating the world. Gutenberg built his equipment based on existing presses with the use of a mold to increase production speed and capacity of lead-alloy type pieces. Not only was the assembly effective, but it also made books much more affordable for the lower classes. By 1600, the Gutenberg presses printed more than 200 million books.

9. Electricity

It would be unfair to credit the invention of electricity to one person, as the idea developed over the course of thousands of years. Thales of Miletus was the first to research the phenomenon, but Benjamin Franklin is generally regarded as an American Renaissance man who helped us get a better understanding of electricity.

It is certainly impossible to overestimate the importance of electricity in human civilization. Other inventions such as the light bulb, battery, computers, toasters, and even coffee machines are the extensions of electricity’s potentials. We have arrived at a point where we can safely say that we can’t live without electricity.

10. Steam Engine

In 1781, James Watt patented a steam engine capable of continuous rotary motion that he invented somewhere between 1763 and 1775. Soon enough, his engine became the driving force in the mining industry, factories, ships, trains, and the Industrial Revolution as a whole.

Throughout the 1800s, the steam engine played a major part in the exponential growth and advancement in manufacturing, agriculture, and transportation. James Watt’s steam engine design continued to be modernized by others over time. The latest major evolution of it was the steam turbine, which powers most of the electricity in the United States using various heat sources.

The unaware will think that steel is a naturally occurring metal, but it isn’t. Steel is an alloy comprised of mostly iron and a very small percentage of carbon. The utilization of various metals such as iron and bronze started earlier than 4,000 years ago, but steel took a prominent role in human civilization during the Industrial Revolution.

Mass production of steel began in the 1850s using the “Bessemer Process.” a technique used to create steel by using molten pig iron. Since then, steel has been used in the construction of everything from bridges and houses to engines and skyscrapers.

12. Antibiotics

Joseph Lister and Louis Pasteur were the first to start the war against bacteria, but it was Alexander Fleming who propelled the medical world to take a giant leap ahead in the same battle thanks to his discovery – albeit accidental – of the bacteria-inhibiting mold we now call penicillin in 1928. Penicillin proved to be a major step forward in the world of antibiotics and was used widely throughout the 20 th century.

Although Fleming eventually abandoned his works on penicillin in the 1940s, his findings were further researched at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford by Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, funded by the U.S. and British governments.

Penicillin finally entered mass-production after the Pearl Harbor bombing. In fact, by 1944, we had enough penicillin to treat all the wounded Allied Forces in World War II. Death by bacterial infection dropped to only 1% in WWII from 20% in the previous war. Penicillin has found to be effective at fighting all kinds of infection such as influenza, tuberculosis, and some sexually transmitted diseases.

Another invention out of China is paper. Since 100 B.C.E., people all around the world have been using it to keep historical records and pass on knowledge to the next generation.

14. Automobile

The steam engine cleared the path for the industrial revolution, and the automobile came out of it. While automobiles are not the first means of land transportation, the way that it’s propelled by the engine makes traveling much quicker.

The automobile is also a combination of many inventions some people may even say that it’s like a small home filled with a collection of innovations including wheels, internal combustion, the radio, air conditioning, batteries, and in some cases, a refrigerator.

The 1885 Motorwagen was broadly considered the first automobile, and automobiles are being developed as we speak. The automobile, at least in its early days, was mainly a luxury item designed for the wealthy the poor simply walked on. Henry Ford with his revolutionary assembly line made cars more affordable for the lower classes.

15. Hindu Arabic Numeral System

The counting system comprised of 10 numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) along with their positional numerical values (123 refers to one hundred plus twenty plus three) is now used as the foundation in most (if not all) quantitative sciences including mathematics and economy. Development started in India before being adopted by the Arabs, the Europeans, and then it was used worldwide.

It’s hard to figure out a single individual who came up with the idea of plowing equipment, and it’s equally difficult to say that the plow didn’t change the course of human history. Early humans were essentially farmers and hunter/gatherers who devoted their lives to find food and ensure survival. Their modern counterparts have found new ways to sustain life and their needs have also improved from just eating to demanding comfort as well as luxuries.

Plowing, at least for our ancestors and farmers, removed the necessity to live a nomadic life. The seemingly simple idea of plowing allowed our ancestors to have a steadier way of life, collect and store foods, and develop civilizations in the area they resided. Because plowing continued to improve, they managed to harvest more foods than they needed, leading to the thought of trading.

17. Refrigerator

Up until the early 20 th century, ice and snow useful natural elements to help preserve foods and medicines. Ice-making machines were available but mainly used in large factories and breweries. Home refrigerators became typical household appliances in the 1920s following the development of environmentally-safe chemicals used to refrigerate.

The ability to keep food at a cold temperature revolutionized the food industry and eating habits refrigerated trucks also made sure that all food would be delivered in desirable condition. It is certainly convenient to have easy access to fresh meats, vegetables, and fruits every single day even if there isn’t a farm nearby where you live.

18. Remote Communication

It doesn’t seem right to merge the inventions of the telegraph, the radio, and the telephone into a single item, but they all were based on the same idea of having remote communication. Ever since Samuel Morse came up with his electric telegraph in 1836, communication technology has come a long way to get to where it is now.

Transmitting signals through electromagnetic waves was a brilliant concept that Nikola Tesla and Guglielmo Marconi developed and popularized in the early 20 th century. From simple signals (or commands like using a remote control), the transmission of sounds and images became possible. The invention of television brought hours of entertainment still used today to every home with live broadcast.

Fast forward several decades and the Internet came along — now you can have a video call with great audio and image clarity. The possibility to communicate with someone else millions of miles away allows for easy, quick information delivery whether it’s in the field of scientific research, international politics, trades, or even war strategy.

19. Contraceptives

Contraceptives benefit human civilization in a simple way but have profound effects. With fewer mouths to feed, every family has achieved a higher standard of living and can provide for each child they have more sufficiently.

In many countries where contraceptives are used (as well as easily available), the average number of offspring per woman has drastically reduced. Birth control has slowly yet steadily helped prevent unnecessary and potentially dangerous rapid population growth on a global scale.

Certain types of contraceptives, such as condoms, are effective at preventing sexually transmitted diseases as well. People have used various forms of contraceptives including those made of only natural substances.

Condoms have been used since the 18 th century, while the contraceptive pill came into use in the 1930s the brainchild of Russell Marker. Birth control remains an interesting field of study and new methods are always being developed.

20. The Gregorian Calendar

Created by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, the Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar today. It was intended as a revision to the Julian calendar. It jumped ahead 10 days in an effort to synchronize world time with the four seasons.

21. Archimedes’ Screw, Third Century B.C.E.

A rotating corkscrew designed to bring clean water from the source to a relatively far location was one of the world’s first effective water pumps made by Archimedes. Today, the idea still lingers on in many irrigation systems and wastewater treatment facilities around the world.

22. Pasteurization

It may sound obvious, but back in the 1800s, nobody really understood that germs or microorganisms had the power to invade living hosts such as humans or animals. We soon came to understand that microorganisms were living organisms existing anywhere including in the air humans breathe.

Both were the works of Louis Pasteur based on the theories proposed by many others. One of the first most practical implementations of the theory was the pasteurization method to sterilize bacteria in wine, milk, and beer.

23. Alphabet, First Millenium B.C.E.

The alphabet was developed over the course of hundreds of years by many people in many places including ancient Egyptians, ancient Greeks, ancient Romans, ancient Hebrews, and even ancient Chinese. Alphabetization came to surface around the first millennium B.C.E. Yes, it took a thousand years for the world to make a universal alphabetical order that kids in today’s elementary schools can memorize easily. Alphabetization has made everything much more searchable.

The obelisks, constructed by ancient Egyptians around 3,500 B.C.E., were among the earliest models of shadow clock. The sundial also came from Egypt about two thousand years after. Both were great representations of the time-keeping instruments we use now.

25. Airplane

Just like the invention of the automobile, airplanes combine multiple brilliant ideas including wheels and steam turbines into a single sturdy vehicle. Beyond the engineering magnificence, the airplane transformed our view into something larger, wider, and broader. It has changed the way we travel and manner of warfare.

26. Domestication of Horses

About 6,000 years ago when horses were on the brink of extinction, people of the steppes of Ukraine found ways to domesticate the animals. After that and to some extent, horses played major parts in the repopulation of Europe.

Their significance also touched many aspects of civilization including trades and communication. Warfare also changed thanks to horses as the animals provided their assistance in increasing the level of exploration (as well as violence) to an astounding level. All in all, horses helped spread the seeds of the greatest cities in Europe and Asia.

27. Neolithic Revolution

Wide-scale human culture transition does not happen often, but it did occur at least once during the Neolithic Revolution in which people abandoned their previous nomadic lifestyle as hunters/gatherers and moved into the steadier lifestyle with farming. They found methods to grow crops in more systematic ways, allowing them to collect foods repeatedly from the same location.

28. Scientific Method

Asking the right questions and providing evidence gathered from experiments has brought us to a better understanding of the world, everything in it, and some things beyond it.

The scientific method requires everyone to propose theories and ideas that make sense. If you have to question others’ ideas, you need to also give undeniable evidence to prove that your theories are better or more accurate. This is how science works, and everybody can contribute.

In Rome and Greece, hay was not even a thought. Only those civilizations who live in warmer regions of the world could keep their horses well-fed thanks to grazing. During winter when grass was scarce, horses would die, and you couldn’t develop any form or urban civilization without horses to help you travel, trade, communicate, and distribute goods.

At some point during the time we now call the Dark Ages, somebody invented hay so that anybody could store grass for the difficult times in winter. By a stretch, hay was an important invention in the development of many great cities such as Paris, London, Vienna, New York, and Moscow.

Northern Scotland came up with the first indoor toilet in 3000 B.C.E. The ancient Mesopotamians, around the same time, started to realize the importance of hygiene to maintain good health and came up with the idea of cleansing soap made of animal fat and wood ash.

Long-distance radio transmission is an important piece of technology for modern life. The communication system was the result of continuous development by many different people, but the first workable radio apparatus was the brainchild of a single Italian, Guglielmo Marconi. He devised this wireless telegraphy system in 1895.

32. Sailboat, Ancient Mesopotamia, 6000 B.C.E.

The Ubaid culture of ancient Mesopotamians (occupying present-day Iraq) was the first to use sailboats as a means of transportation around 6000 B.C.E. They traveled on the water to cross the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, around which the culture was born and developed.

33. Hydraulic Engineering

In the late 19 th century, hydraulic engineering solved a prominent problem: how to bring fresh water into homes and send away sewage from settlements.

Although sophisticated waterworks had been in existence earlier in ancient Rome, hydraulic engineering brought massive improvement in wastewater treatment and sanitation in general. Infectious diseases caused by contaminated water were greatly minimized so countries like the United States and Britain could develop better.

34. Language

There is no single clear point when and how language started to develop. Human’s ability to invent and use many forms of language — verbal, written, body language, codes, symbols — is arguably the most powerful force behind civilization.

It’s a system we use to communicate ideas, feelings, emotions, war strategies, and intentions. Without understandable language, people would not be able to cooperate and negotiate their terms simply put, we probably wouldn’t survive this long without language.

35. Religion

Up to this day, we have no consensus of what constitutes a religion. What we do know is that it may be comprised of worldviews, ethics, organizations, prophecies, life after death, supernaturalism, spiritual beings, and cultural systems.

There are more than 4,000 religions in the world today based on that, people of different beliefs must be worshiping thousands of gods. The impact of religions on human civilization is wide-ranging from marriage rules to constitution of a country.

36. Universal Turing Machine

The Turing machine worked by using mathematical formulas that were then used to build the Bombe, an Enigma code-breaker. Alan Turing invented the Universal Turing Machine with the capability of doing different kinds of computation depending on the program or input. The weakness was that it could only compute one program at a time. Regardless of its limitations, the Universal Turing Machine can be considered the forerunner of modern computers.

37. Atomic Bomb

Compared to any other technological developments and inventions in the last 2000 years, the atomic bomb had the greatest effects on human history. In just a matter of seconds, a single atomic bomb eliminated around 200,000 people in Hiroshima.

The ability to destroy the planet is now within the realm of possibility as superpower countries arm themselves with more weapons than they would ever need. To some extent, atomic and nuclear weapons now take part in keeping the world safe as countries have to think many times before they start wars.

38. Calculus

Instead of seeing things with the “infinitely large” point of view, calculus takes the opposite direction. Thanks to calculus, the world now understands two things very well: differential equation and optimization. Calculus allows us to have better methods to model change and it also gives us the chance to discover the best (as well as the worst) possible solution to an existing problem.

39. Anesthesia

Imagine you (or someone else) undergoing a surgical procedure without having anesthesia administered beforehand. Anesthetic drugs, in simple words, put your body and mind to sleep or make certain parts of the body numb enough that you don’t feel anything when it’s treated. Anesthetic frees you from the threat of agony, and it also helps the scientific world understand the mechanism of human consciousness.

40. Copernican Theory

Published for the first time in 1543 by Copernicus, it was basically both revolutionary and blasphemous at the same time. It was revolutionary because it defied common sense: anybody could see (not observe) that the sun revolved around the earth and it moved from east to west. It was blasphemy because it contradicted the church.

While there are some inaccuracies in Copernican theory, it did set the movement of modern astronomical observation. It would take a person of great courage to propose an idea that defied common beliefs and religious orders back then.

41. Theory of Evolution

In many cases, the study of physics is much more complex than any other branch of knowledge, except perhaps when it comes to Darwin’s theory of evolution. At least until now, Darwin’s ideas of evolution offer the best explanation of our origins and the rest of living organisms in the planet who our ancestors are, what animals are direct descendants of dinosaurs, why and what lives where, and so on. The search for the true first origin of life continues, but from all discoveries so far, nothing contradicts the theory of evolution.

42. The Concept of Information as a Commodity

Somewhere in history, it came across people’s minds that information was a commodity — one they could sell or trade for fortunes. Nowadays, the Internet arguably represents the most crowded marketplace for buying and selling information. Every advertisement that pops-up on your computer screen was not sent by random. It has been carefully selected to match your preferences, browsing history, age, sex, nationality, occupation, and online interactions. One of the biggest problems is that you’re not the one who collects the rewards for giving away those data.

As an idea or concept, the eraser is marvelous. It comes in all sorts of shapes such as the delete button, white tape, black tape, and the more literal rubber-eraser.

This simple thing allows you to make revisions, correct inaccurate measurements, make constitutional amendments, change identities, modify a structure, or alter an existing order. The ability to go back and correct previous mistakes builds the foundation of scientific methods, improve regulations, develop cultures, and even rewrite history.

44. Double-entry Accounting

The basic foundation of double-entry accounting is that the sum of all debits must be equal to the sum of all credits very simple in theory but complicated in real-life.

First introduced in 1494 by Luca Pacioli, a Franciscan monk, this system of accounting has been the core methodology of bookkeeping used worldwide. It is used in all accounting systems from those applied in families to calculate income and expenses to complex financial reports of the world’s largest corporations.

45. Gatling Gun

Developed in 1861 by Richard Gatling based on his seed planter, the Gatling Gun was the first weapon of mass destruction. Union forces employed the gun during the civil war, but the hand-cranked version soon became obsolete and was replaced with an electric motor.

With that development, the gun could fire at an impressive rate of 3,000 rounds per minute. This is the forerunner of a modern automatic rapid-fire assault rifle, which always up to this day sparks a debate whether the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution needs another amendment.

Prior to the mass production and widespread use of mirrors, people could only see their reflections on calm water or very shiny metallic surfaces. Of course, what they saw could not do justice to their actual reflections, mainly due to an uneven surface or poor lighting.

The mirror, which came about during the Renaissance, changed that. A single mirror can show exactly how you look in front of others, which in turn forces us to develop manners of eating, grooming, shaving, and behaving.

Thanks to the mirror, you don’t have to ask how you look when wearing a jacket or raincoat, and you can practice table manners on your own if need be. Psychologically, a mirror is the embodiment of self-consciousness and retrospection because you can see yourself as if you have the eyes of others.

47. Concrete

Concrete-like structures began to appear for the first time in northern Jordan and southern Syria regions around 6500 B.C.E. Comprised of rough composite mixed with fluid cement, concrete is the most widely used man-made material. The mix hardens over time and makes a very sturdy, strong foundation of a structure. When it’s still wet, however, the material is very easy to manipulate into different shapes.

John-Shepherd Barron is credited with the invention of the first fully-functional ATM (Automated Teller Machine). The first ATM was installed on June 27, 1967, for Barclays Bank in Enfield Town, London. The maximum withdrawal allowed was £10. Today, the machine is always just around the corner in any modern town.

49. Electric Motor

The steam engine might have started the Industrial Revolution, but the electric motor has helped households all around the world do their chores in a more time-efficient way. It isn’t necessarily about one particular type of electrical appliance, but the general idea of using electricity to propel a mechanism as seen in kitchen appliances and power tools.

In modern times, some mass transportation vehicles — for example, the train — are also powered by electric motors. Electric cars existed but were considered too weak and cumbersome. Now, they are being reintroduced by big automobile companies such as BMW and Tesla.

50. Global Positioning System

The precursor of the GPS was called TRANSIT and developed in the 1960s to guide nuclear submarines. The modern version of GPS (originally Navstar GPS) was a project by the U.S. Department of Defense but was intended for use only by the U.S. military.

In 2000, President Clinton granted the use of GPS for non-military purposes, and now everybody can utilize the navigational system for various purposes like finding the best spot for fishing to tracking the movement of whales. However, there are some limitations to the public GPS — the most accurate Global Positioning System is still owned by the U.S. government.

Prozac was invented in 1972 and entered the medical application in 1986. It’s currently sitting on the WHO’s list of essential medicines. It’s an FDA-approved antidepressant that works by inhibiting serotonin in the brain. Prozac helps patients cope with clinical depression — about 4.5 million Americans are taking Prozac today. The medicine took part in shaping our ideas around human emotions our ability to control them with chemicals.

52. Industrial Robot

The first industrial robot was the Unimate, invented by George Devol and installed in a General Motors assembly line at Ewing Township, New Jersey.

People (or companies) in the United States were not too excited about it, unlike their counterparts in Japan. After licensing the design in 1968, the Japanese went on to eventually dominate the global market for programmable industrial robots.

In 1962, Nick Holonyak was a consultant for General Electric when he invented the LED. It started as a simple, inexpensive yet effective method to help us understand how well computers could interpret input or information. It had a humble beginning as a simple visible spectrum of red light and has since been used to create the biggest 24-million LED pixel billboard that covers an entire city block in New York Times Square.

54. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Similar to GPS, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) which are more commonly known as drones began as a military project, although it is difficult to pinpoint when development began. One of the earliest attempts at making a powered UAV was Archibald Low’s Aerial Target in 1916. A year after that, Nikola Tesla described a fleet of unmanned aerial combat vehicles.

In the United States, a classified UAV project codenamed “Red Wagon” started in 1960. Eventually, in 1973, the U.S. military confirmed the use of drones in Vietnam. The first mass-produced UAV in the United States was the OQ-2 Radioplane and the development continues today.

Some say drones are tools for surveillance, others think of them as innovative vehicles for delivering goods the vast majority of people would tell you that drones are lethal weapons hiding in the sky. Drones are good examples that an innovation can be either useful or dangerous depending on how we decide to use it.

55. Digital Music

The first digital recording and playback system was invented by James Russell in 1970, who was then a scientist with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With his method, sounds were represented by a pattern or string of 0s and 1s etched on a photosensitive platter.

A laser read the binary arrangements to produce music. A set of converters were necessary: analog-to-digital for recording and digital-to-analog for playback. Unfortunately, Russell did not manage to convince the music industry to use his invention. CD manufacturers including Time Warner had to pay $30 million for patent infringement 20 years later as a settlement to Optical Recording Co., James Russell’s former employer.

56. Electronic Ignition System

Early ignition systems were available only for race engines such as the BRM and Coventry Climax engines in 1962. Pontiac became the first manufacturer to offer electronic ignition on road legal cars, as it was available as an option on some 1963 models. Electronic ignition systems did not become standard until the Fiat Dino in 1968.

Other automakers soon followed suit. For example, Jaguar in 1971 and Chrysler in 1973. Ford and GM introduced it as a standard feature in 1975. It’s safe to say that the ignition system started the modernization movement from mechanical-control to electronic-control in the automobile industry. Today, most cars offer a lot of electric-controlled functions such as traction, steering, brakes, transmissions, and even airbag deployment.

57. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

Although all people including doctors, scientists, patients, and laymen agree that the MRI is a brilliant invention, we still don’t know for sure who invented it. On one hand, many people believe it to be Raymond Damadian, as he set the course for the machine to be utilized as medical equipment when he used it to tell healthy tissues from cancerous ones in 1973.

On the other hand, Peter Mansfield and Peter Lauterbur received Nobel Prizes for their influential discoveries on the same machine.

58. DNA Fingerprinting

In 1984, molecular biologist Alec Jeffreys devised a method to analyze DNA sequences in humans which involves more or less three billion units. He did that by comparing only the part of the sequence that demonstrated the greatest variation among people.

One of the first important implementations of DNA fingerprinting was in a forensic investigation, particularly a case in Narborough, Leicestershire. Without the method, the police would have incriminated the wrong person in the rape-murder case of Lynda Mann and Dawn Ashworth.

Thanks to Jeffreys, Richard Buckland (the prime suspect) was exonerated and the real rapist-murderer was sent to prison. Until DNA fingerprinting was commercialized in 1987, Alec Jeffreys’ laboratory was the only place in the world capable of carrying out the procedure.

59. Genetic Sequencing

The development of genetic sequencing was a race from the get-go. In 1998, an American biochemist, geneticist, biotechnologist, and a businessman named Craig Venter announced that he would be able to sequence the entire human genome in just three years for $300 million.

It doesn’t sound surprising until you realize that such a timeframe and budget were lacking compared to the government-funded Human Genome Project. In the end, the race ended up in a tie — both projects published a complete report of successful attempts in 2001. Mr. Venter fulfilled his promise to complete the project in just three years.

60. Crescent Wrench

Founded by Karl Peterson in Jamestown, New York in 1907, the Crescent Tool Company had only one product: a type of wrench that could replace a bunch of different-sized wrenches. The tool could handle clutch adjustments and fix brakes on early automobiles.

Despite its practicality, the crescent wrench didn’t enjoy widespread popularity until 1927 when Charles Lindbergh, the man who made the first solo successful transatlantic flight, suggested that he only carried two hand tools: pliers and a crescent wrench.

61. Typewriter

In the early 1800s, the world saw the first mechanical typing machine that was used with carbon paper — both were the inventions of an Italian named Pellegrino Turri. The development of modern typewriter started there, and the equipment was finally standardized in 1910.

This means that all typewriters, regardless of manufacturer, followed mostly the same design with only minor variations allowed. An important milestone in the development occurred in 1874 when a typewriter with a QWERTY keyboard layout became available as the Remington Standard 2.

The idea behind the layout was impressive. Christopher L. Sholes, the man who created it, figured out a method to prevent jamming by putting the most frequently used letters farther from each other — not the keys themselves, but the actual type bars inside the machine. It has become the standard layout in modern computer keyboards and most (if not all) typing devices.

The idea of controlling fire for human purposes was remarkable, as was the invention of the match. One of the earliest methods to produce fire was by focusing sunlight through a lens onto timber. It would only work on sunny days, which wasn’t too helpful since you needed fire the most during the night.

Striking flint and steel together to create a spark was another common method. The chemical match was invented in 1669, but a non-poisonous match did not come about until 1910. Before this, the number of chemical substances (such as sulfur and phosphorous) required to produce a single spark was more than enough to kill a person.

Penny-farthing, also referred to as a high-wheeler, was the first to be called a bicycle. It was introduced in 1869 and was popular for at least two decades. The invention of “modern bicycles” equipped with chain-driven gear trains rendered the penny-farthing obsolete.

The rover safety bicycle was arguably the first popular bicycle form factor, although there had been earlier models featuring the same chain-driven mechanism. The bicycle was important for transportation, but its most significant role in history was during the start of women’s emancipation in western culture. It is believed that the bicycle had a major part in helping women earn the rights to vote.

64. Light Bulb

Thomas Edison is the man usually accredited to the invention of the light bulb. However, he wasn’t the only person who contributed to the development of technology. What Edison did to stay ahead of his competitors was to develop an inexpensive practical light bulb.

Even after he filed the patent for his invention in 1879, several other figures helped perfect the design, particularly concerning the filament materials. Edison figured out that carbonized bamboo was an ideal filament because it could burn for more than 1,200 hours.

Lewis Howard Latimer and Willis R. Whitney invented more efficient methods to produce the carbon filament and a treatment to prevent the burning filament from darkening the inside of the glass bulb, respectively.

The longest running light bulb was installed in a fire department building in Livermore, California. The light bulb was turned on for the first time sometime between 1901 and 1905 and has been continuously running since then.

65. Phonograph

The phonograph was another idea put forth by Edison. The first public demonstration of the phonograph occurred in 1877 for the Scientific American magazine. To the astonishment of all who present at the event, Edison cranked his machine and it gave a greeting. The machine played, “Good morning. How do you do? How do you like the phonograph?”

It wasn’t just an early model of an answering machine, but a revolutionary piece of engineering that enabled music to be played in the home. It brought music to a much wider audience and promoted jazz with an unprecedented level of aggressiveness.

66. Hypodermic Syringe

It’s believed that the ancient Romans and Greeks realized the potential of injections as a medicinal delivery system based on observing snakebites. However, the earliest confirmed experiment using hypodermic needles didn’t happen until 1656 by Christopher Wren, when he injected opium into dogs. Just four years later, experiments on humans took place by J.D. Major of Kiel and J.S. Elsholtz of Berlin — it didn’t go well.

For nearly two centuries, hypodermic needles fell out of favor. It all changed thanks to Dr. Francis Rynd, who performed the first successful injection in 1844, and Dr. Alexander Wood introduced the all-glass syringe for measuring dosage in 1851.

Believe it or not, it took the world a century to realize the possibility of cross-contamination from using the same needle multiple times. The development of a fully-disposable plastic syringe was conducted by Colin Murdoch, a New Zealand pharmacist, in 1956.

67. Wristwatch

Alberto Santos-Dumont, the man who made the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe had a small yet crucial role in the invention of the first men’s wristwatch created by his friend, Louis Cartier.

In 1901, Santos-Dumont complained to Cartier about how difficult it was to check the time while keeping his hands in control during a flight. Five years later, Santos-Dumont was in possession of the first men’s wristwatch with a leather strap and buckle, made by Louis Cartier.

However, it wasn’t the first wristwatch. Patek Philippe took credit for that when he made it for the Countess Koscowicz of Hungary in 1868.

68. Fire Extinguisher

The earliest model of the fire extinguisher was more dangerous to the operator than the fire itself. It was comprised of a cask that contained liquid and a gunpowder chamber made of pewter. The whole apparatus was set off by igniting the fuse.

Once activated, the gunpowder generated an explosion needed to scatter the liquid retardant. It was invented in 1723 by Ambrose Godfrey and patented in England. The fire extinguisher was the subject of development throughout history. Today, the most common models include air-pressurized water, carbon dioxide, and dry chemicals. Each works best when used to put out fire on specific types of flammable materials.

69. Push Lawn Mower

A British engineer, Edwin Budding, devised a new apparatus for cutting grass based on a carpet cutter in 1830. It was 19-inches wide and the frame was constructed from wrought iron. It would take a decade to develop a lawnmower meant to be operated by animals, and 60 years for the world to see the first steam-engine version.

In the United States, turf grass is one of the most common vegetation’s grown and it actually takes a very large portion of land in the entire country. After World War II, the rise of suburbia created massive demands for lawnmowers. Prior to 1946 alone, there were around 140,000 lawnmower units sold in the U.S. Currently, more than five million units are sold every year.

70. Car Jack

You would assume that a hydraulic car jack was invented by someone named Jack, but it was not. Richard Dudgeon was granted the first patent for the portable hydraulic jack in 1851, which was proven superior to the alternative at that time, the screw jack.

He was just 32 years old when he came up and actualized the idea. The hydraulic jack was most commonly used in railroad repair shops and shipyards back then, but now it has become a staple in every automobile shop all around the world.

71. Outboard Motor

The inboard motor has been around since the early 1800s, yet no one came up with the idea of attaching it externally to a boat until Ole Evinrude came up with his two-stroke boat motor. His motor was not the first “outboard” type but it was the first to be adopted widely.

Earlier models were made by Gustave Trouvé in 1870 (electric), American Motors Co. in 1896 (petrol-powered), and Waterman in 1905 (gasoline). The main reason why Evinrude’s design became so popular was its two-stroke configuration. This allowed the motor to be reliable, cost-efficient, and lightweight — all characteristics you would expect from an outboard motor.

Ole Evinrude, or the people who invented the outboard motor before her, didn’t create a new type of vehicle. The motor simply allowed a combination of existing technologies in a simple enough configuration that anyone could enjoy driving on water.

72. Deringer

Not only is copyright infringement a terrifying ghost that haunts Rolex watches and Gucci handbags, it’s also a nightmare for the original Philadelphia Deringer made by Henry Deringer in 1852. The Deringer was the precursor of the stealth firearm and it became an alternative generic term for a pocket pistol.

The problem for the inventor was that the fakes were more popular. One of the most common counterfeiting methods was to add an additional “R” to the brand from DERINGER into DERRINGER.

On April 1865, a man named John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Abraham Lincoln with the original Deringer. Today, you can still see Booth’s Deringer in Ford’s Theater Museum, directly underneath the theater where the assassination took place more than 150 years ago.

73. Tape Measure

Credit for the invention of the modern spring-loaded tape measure goes to Alvin Fellows. He invented it in 1868 — his method was to encase the tool in a plastic container and attach it with a spring clip. Despite its superiority to the more common wooden ruler, the tape measure didn’t start to outsell its inferior counterpart until the 1940s. Spring-loaded tape measures have a timeless design. It’s effective, inexpensive, practical, and easy to use.

74. Coleman Lantern

Smart, persuasive marketing has the power to influence peoples purchasing decisions. Take the Quick-Lite lantern by W.C. Coleman for example. In 1916, when Coleman began selling the product, he marketed it as equipment to stretch the workday.

However, as electrification reached more rural areas, he reworded the marketing campaign and told buyers that the lantern was an outdoor essential. And in the immediate aftermath of World War II, when Americans enjoyed camping and picnics, sales skyrocketed.

75. Swiss Army Knife

A Swiss Army Knife will always be an icon of outdoor utility. With short knives, a pair of scissors, screwdrivers, can openers, and foldable design, many people swear to never leave home without it. While it may not be helpful for any serious carpentry works, it surely can help you feel like MacGyver at the very least.

The original model was built in the 1880s by the Germany-based manufacturer, Wester & Co. Solingen. It had a blade, can opener, a reamer, a screwdriver, and oak handle. The idea was to provide the military with a multipurpose knife to repair rifles, open canned foods, and cut stuff as needed.

Carl Elsener, a Swiss man, didn’t think it was right for Swiss soldiers to use knives made in Germany, so he set out to manufacture the equipment in his home country. Afterward, he named his company Victorinox.

76. Flashlight

A flashlight is a pretty simple device — an electric lightbulb connected to a switch. The first U.S. patent for the flashlight was obtained by a British inventor named David Misell in 1899. Some of the early flashlights were donated to the New York City police.

Because early models were inefficient and needed to take a brief “rest” to stay functional, the light only flashed multiple times instead of being continuous, hence the name.

Today, a ubiquitous office supply, but it was born of royalty. The first stapler was built in the 18 th century in France for King Louis XV. The modern stapler we know today — with a top-opening for easy refilling — was partly made popular by the movie Office Space.

A major portion of the movie’s plot revolved around a red stapler made by Swingline, the first stapler to introduce the design. It was the Swingline model 646, and high demand from fans of the movie drove the company to manufacture more.

78. Crossword Puzzle

The December 21st edition of the New York World in 1913 published a game that incorporated many features of modern days’ crossword puzzle it was called the “word-cross” puzzle. The man credited for the publication is Arthur Wayne, a journalist from Liverpool, England. It is often cited as the first true crossword puzzle.

79. Fiberglass Fishing Rod

The fishing rod has had quite the history. Until the mid-1800s, most rods were made in England using heavy wood. All of this changed when Samuel Phillippe introduced an imported alternative in 1846 and sold the design to a New York retailer.

The same model was then copied by other Americans including Charles Orvis and Hiram Leonard, as well as Englishman William Hardy in the 1870s.

Apparently, the same model could be mass-produced in the U.S. to help reduce the price and make it more accessible. The next big thing happened in 1913 when Horton Manufacturing Company introduced all steel rods — it was heavy and unfavorable.

A major improvement took place in the 1940s with the introduction of fiberglass fishing rods by Robert Gayle and Mr. McGuire. In the decades that followed, the hostilities in Asia made importing popular material such as bamboo more difficult, so big companies such as Shakespeare and Montague needed to use new material for manufacturing their rods.

80. Duct Tape

The original duct tape was strips of plain cotton duck. Its main function was as an insulator for steel cable, although some people used it as a decorative ornament on clothing. In the 1910s, some shoes and boots were reinforced using the same material as well.

The modern version of duct tape we’re all familiar with was an invention of Johnson & Johnson’s Revolite Division. It was thin cotton duck coated with plastic material on one side and rubber-based adhesive on the other. To make the tape easier to work with, it was also designed to be ripped by hand.

After World War II, hardware stores began selling duct tape for household use. Whether you think of it as a material or a gadget, it continues to be the ultimate multi-tool. Even NASA astronauts made repairs with it in space.

A lot of people attributed the invention of Velcro to NASA, and they couldn’t be further from the truth. While NASA did popularize the fabric, it was George de Mestral who patented it in 1955. At first, Velcro was subject to all sorts of ridicules, but eventually, de Mestral had the last laugh. In the 1960s, astronauts used Velcro to secure devices for easy retrieval.

Made of two thin strips of fabric, one has countless tiny loops, and another is fitted with tiny hooks. Velcro is a truly easy to use universal fastener for all people, from DIY enthusiasts to engineers.

82. Electric Traffic Light

Imagine driving on today’s busy roads without traffic lights. Credit for the first electric traffic signal goes to James Hoge, although early forms (both manually-operated and electric-powered) had existed earlier in many parts of the world.

The system based on his design was first installed in Cleveland on August 5, 1914. He devised a wired traffic signal attached to a single post to be installed on each corner of an intersection. Because the lights were all wired and configurable, the police and fire departments could adjust the rhythm of lights as needed. James Hoge filed the patent in 1913 and was granted it five years later.

One of the earliest forms of chess came about in India around the 6 th century AD. Many modern aspects of chess were derived from a game called Chaturanga. The same game then got introduced in Persia, where the King was derived. The concept of “checkmate” and “check” also came from the Persians. The game has remained the same throughout history.

84. Microscope

For many thousands of years, humans couldn’t see things smaller than a piece of sand. Everything changed when the microscope came about in 1950. We gained the ability to examine small things like food particles, bacteria, and other microorganisms.

Despite its prominent usefulness in scientific research, it remains unclear who invented the microscope. The debate usually revolves around two parties: either Hans Lippershey or a father-son team, Hans and Zacharias Janssen.

85. Steam Iron

Henry W. Seely filed the patent for an electric iron in 1882. It was called an electric flatiron back then. Suddenly, people had an easier way to maintain their clothes and look good in more consistent ways by keeping the wrinkles away from shirts and pants.

The problem was that the regular iron could bake in the grease and sweat attached to articles of clothing. The Hoover steam iron, introduced in 1953, was the perfect solution. It allowed us to iron faster and make the clothes look better for a longer time.

In 1859, petroleum was not a desirable natural by-product of oil. Edwin Drake, the driller of the first productive oil well in the United States, discarded petroleum (referred to as gas or gasoline in the country) because he was unaware of its potential uses. Drake refined the oil mostly to produce kerosene, a hot-selling commodity. Without petroleum, the Industrial Revolution wouldn’t have been possible.

George Stephenson, with his “Rocket” locomotive, made headlines during the 1820s when commercial train networks were still in their infancy. He was a real pioneer and was appointed as the engineer for Stockton and Darlington railway in 1821.

It took only four years before the first public roadway was opened. Both Rocket and the opening of the railway became powerful forces to drive the development of the industry. The next major improvement in the business would have to wait until the diesel engine came about in the 1890s.

Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen took all the credit for the discovery of the x-ray in 1895. He experimented with cathode rays and figured out that not only did they travel through glass, but also human flesh.

It must have been wonderful to come across something of unknown nature, hence an x-ray. The first practical implementation of the technology was during the Balkan war to find broken bones and bullets inside patients.

89. Internet

The Internet doesn’t belong to anybody, not even Google, but it is for everybody to use. While the Internet is an invention, the whole system was the result of many people’s contributions. The precursor of the Internet, known as ARPANET, was a project by the U.S. Department of Defense in the 1960s.

Vint Cerf and Robert E. Kahn later developed the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) that became the standard Internet networking protocol until today. The rise of technology, email, and instant inexpensive overseas communication suddenly changed the way we live, conduct business, learn, and spread knowledge.

Paper, writing, and the printing press have all allowed us to study history and preserve knowledge, but things would have been very different without photographs. One thing that a camera does best is stop time and make an event more easily remembered by future generations. The first permanent photograph was captured in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a camera designed by Charles and Vincent Chevalier. Figuratively speaking, the camera has witnessed its own evolutionary stages from the obscura to DSLR.

Our life wouldn’t be quite the same if we didn’t have batteries, and their history may be much older than you may think.

The first prehistoric batteries may be about 2000 years old. Ancient Parthians filled clay pots with vinegar solution and inserted an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder in it. It’s believed that they used it to electroplate silver.

However, the first electric battery was invented in 1800 by an Italian physicist Alessandro Volta. It consisted of copper and zinc plates stacked on top of each other and separated by paper disks soaked in brine. While Volta though that his invention had inexhaustible energy, it actually could not provide energy for sustainable periods of time.

A British chemist named John Frederic Daniel improved the battery and made it more practical 36 years later. Yet, it utilized liquid electrolytes and could be dangerous if it wasn’t handled correctly. The end of the 19 th century marked the invention of the first dry cell battery which was the first practical and relatively safe portable energy source.

Before the refrigerator, people simply used tin cans to preserve food. Peter Durand took credit for the invention of the tin can. He was granted the patent in 1810 by King George III of England.

However, he did not pursue the development of his invention but sold the patent to two Englishmen, Bryan Donkin and John Hall, for £1,000 (more than £72,000 of today’s money). The tin can made it to mass production and remains as the container of choice for many companies to package their food and beverage products.

93. Toothbrush

The chew stick was the earliest known form of a toothbrush. It was made of simple twigs with frayed ends and was used by many to somehow try to get rid of anything dirty from their teeth. In 1770, a man named William Addis of England was imprisoned for causing a riot.

In prison, he saved a piece of bone from his meal, drilled some small holes, and attached bristles to the bone. Addis practically invented the basic form factor of the modern toothbrush. After released from jail, he became a wealthy man from selling toothbrushes.

94. Corkscrew

Nobody is sure who invented the corkscrew, but it’s most likely an Englishman because of the beer and cider tradition in the country. That being said, Samuell Henshall was granted the first patent for the tool in 1795. Between the worm and the shank, he inserted a simple disk known as the Henshall Button to prevent the worm from going too deep into the cork.

95. Flush Toilet

Sir John Harrington was an amateur and not very successful poet. He was, however, the godson of Queen Elizabeth I. From 1584 to 1591, Sir Harington had to live as an exile as a form of punishment because he circulated a wanton tale among the ladies.

During his exile, he built a house and installed a lavatory with a flushing attachment. In 1952, he was finally forgiven and the Queen visited his house in 1952. Harrington proudly showed the lavatory to the Queen and apparently, she had the need to try it. She was impressed and ordered one.

96. Moving Assembly Line

Henry Ford’s moving assembly line served multiple purposes: increasing the production capacity of the Ford Model T and meeting consumers’ demands. Another important purpose was to absorb less skilled workers without sacrificing build quality.

Because each person was only assigned to perform a repetitive task, it wouldn’t be too difficult to find workers. Ford’s assembly line was not the first and was based on meat processing factories in Chicago. Almost all big factories today use the same production system.

The invention of beer is estimated to have taken place around 10,000 B.C.E. in present-day Iraq by the ancient Mesopotamians. By 2000 B.C.E. the Sumerians were able to brew eight different types of beers with distinctive strength from strong to good dark the recipes soon spread elsewhere. Ancient Egyptians also had a taste for suds.

Stephanie Kwolek was the first to synthesize Kevlar at the DuPont laboratories in Wilmington, Delaware. The Kevlar was (weight for weight) five times stronger than steel yet lighter than fiberglass. It is also heat resistant and can decompose without melting at more than 400-degrees Celsius. Common applications are in extreme sports equipment, a bulletproof vest, and aircraft construction.

99. Periodic Table

The periodic table that we know today was influenced by the same thing presented by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869 at the Russian Chemical Society. It wasn’t the first periodic table, but the first to gain worldwide acceptance from the scientific community.

The main difference between the old-school and modern version of the periodic table is the order of the elements. The older method used atomic numbers while the new one relies on atomic weight. Interestingly, this doesn’t change anything, but it remains an important distinction to remember.

100. World Wide Web

It would be blasphemy to list the greatest ideas of all time without including the World Wide Web. It’s a way of accessing data. Tim Berners-Lee may not be the father of the Internet, because the moniker goes to the two people who invented the Internet protocol suite. However, Berners-Lee is the one who made the Internet more easily accessible by all. The first website in the world was hosted on Berners-Lee’s computer.

And that’s that! I know, this was a long list, but you’ve made it through. I hope you’ve taken some inspiration from this article, as the most influential ideas and inventions were sometimes made by mistake, while others took years of perseverance.


Preparing the Next Generation of Nurses through Clinical Simulations

As nursing students’ clinical rotations came to a halt during COVID-19, nursing schools across the US turned to innovative clinical simulation strategies and activities to support their students’ learning needs. Clinical simulation dates back to 1910 when A. Lauder Sutherland, a nurse in charge of the Hartford Hospital Training School in Connecticut, invented the first simulation mannequin (Hiestand, 2000). Sutherland “had gotten tired of the makeshift, straw-filled dummies her nurses had been using” and worked with Martha Jenks Chase, a Rhode Island doll maker, on a more realistic mannequin. “Chase jokingly named the doll Miss Demon Strator, but eventually the handful of training dolls she made became known as ‘Mrs. Chase.’” (Weir, 2012)

The mannequin was used to support the application of nursing students’ didactic learning in the classroom to hands on experiential learning through practice (Hiestand, 2000). “Mrs. Chase was used to train nurses how to dress a patient, turn her over and transfer her from bed to bed. Outfitted with movable joints at the hips, arms and legs, the dolls were designed with some help from Chase's husband, who was a doctor.“ (Weir, 2012) One year later, Mrs. Chase was duplicated for distribution to other nursing institutions across the US (Hiestand, 2000). Since that time, the science and art of clinical simulation has significantly advanced and grown to be quite sophisticated, thereby enhancing nursing students’ practical skills and knowledge prior to entering the profession as registered nurses.


100 inventions that revolutionized history

1- The ax : It is one of our first tools of work that served for the hunting, the war and the domestic activities.

2- The spear : It allowed us to defend ourselves and to attack our prey.

3- The bow and arrow : They allowed us to reach our prey at long distances.

4- The dress : Allowed us to survive in inhospitable weather conditions.

5- Rock painting : It allowed us to express our ideas and leave an important inheritance to future generations.

6- The flute : The oldest musical instrument, allowed us to develop not only an artistic expression, but used it for hunting as a way to synchronize teamwork.

7- Housing : Allowed us to survive the Paleolithic conditions.

8- The boats : They allowed us to sail the seas and venture to other lands.

9- The manual ceramics : Allowed us to store food and drinks. It was then used for rituals and as a decorative element.

10- The potter's wheel : It allowed us to improve the quality of the pottery. Pottery allowed man to make all kinds of utensils.

11- The rope : Allowed us to develop hunting and domestic activities. The use of rope and other objects is related to the domestication of animals.

12- The needle : It allowed us to improve our dresses, which were not only pieces of skin, but could be given certain shape and size.

13- The wheel : Revolutionized the movement, since on the basis of it the first carriages and carts were built.

14- The carriages : Drawn by horses were first used in the Bronze Age.

15- The writing : Sumerian cuneiform consisted of pictograms expressing words or objects, but not ideas. Writing allowed man to keep his knowledge.

16- The alphabet : It is considered that the Semitic tribes counted on an alphabet of consonants. Now the Phoenician alphabet was the forerunner of modern alphabets. This is followed by the Aramaic alphabet. The alphabet allowed man to express abstract ideas, which was not possible with the use of pictograms alone.

17-The papyrus : It was invented in Ancient Egypt. This new material was replacing the tablets of clay or mud that were used to write.

18- The musical notes : They were invented apparently by the Sumerians, which next to the flute contributed to the artistic development of the human being.

19- Coins : Older ones have been found in the territories of Lebanon and Syria. Over time barter, which was used throughout the previous period, became an obsolete practice.

20- The sword: Was invented as a means of attack and defense for war. Previously there were only knives, which were more used for hunting. The oldest swords date from 1200 BC.

21- The glass : In the territory of Lebanon have been the oldest evidence of this material that allowed us to create objects that were previously only made of clay or bone.

22- The scissors : They were invented in 750 a.C. Before they were used to cut materials and skins.

23- Warships : This invention is also associated with the Phoenicians, being used for the first time in the battles in the Mediterranean Sea.

24- Passport : After the emergence of the first cities and proto-estates, one of the most important steps to organize the inhabitants was the creation of the passport system. Citizens of the Achaemenian Empire in the 5th century BC. Were the bearers of the first passports.

25- The catapult : It was first used in the wars between the Greek polis in the 5th century BC. This weapon allowed to destroy the arms of the enemy from long distances.

26- The gear : It was created in Old China in Century IV a.C. This element plays an important role in the mechanisms.

27- The cam : Another important element that is used in the mechanisms that was invented in the Hellenistic period. The cam transforms the circular motion into a rectilinear motion.

28- The hydraulic wheel : The chronicler Philo of Byzantium described it in Century III, reason why already was used in the Ancient Greece.

29- The paper : It was invented in the Old China and happened to substitute papyrus like matter for writing.

30- The arch bridge : Inventing during the Roman Republic, improved the usual bridge.

31- The wheelbarrow : Invented in the Han dynasty. This tool was used as means of transport of load.

32- The seismometer : The invention is attributed to the Chinese Zhang Heng, who also lived during the Han Dynasty.

33- The negative numbers : In the second century CE was also invented in China negative numbers, which enriched the positive numbers (are considered to have been invented in India).

34- The crank : The first signs that have been found of its use, are located in Asia minor.

35- The turbine : In the III-IV Century the turbine was invented in the African territories of the Roman Empire.

36- The fishing rod : Was invented in China according to historical source L To Life of Immortal Celebrities .

37- The street lighting : It was first installed in Syria in the fourth century d.C.

38- toilet paper : In the 6th Century AD, the Chinese official Yan Zhitui (during the Sui Dynasty) tells about hygienic customs in China.

39- The Greek Fire : According to historical sources, was invented by Kallinikos.

40- Money banknotes : During the Tang Dynasty in China paper money was invented, which was originally only a coin equivalent. It was invented as a security measure to avoid carrying the real money.

41- Porcelain : Although today southern China is considered the center of porcelain production, it is interesting that this art did not arise in that region, but in the north.

42- The mechanical watch : Developed by inventors Yi Xing and Liang Lingzan.

43- Gunpowder : In the IX Century also in China invented the gunpowder. This dangerous invention soon arrived in Europe in the time of the Renaissance and played a leading role in the wars.

44- The university : The first university was organized in Morocco. Then the European Universities would be founded, which have become the center of science.

45- Algebra : In Syria the algebra was developed and in India the concept of zero.

46- The fireworks : Invented during the Song Dynasty in China.

47- The ambulance : In the 11th Century in Lebanon and Israel the ambulance was invented because of the crusades.

48- The compass sailor : Invented in the year 1119 in China. This and other Chinese discoveries allowed the development of navigation. It is interesting that some scientists consider that the Chinese were the first to sail around the world. On this can be read in the book 1421: the year China discovered the world .

49- The rocket : In the thirteenth century in China the rocket was already known. However, scientists believe that it was invented much earlier.

50- The torpedo : Invention of Hasan al-Rammah.

51- The mine : Developed during the Song Dynasty.

52- The glasses : In the year 1286 in Italy they were used for the first time. It should be noted that the glasses manufacturers played a very important role in the invention of the telescope and the microscope.

53- The explosive bomb : This artifact was invented during the Jin Dynasty in Manchuria.

54- The hand barrel : Like the explosive bomb, it was developed at the same time.

55- The traditional cannon : By 1326 already known the traditional cannon in China during the Ming Dynasty.

56- The rod of Jacob : Also known as ballastera, serves to measure the altitude of the celestial bodies.

57- The naval mine : First described in a manuscript of Jiao Yu.

58- The rifle : Its invention and expansion date back to the 15th century.

59- The drill : Invented in the County of Flanders, being an important carpentry tool.

60- The printing press : Invented in 1439 by Johannes Gutenberg. This allowed him to print massively, the famous 42-line Bible being his first work.

61- The arquebus : Was possibly invented in Spain.

62- The parachute : Invented during the Renaissance by Leonardo da Vinci.

63- The use of quadrant : John Davis described its use in the book Seaman's secrets .

64- The revolver : Invention of Hans Stopler.

65- The newspaper : Thanks to the printing press, Johann Carolus was able to develop it.

66- The telescope : One is attributed to one of these inventors: Hans Lippershey, Zacharias Janssen or Jacob Metius.

67- The microscope : We are more certain that the microscope was invented by Zacharias Janssen. It is said that the inventor wanted to create a magnifying glasses to be able to help those who had problems of the vision.

.

68- The rule of calculation : Invented in 1630 by William Oughtred.

69- The calculator : Blaise Pascal invented Pascalina, which was the first calculator.

70- The barometer : Was invented by Evangelista Torricelli or Gasparo Berti.

71- The vacuum pump : In 1663 Otto von Guericke developed this invention he developed from chemistry.

72- The piano : Invention of Bartolomeo Cristofori.

73- The thermometer : Invented in 1709 by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. In addition it developed a system of temperature measurement.

74- The refrigerator : Invented in 1755 by William Cullen.

75- The steam engine : In 1765 James Watt invented this key machine to create steamboat and other technologies.

76- The balance : Invented in 1770 by Richard Salter.

77- The air compressor : Invented in 1776 by John Wilkinson.

78- The balloon : Invented in 1783 by Joseph-Ralf and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier.

79- The Telegraph : In 1792 Claude Chappe invented the telegraph, which allowed us to send and receive messages faster.

80- The vaccine : Developed in 1798 by Edward Jenner.

81- The paper machine : Invented in 1799 by Louis-Nicolas Robert.

82- The electric battery : Developed in 1800 by Alessandro Volta. This moment is key for the humanity since the manipulation of the electricity allowed the creation of all the electronic devices that today we use.

83- The internal combustion engine : In 1807 Nicéphore Niépce invented one of the bases of the cars and means of transport in general.

84- The electric telegraph : Invention of Francis Ronalds.

85- The computer : In 1822 Charles Babbage developed the first"mechanical computer"and many consider him the father of the modern computer.

86- The photoelectric cell : In 1839 Edmond Becquerel described the photovoltaic effect and developed the first photoelectric cell. This technology lays the foundation for the development of solar energy.

87- The fuel cell : Developed in 1842 by William Robert Grove.

88- The hydraulic accumulator : Invented in 1850 by Sir William Armstrong.

89- Color photography : Developed in 1855 by James Clerk Maxwell.

90- The bulb : In 1879 Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison invent the light bulb. Edison also played an important role in the development of electrification systems.

91- The dirigible : In 1900 the first zeppelin was designed by Theodor Kober.

92- The diode : In 1904, John Ambrose Fleming invented the diode. This small element is part of all electrical artifacts.

93- The tank : Designed by Ernest Swinton in 1915.

94- The FM radio : Invented by Edwin Armstrong in 1933. Radio was for long time one of the most important means of communication.

95- The transistor : Developed in 1945 by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain under the supervision of William Shockley invented the transistor.

96- The laser : Invented in 1960 by Theodore Maiman.

97- The ARPANET : Was developed by UCLA, SRI, UCSB, and The University of Utah in 1960.

98- Pocket calculator: Developed in 1970 in Japan.

99- The web : Sir Tim Berners-Lee developed the Web. The protocol of the Web, together with the ARPANET and other inventions, allows us to enjoy the internet today.

100- What are you waiting for To create the next great invention That will lead humanity to a new era?


The Digital Age

In the 1980s and 1990s, numerous manufacturers worked on cameras that stored images electronically. The first of these were point-and-shoot cameras that used digital media instead of film.

By 1991, Kodak had produced the first digital camera that was advanced enough to be used successfully by professionals. Other manufacturers quickly followed and today Canon, Nikon, Pentax, and other manufacturers offer advanced digital SLR (DSLR) cameras.

Even the most basic point-and-shoot camera now takes higher quality images than Niépce’s pewter plate, and smartphones can easily pull off a high-quality printed photograph.


Watch the video: Τραβήξτε σωστές φωτογραφίες! ft. Alexandros Karpas. Unboxholics (January 2022).