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Yaxchilan, Structure 33

Yaxchilan, Structure 33


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Tikal: Temple of the Jaguar (Templo I)


Templo I The Temple of the Jaguar (Templo I) is probably Tikal’s finest and most dominating monument, with its nine tiers representing the nine levels of the underworld and raising its temple to an imposing 37 metres above the spacious central plaza below. The architectural style typifies monumental Tikal with its steep sloping tiers (taluds), topped with a triple chamber temple and majestic roof comb. Templo I was built in around 732 AD and signified a break from the traditional funerary building within the adjacent North Acropolis.

The temple is commonly called the Temple of the Jaguar because of an exquisitely carved lintel found in the temple structure on top of the pyramid, which was made from sapodilla wood and depicts a king sat upon a jaguar throne. The temple has been also been dubbed the Temple of Ah Cacao, following the discovery of a burial within the pyramid structure of a ruler identified as Jasaw Chan K’awiil I. In an identical fashion to that of Pakal at Palenque, Jasaw Chan K’awiil I’s tomb was built and then the temple was erected around it, leaving the king encased within the fabric of the temple. The tomb featured a large masonry bench on which the king was laid to rest covered in jade jewellery and the chamber was filled with funerary goods, including spondylus shells, pearls, mirrors, jaguar skins, jadeite objects and painted ceramics. A set of 37 finely carved human bones were found piled at the king’s right foot. The bones were inscribed with hieroglyphic texts which described allegiances with Copan and Palenque, the king’s name and parentage, a portrait of a captive called Ox Ha Ixil from
Templo I the enemy city of Calakmul and scenes of the maize deity being carried to the underworld on a canoe.

The striking decorated crown that rises from the roof of the temple is called a roof comb. Roof combs are common at Tikal and comprise of two framework walls leant against on another, faced with carved stone and covered with stucco (plaster). The roof comb on the Temple of the Jaguar featured an image of the king flanked by scrolls and serpents.


33 Most Famous Buildings in the World Follow

1. Lotus Temple

The Lotus Temple has become one of the most visited buildings in the world since its completion in 1986. Located in New Delhi, the capital city of India, this marvelous structure attracts an average of 10,000 visitors daily. Also known as the Bahai House of Worship, the entire building consists of 27 structures that resemble petals of a Lotus flower and opens up to a central hall that is 40m high and can accommodate around 2500 people.

2. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

The Dome of the Rock located in Jerusalem, the capital city of Israel, is a masterpiece of Islamic architecture. It was built by Caliph Abd Al-Malik between the years 687 to 691 and has since then become one of the defining structures in this historic city. The building has an Octagonal plan and a rotunda dome made of wood which is all inspired by Byzantine design. Suleiman later added some colourful Persian tiles and marble slabs in the year 1561.

3. Cologne Cathedral

The Cologne Cathedral is renowned as a masterpiece of Gothic architecture and is also home to numerous works of art and the tombs of 12 archbishops. The Cologne Cathedral is Germany’s most visited landmark and attracts thousands of visitors yearly. It is a High Gothic five-aisled basilica whose construction was started in the year 1248 only to get be stopped midway in 1473. Its construction was further resumed in the 1800s and was finally completed in the year 1880.

4. Casa Milà, La Pedrera, Barcelona

The La Pedrera located in the bustling Spanish city of Barcelona is considered to be one of the most imaginative houses in the history of architecture. Designed by the infamous architect Antoni Gaudí, this building looks pretty unusual but beautiful and is more of a sculpture than it is a building. The façade is a harmonious and varied block of undulating stone that, combined with the balconies made of forged iron, signifies the irregularities of the natural world. This building was recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the year 1984, it is also commonly known as Casa Milà.

5. St. Paul’s Cathedral, London

St. Paul’s Cathedral located in London is one of the most iconic buildings in the world and was designed by the English Architect Sir Christopher Wren. After taking nearly ten years to finalize the design of the cathedral, the actual construction finally started in the year 1668 and was finished nearly 40 years later. The St. Paul’s Cathedral has ever since played a domineering part of London’s skyline and also served as a center for tourism and religious worship.

6. One World Trade Centre, New York

The One World Trade Center is one of the latest additions to the skyline of New York and is also one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world. Its construction was started in April 2006 and was finished by the end of 2013 making it the fourth tallest skyscraper in the world. This building is situated right beside the city’s beautiful 9/11 memorial and is a shining beacon for the city of New York.

7. Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur

The Petronas Towers are an iconic landmark in the capital city of Malaysia. At 170 meters above the ground, the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur once held the title of the tallest building in the world between the years 1998-2004. Cesar Pelli and Achmad Murdijat were the architect duo responsible for the distinct ultramodern style of the towers.

8. Leaning Tower of Pisa

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is considered to be one of the most remarkable architectural structures in the whole world. Taking over 300 years for its construction to be complete, this building became a worldwide sensation for its tilt. The tilt came about when the soft ground beneath the tower became unstable due to the sheer weight of the building.

The design of the building was initially attributed to the artist Bonnano Pisano, but later studies also implicated the famous architect Diotisalvi.

Leaning Tower of Pisa

9. The White House, Washington DC

The White House located in Washington, United States is one of the most iconic and widely recognized buildings in the world. This mansion has housed every US President since the country’s second president John Adams. Made from white painted Aquia sandstone, the construction of the White House got completed by the year 1801.

The famous Irish architect James Hoban was the man who is attributed with designing the building.

A view of the North Portico of the White House, Wednesday June 14, 2017 in Washington D.C. (Official White House Photo by Joyce N. Boghosian)

10. The Shard, London

Sitting at the heart of London, the Shard is an 87-storey skyscraper popularly referred to as the Shard of Glass. The construction of this iconic London skyscraper began in 2009 and was completed three years later in 2012. The building was designed by the architect Renzo Piano and is the tallest building in Western Europe. Its exterior has 11,000 glass panels which have an area equivalent to eight football pitches.

11. The Kabba, Mecca

The Kabba, which means a ‘Cube’ in Arabis, is the most sacred space in Islam. It is a square building located in the Saudi Arabian city of Mecca, elegantly draped in a veil made of cotton and silk. Millions of Muslims from all over the world travel to the Kabba for ‘Hajj’ which is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.

12. St. Basil Cathedral, Moscow

St. Basil Cathedral is located in Red Square, Moscow and is considered to a masterpiece in the field of architecture. The unique design of the cathedral which looks like a piece straight out of a Disney movie was developed by PostnikYakolev and was built between the years 1554 and 1560. This famous cathedral was shaped to resemble the flame of a bonfire rising into the sky.

The St. Basil Cathedral, situated just outside the Kremlin, is the most visited landmark in Moscow.

13. Lloyds Building, London

The Lloyds Building located in London is an award-winning building designed by the Italian architect Richard Rogers. The futuristic looks of the structure that look like something out of a sci-fi movie have made the building an iconic structure all over the world. The Lloyds Building was constructed between the years 1978 and 1986 and features 12 exterior lifts.

14. Empire State Building, New York

A list of the most famous buildings in the world is incomplete without one of the most remarkable and iconic structures of New York, the Empire State Building. The construction of the Empire State Building started on St. Patrick’s Day 1930 and was completed 410 days later.

Once the tallest building in the world, this building got declared as one of the seven modern-day wonders of the world by the America Society of Civil Engineers.

15. Colosseum, Rome

The Colosseum located in the heart of Rome is considered to be one of the greatest architectural feats of the ancient world. This elliptical structure is the largest amphitheater built by the Ancient Romans. The stadium had a total capacity of around 50,000 spectators and was mostly used to host gladiatorial games.

The Colosseum was built with stone and concrete between the years 72AD and 80AD and has since served as an inspiration for numerous stadiums around the world.

16. Chrysler Building, NYC

Back in the early 20th century, everyone was in a rush to erect the tallest building in the world and exactly during this time the Chrysler Building was constructed in NYC which held the title of the tallest building for just one year. The Bank of Manhattan almost beat this building regarding height but could not make it thanks to the impressive spire of the Chrysler Building.

The building was designed by the celebrated architect William Van Alen and sanctioned by Walter P Chrysler.

17. Taj Mahal, India

The Taj Mahal is one of the most iconic buildings in the world and is also one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Considered to be the ‘Jewel of Muslim Art in India,’ the Taj Mahal was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between the years 1632 and 1648. This marvelous structure is actually a Tomb for the Emperor’s wife who died while giving birth.

18. Sydney Opera House

Widely regarded as one of the greatest architectural works of the 20th Century, the Sydney Opera House is one of Australia’s most famous landmarks. The unique design of the building came from the architect JornUtzon, who later went on to become one of the most famous architects in the world. The Sydney Opera House consists of three groups of interlocking ‘shells’ that roof a restaurant and two main performance halls.

19. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul

The Hagia Sophia, originally built as a church, later went on to become a mosque and now a museum. Located in Istanbul, the Hagia Sophia is an architectural masterpiece and a perfect representation of Byzantine architecture. This building was constructed at first by the emperor Constantine the Great between the years 306-337.

However, due to several factors such as being burned down in riots and earthquakes, it had to be rebuilt numerous times since its initial construction.

20. Space Needle, Seattle

The Space Needle located in Seattle was initially built for the 1962 World’s Fair. More than 40 years after its construction, the futuristic Space Needle remains the most visited landmark in Seattle. Standing at 184m high and 42m wide at its widest point, this building is indeed a pinnacle of modern architecture.

Edward E Carlson prepared the design of the Space Needle along with his fellow architect John Graham. The structure has been designed to withstand 9.1 magnitude earthquakes and wind speed of up to 200mph.

21. Buckingham Palace, London

The Buckingham Palace was originally known as the Buckingham House until George III bought the property when it consisted only of a small red brick house. Since then, some of the best architects in the world such as John Nash and Edmund Blore have worked on the mansion to make it what it is today. It is one of London’s most popular tourist attractions today and is one of the few royal palaces in existence.

22. Pantheon, Rome

Rome boasts of a few of the best ancient architectural marvels in the world, one of which is the Pantheon. Built around 2000 years ago, this amazing structure continues to inspire architects to this day. The roof of the Pantheon remains the largest unreinforced concrete dome. A lot of debate exists among historians regarding the emperor and architects who were responsible for the construction of this magnificent structure.

But it is known that the ‘Temple of the Gods’ was built around 126AD.

23. Fallingwater

Fallingwater was designed by the famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1934, and this building is actually a private residence belonging to the Kauffman family. The unique design of this building makes it look like it stretches over a 30ft waterfall without having any solid ground underneath the structure. This innovative and unique design caught everyone’s eyes when the final design elements got placed, and Fallingwater became a worldwide sensation.

24. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao

The Guggenheim Museum located in Bilbao is one of the most admired pieces of modern architecture. The design and the concept of the museum were developed by the California based architect Frank Gehry after he won a competition to design this building. Ever since its opening in the year 1997, the Guggenheim Museum has been regarded as one of the most important buildings of this century and has welcomed millions of visitors.

25. Villa Savoye, France

Villa Savoye is a classic example of the international style of architecture which emerged in the early 1920s. The Swiss architect Le Corbuiser and Pierre Jeanneret were responsible for the design of this magnificent building. It was originally built as a country retreat in 1928 for the Savoye family but later designated as a historical monument in 1965.

26. Flatiron Building, New York

The Chicago based architect Daniel Burnham built the eye-catching Flatiron Building in Manhattan, New York in the year 1902. The unique triangular shape of the Flatiron building allowed it to fit perfectly in the intersection of Fifth Avenue and Broadway. Though it was not among the tallest building in the city, it has always held a prominent and respected position in the city’s skyline.

27. Burj Khalifa, Dubai

Standing at over 800 meters high, the BurjKhalifa currently holds the title of the tallest building in the world. This enormous skyscraper is the centerpiece if Dubai’s skyline and is exactly 828.9 meters tall. Construction of the BurjKhalifa began in the year 2004 and was completed six years later in 2010. This 160-floor was built by the American architectural firm Skidmore, Owings and Merril LLP.

28. Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin

The Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin was inaugurated in the year 1882 to establish an art gallery in Milwaukee. Today, it is one of the most visited landmarks of Wisconsin and has well over 400,000 visitors. The main building structure comprises of three buildings – the War Memorial Centre, the Quadracci Pavilion and the Cadahy Gardens.

29. The Statue of Liberty, New York

Located on Liberty Island, New York, the Statue of Liberty is a huge sculpture that was originally a gift to the United States of America from the people of France. This monument was gifted by the French in recognition of the French-American Alliance during the American Revolution. This statue was designed by the French sculptor, Frederic Auguste Bartholdi and finished in July 1884.

This statue continues to be one of the most iconic structures in New York City.

30. Blue Domed Church in Santorini, Greece

The Blue Domed Church located in the small town of Oia in Santorini is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Greece. This Church is built on the steep slope of the caldera with the restaurants and houses integrated into niches, carved into the Caldera facing the Sea. The Church also has a Central Square and narrow passages leading out of the church.

31. The Pyramids of Giza, Egypt

The Great Pyramids of Giza are one of the seven ancient wonders of the world and also a defining symbol of Egypt. The Pyramids of Giza are built on the Giza plateau located close to the modern city of Cairo. Built over 3000 years ago, the Great Pyramids of Giza held the title of the tallest man-made structure in the world until the Eiffel Towers were built in Paris.

This is one landmark that you should visit once in your lifetime.

32. The Big Ben, London

The Big Ben is one of the most defining landmarks of London, and you must never leave London with visiting it. The Big Ben is actually the iconic clock tower of the Houses of Parliament. Big Ben is the name given to the massive bell that exists inside the clock tower that weighs nearly 13 tons. The true beauty of the Big Ben is unleashed at night when all the four faces of the clock are illuminated.

33. The Burj Al Arab Hotel, Dubai

The distinctive shell-shaped structure of the Burj Al Arab Hotel located in Dubai is more than just a hotel it is a defining symbol of the amazing city of Dubai. The Burj Al Arab hotel has been voted as the most luxurious hotel of the world numerous times as it offers you the finest services and experiences that you can ever get from a hotel.

It is also one of the most popular tourist attractions of Dubai and soars to a height of 321 meters above sea level.

Our beautiful Earth shelters more, so much more epic buildings worth mentioning yet these 33 mark history more than others, they are just a bit more famous.

It is also worth mentioning that the order in this list is not hierarchic.

We invite you to mention your favorite building on the planet in the comment section below !


Economy

Until 1979, when Banaba’s deposit of phosphate rock was exhausted, Kiribati’s economy depended heavily on the export of that mineral. Before the cessation of mining, a large reserve fund was accumulated the interest now contributes to government revenue. Other revenue earners are copra, mostly produced in the village economy, and license fees from foreign fishing fleets, including a special tuna-fishing agreement with the European Union. Commercial seaweed farming has become an important economic activity.

An Exclusive Economic Zone of 1,350,000 square miles (3,500,000 square km) is claimed. A small manufacturing sector produces clothing, furniture, and beverages for domestic consumption and sea salt for export. The country’s proximity to the Equator makes it a desirable location for satellite telemetry and spacecraft-launching facilities several national and transnational space authorities have built or have proposed building facilities on the islands or in surrounding waters. Such projects bring capital, additional employment, and infrastructure improvements, but Kiribati continues to depend on foreign aid for most capital and development expenditure. Food accounts for about one-third of all imports, most of which come from Australia, Japan, and Singapore Japan and Thailand are the major export destinations. Although South Tarawa has an extensive wage economy, most of the people living on outer islands are subsistence farmers with small incomes from copra, fishing, or handicrafts. These are supplemented by remittances from relatives working elsewhere. Interisland shipping is provided by the government, and most islands are linked by a domestic air service. Tarawa and Kiritimati have major airports.


Name Your Genealogy Files

Once you have these initial records folders created within each of your first surname folders it’s time to start filing your records.

File Naming Conventions: � Russell Springfield OH” or “SOURCE 721 1920 Russell Springfield OH”

If you have digital records sitting in a folder or on your C drive or even on your computer’s desk top, now’s the time to file them in their appropriate folders. File them all now and you’ll very quickly get the knack for where things go. If you come across a record type that we haven’t created a folder for yet, go ahead and create it. But just be sure that it doesn’t fall under one of the other categories.

I strongly recommend creating a LOCATIONS folder in your GENEALOGY folder. Inside the LOCATIONS folder you would then create folders for each major location where ancestors with that surname would have lived.

If I had lots of location records for several different counties, I might create county folders. So I file all the maps, postcards, county histories and other information about Ohio in the Ohio folder, and the same goes for Indiana and California. Down the road if it turns out you have a really large number of documents, or you start finding relatives in other counties, you can always create county folders, or more detailed records folder and then file the documents accordingly.

I’ve given this a lot of thought over the years and have found that what works best for me is NOT to include photos in these files. There are genealogical RECORDS files, and records are not the same as photos.

– CHARLES AND ALFREDA BURKETT

– CHARLES AND ELLEN BURKETTE

Things can get very confusing very quickly with marriages and maiden names and all that. But this system addresses that in a way that’s easy to remember. It’s based on how the census works. Census records are filed by head of household, and that’s what I do for photographs. I usually include the husband and wife’s name in my folder name because often sons are named after fathers like in the case of my Burketts, and also there can be second marriages and so you’d have a folder for the ancestor and their first spouse and then that same ancestor and their second spouse.

I really like to think in terms of families, because in the end we aren’t researching an individual ancestor all by themselves. Rather we are researching an ancestor within the context of his familial relationships. And filing in this manner keeps that at the forefront of our thinking.

Photos are filed by family under the head of the household. Both male and female ancestors are filed within their parent’s folders prior to marriage, and in their own family folder under the family surname after marriage. You may occasionally have photos with several families in them with different surnames. But often times they are taken at a family’s home. And in that case I file them under the family who’s home they were taken. You can always file a copy under the other families as well if you like. I’m not trying to dictate every single possibility here, but rather give you a process and system that works for the majority of your needs, but that is customizable based on your specific needs.

Now you may also be wondering how this system for photos fits in with geo-tagging photos. I covered geo-tagging in Genealogy Gems Premium episode 25 . For more information on how to become a Premium member, click here .

Well, we have covered a lot of ground in this episode, and I hope that will give this hard drive filing system a try!


When you feel included and engaged, do you do a better job? Do you think teams in which people work well together produce much better results? Have you noticed the best ideas often come from unexpected sources? Do you want to work at the top of your intelligence and give the same opportunity to others?

If YES, we have found this is the kind of organization and community that people want to be part of. AND, Liberating Structures help make it happen.

So why is it that so many organizations of all stripes are filled with disengaged workers, dysfunctional groups and wasted ideas?

Lofty aims to include and unleash everyone in shaping the future

While there will always be some justification for blaming leaders (or professors and administrators in education), the more compelling and useful explanation is not that people involved are bad, stupid or incompetent, but rather that the practices they have all learned are neither adapted to today&rsquos realities nor designed to achieve the ideals listed above.

Unwittingly, the conventional structures used to organize how people routinely work together stifle inclusion and engagement.

Conventional structures are either too inhibiting (presentations, status reports and managed discussions) or too loose and disorganized (open discussions and brainstorms) to creatively engage people in shaping their own future. They frequently generate feelings of frustration and/or exclusion and fail to provide space for good ideas to emerge and germinate. This means that huge amounts of time and money are spent working the wrong way. More time and money are then spent trying to fix the unintended consequences.

Liberating Structures start with something so simple and essential as not to seem worth doing and end with something so powerful and profound that it hardly seems possible.

A liberating repertoire of 33 methods This website offers an alternative way to approach and design how people work together. It provides a menu of thirty-three Liberating Structures to replace or complement conventional practices.

Liberating Structures used routinely make it possible to build the kind of organization that everybody wants. They are designed to include everyone in shaping next steps.

Liberating Structures introduce tiny shifts in the way we meet, plan, decide and relate to one another. They put the innovative power once reserved for experts only in hands of everyone.

This alternative approach is both practical and feasible because Liberating Structures are quite simple and easy to learn. They can be used by everyone at every level, from the executive suite to the grassroots. No lengthy training courses or special talents are required. Mastery is simply a matter of practice. LS routinely unleash a vast reserve of contributions and latent innovations waiting to be discovered.

VIDEO: see one Liberating Structure "TRIZ" introduced to a group of doctors, managers, innovators

Every person interested in leading change&mdashin schools, hospitals, foundations, agencies, and businesses&mdashcan use Liberating Structures to generate innovation and great results.

Liberating Structures are easy-to-learn microstructures that enhance relational coordination and trust. They quickly foster lively participation in groups of any size, making it possible to truly include and unleash everyone. Liberating Structures are a disruptive innovation that can replace more controlling or constraining approaches.

Click on any Liberating Structure below.

Leaders know that they would greatly increase productivity and innovation if only they could get everyone fully engaged. The challenge is how. Liberating Structures are novel, practical and no-nonsense methods to help you accomplish this goal with groups of any size.

Liberating Structures spark inventiveness by minimally structuring the way we interact while liberating content or subject matter. Very simple constraints unleash creative adaptability, generating better than expected results. Individual brilliance and collective wisdom are unbridled. Such a dramatic shift cannot be THAT simple, engaging, and powerful but it is. Read Getting Started if you are ready to liberate yourself.

Learning Events

Immersion workshops are a great way to get started. Like a foreign language immersion course that temporarily relocates you away from a familiar culture, a LS immersion experience is a very effective way to learn. There are no presentations, facilitated discussions, status reports, brainstorming sessions, or open discussions. Only Liberating Strucutres are practiced. Organizing a workshop for people in your working group can accelerate "fluency."

Liberating Structures are immeasurably practical. Our world is increasingly complex, interdependent, and culturally diverse. Many of our most pressing challenges cut across geographic, cultural, and technical boundaries. Simple methods that help us work together productively are central to making progress.

Helpful Analogies

Like Wikipedia, LS create simple rules to guide and liberate everyone&rsquos contributions. Wikipedia&rsquos must-dos and must-not dos specify how anyone can write articles, edit content, reach consensus about the facts, and share with attribution. This structure makes it possible for a diverse community to generate and sustain accurate content that compares favorably with professionally edited encyclopedias. Like Wikipedia, LS is a disruptive innovation in regard to how we engage people in organizations.

Like improv jazz, LS sparks freedom that arises from shared understanding of simple rules. Great jazz comes from playing creatively within the context of melodic and harmonic structure. Like water in a river, LS takes the shape of the banks that it touches: adapting a similar pattern at every scale and in each local setting.

Below: watch this inspired video by Professor Arvind Singhal talking about liberating education and the role of changemakers. UnScripTED: Liberating Structures

More from Arvind Singhal on adpating Liberating Structures to virtual online interaction via Zoom. with 60 participants from 15 countries.

Lisa Gill is a fabulous writer and top drawer interviewer. Her Leadersmorphosis series dives deeply into self organizing @ work. Put your ear to this interivew she conducts with Henri and Keith.

Below, enjoy scenes from the LCJP Restorative Justice Summit. Liberating Structures were used to organize a three day event full of learning, designed to advance the Restorative Justice movement. Restorative Justice (RJ) aims to create communities in which people feel safe by carefully structuring opportunities for offenders to make amends and victims to regain their personal power. Restorative Justice practitioners found Liberating Structures to be highly structured, liberating better than expected results.

LS were used to design the Transformation of Nursing summit. Coalitions from all 50 states and DC came together to advance the cause.

For the United Nations ITC-ILO, Henri and Keith offered a Liberating Structures immersion workshop and follow-up consulting sessions. (The Centre is in Turin Italy.) The focus was how to organize for promoting decent work and sustainable development by not over-helping but rather facilitating networked self-organization.

The 10 LS Principles (short form)

Ten Principles

While the individual LS microstructures are powerful separately, they function as an interrelated set which can transform an entire organization. The LS repertoire is inspired by ten liberating principles.

When we decide we belong together, LS principles help to guide behavior and leadership actions. Detailed descriptions here.

The Surprising Power of Liberating Structures book! Preview and buy on Amazon. The color paperback ($49.95 USD), black&white ($19.95 USD) and e-book are now available on the Amazon website. Amazon offers deep discounts and free shipping to some customers.

The development team at Holisticon is happy to announce that the Liberating Structures App is now available in the Google Play and Apple App Stores. A deep bow to their creative genius. Happy downloading!

Audio: A very playful Brave New Work podcast with Aaron Dignan and Rodney Evans. On Liberating Structures with Lorenz Sell of Sutra and Keith. Lorenz asks the deepest questions about collective intelligence, generativity, and complexity science. (50 minutes) Coaching Zone Podcast with Keith and Dr. Krister Lowe. The focus is on how leaders and teams can develop more productive habits with LS. [45 minutes] Radio Interview with Meisha Rouser, organizational psychologist. The focus is on groups working at the top of their intelligence and imagination. And a third podcast interview with Amiel Handelsman that dips into specific LS microstructures and their use by groups to generate innovative cultures. [60 minutes].

Check out Falling Off the Horse while faciliating & leading with Liberating Structures. This article by Keith McCandless describes a personal path forward. It includes what is possible to stop doing when LS is integrated into your practice.

LS are inspired by complexity science. Listen to this entertaining RadioLab program on Emergence to learn about some of the underlying concept of complexity science.

LS User Groups (inventing and enlivening a new way to organize)

Rhapsody for Strings! One of nine strings illustrated in "Rhapsody for Strings." A large array of topics and challenges are addressed. PDF here.

Below: early LS users and co-developers in Latin America, Europe, Canada and the USA.


WATTS TOWERS by Sam Rodiathe Watts Towers Arts Center

The Watts Towers, consisting of seventeen major sculptures constructed of structural steel and covered with mortar, are the work of one man - Simon Rodia ( (read more on Simon Rodia). Rodia, born Sabato Rodia in Ribottoli, Italy in 1879, was known by a variety of names including Don Simon, Simon Rodilla, Sam and Simon. Although his neighbors in watts knew him as "Sam Rodilla", the official name of his work is "the Watts Towers of Simon Rodia".

Rodia's older brother immigrated to the United States in 1895 and settled in Pennsylvania where he worked in the coal mines. Rodia followed his brother a few years later. Little is known about his early life in the United States except that he moved to the west coast and found work in rock quarries and logging and railroad camps as a construction worker.

Sam Rodia working on one of the towers - a photograph of the same spot - of the same tower - of which the original photograph - above - was taken of him at work. photomontage © Lucien den Arend

THE TOWERS (1957 12 minutes) is a documentary about Simon Rodia (1879-1965) building the Watts Towers (a very informative documentary, in spite of the narrator's pronunciation of the name "Rodia").


In 1921, Rodia purchased the triangular-shaped lot at 1761-1765 107th Street in Los Angeles and began to construct his masterpiece, which he called "Nuestro Pueblo" (meaning "our town"). For 34 years, Rodia worked single-handedly to build his towers without benefit of machine equipment, scaffolding, bolts, rivets, welds or drawing board designs. Besides his own ingenuity, he used simple tools, pipe fitter pliers and a window-washer's belt and buckle.r>
Construction worker by day and artist by night, Rodia adorned his towers with a diverse mosaic of broken glass, sea shells, generic pottery and tile, a rare piece of 19th-century, hand painted Canton ware and many pieces of 20th-century American ceramics. Rodia once said, "I had it in mind to do something big and I did it." The tallest of his towers stands 99½ feet and contains the longest slender reinforced concrete column in the world. The monument also features a gazebo with a circular bench, three bird baths, a center column and a spire reaching a height of 38 feet. Rodia's "ship of Marco Polo" has a spire of 28 feet, and the 140-foot long "south wall" is decorated extensively with tiles, sea shells, pottery, glass and hand-drawn designs.


In 1955, when Rodia was approaching 75, he deeded his property to a neighbor and retired to Martinez, California to be near his family. A fire ruined Rodia's little house in 1956. within a few years the Department of Building and Safety ordered the property demolished. A group of concerned citizens, calling themselves "The Committee for Simon Rodia's Towers in Watts", fought successfully to save the Towers by collecting signatures and money and devising an engineering test in 1959 that proved the Towers' strength and safety. Bill Cartwright and Nick King purchased the Towers from Mr. Montoya for $3,000.00 in 1959. They founded The Committee for Simon Rodia’s Towers in Watts and saved the Towers from demolition with a “stress” or “load” test, designed by Bud Goldstone. The Towers proved stronger than the test equipment. Therefore, the test was stopped and the Towers were deemed safe, and preservation efforts began. The Watts community considered the Watts Towers part of their heritage and called upon the new owners to also invest in the community. Thus the Watts Towers Arts Center began.

In 1975, the committee, which had persevered the unique work of art for 16 years, gave the 'Towers and adjoining Arts Center building to the City of Los Angeles for operation and maintenance. In 1978, the Towers were deeded to the State, which undertook extensive restoration of the three main towers. . In 1985, continuing restoration responsibilities were given to the City of Los Angeles Cultural Affairs Department and currently both the Towers and the Watts Towers Arts Center are under the operation of the Cultural Affairs Department.

while the Towers fall into no strict art category, international authorities and the general public alike have lauded them as a unique monument to the human spirit and the persistence of a singular vision. The Watts Towers, listed on the National Register of Historic Places are a National Historic Landmark, a State of California Historic Park and Historic-Cultural Monument No. 15, as designated by the City of Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission.

The Cultural Affairs Department, through the Watts Towers Arts Center, provides diverse cultural enrichment programming through tours, lectures, changing exhibits and studio workshops for both teachers and school children. Each year, thousands of people are attracted to the Towers' site for the Simon Rodia Watts Towers Jazz Festival and the Watts Towers Day of the Drum Festival.

For further information on the Watts Towers of Simon Rodia located at 1761-1765 East 107th Street call the Cultural Affairs Department (213) 473-8493 or the Watts Towers Arts Center and tours call (213) 847-4646 fax (323) 564 7030 add +1 when dialing from abroad

Accommodations for disabilities are available upon 72-hour notice for department events/programs. Information in alternative formats also is available upon request.
Call +1 (213) 473-8343 or TDD (213) 473-8339.


Massive 3,000-year-old Mayan structure discovered in Mexico

The largest ever construction of the Mayan civilization has been unearthed in Mexico’s Tabasco State roughly 850 miles east of Mexico City.

The finding consists of a platform topped with a 13-foot tall pyramid and multiple other structures which date from the early Mayan civilization roughly 3,000 years ago, according to a new paper in the journal Nature.

The ruins have been sitting in plain sight, but have laid undiscovered amid the region’s dense ranch lands.

“It’s fairly hard to explain, but when you walk on the site, you don’t quite realize the enormity of the structure,” the lead author of the paper told National Geographic. “It’s over 30 feet high, but the horizontal dimensions are so large that you don’t realize the height.”


Yaxchilan, Structure 33 - History

Scotts Masons Lodge, No. 115, which met at the Devil (Tavern), Temple Bar, London, first appeared as “Scotch Masons’ Lodge” in Dr. Richard Rawlinson’s 1733 manuscript list of lodges. It continued to appear in engraved lists of lodges, like that seen above, until 1736. —Details of “Les Free-Massons” from Bernard Picart, Cerérémonies et costumes religieuses de tous les peuple du monde (1735). From the collection of the Archives of the Supreme Council, 33°, S.J.

This article is adapted from Arturo de Hoyos, “A Brief History of Freemasonry and the Origins of the Scottish Rite,” Scottish Rite Ritual Monitor and Guide (2010), 77–111.

High Degrees before 1801

Speculative Masonry and the birth of the “high degrees”

Accordingly on St John Baptist’s Day, in the 3rd year of King George I. A.D. 1717, the ASSEMBLY and Feast of the Free and accepted Masons was held at the foresaid Goose and Gridiron Alehouse.

Before Dinner, the oldest Master Mason (now the Master of a Lodge) in the Chair, proposed a List of proper Candidates and the Brethren by a majority of Hands elected Mr. Anthony Sayer, Gentleman, Grand Master of Masons. . . .

Their Masters gripe is grasping their right hands in each other placing their four finger’s nails hard upon the Carpus or end of others wrists and the thumb nailes thrust hard directly between the second Joynt of the thumb and the third Joynt of the first ffinger but some say the masters grip is the same I last described only each of their middle ffingers must reach an inch or three barly corns Length higher to touch upon a vein yt comes from the heart.

The High Degrees and “Scotch Masons’ Lodges”

French haut grades Masonry: Stephen Morin and the Order of the Royal Secret

It is said among the Masons, that there are still several degrees above that of the masters, of which I have just spoken some say there are six in all, & others go up to seven. Those called Escossais [Scottish] Masons claim that they form the fourth grade. As this Masonry, different from the others in many ways, is beginning to become known in France, the Public will not be annoyed if I relate what I have read about it . . . which seems to give the Escossais a degree of superiority above the Apprentices, Fellows, & ordinary Masters.

Instead of weeping over the ruin of the temple of Solomon, as their brethren do, the Escossais are concerned with rebuilding it. Everyone knows that after seventy years of captivity in Babylon, the Great Cyrus permitted the Israelites to rebuild the temple & the City of Jerusalem that Zerubabel, of the House of David, was appointed by him [Cyrus] the Chief & leader of that people for their return to the Holy City that the first stone of the temple was laid during the reign of Cyrus, but that it was not completed until the sixth year of that of Darius, King of the Persians.

It is from this great event that the Escossais derive the epoch of their institution, & although they are later than the other Masons by several centuries, they consider themselves of a superior grade.

High Degrees after 1801

Birth of the Scottish Rite: Charleston, May 31, 1801

On the 1st of May, 5786 [1786], the Grand Constitution of the 33d degree, called the Supreme Council of Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, was finally ratified by his Majesty the King of Prussia, who as Grand Commander of the order of Prince of the Royal Secret, possessed the Sovereign Masonic power over all the Craft. In the new Constitution this high Power was conferred on a Supreme Council of nine Brethren in each Nation, who possess all the Masonic prerogatives in their own district, that this majesty individually possessed and are Sovereigns of Masonry.

The Most Puissant Grand Sovereign—Grand Master Commander in Chief—Sovereign of Sovereigns of the degree of Prince of the Royal Secret, was our Illustrious brother, Frederick the 2:nd King of Prussia. He established this degree, in concert with our brother, his Serene Highness, Louis of Bourbon, Prince of the Blood Royal of France, and other Illustrious characters, who had received the degrees of K.H. and prince of the Royal Secret. . . . This new Degree he called “Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, or Supreme Council of the 33:rd”

Scope and authority of the early Supreme Council

[Article] 6th The power of the Supreme Council does not interfere with any degree below the 17th or Knights of the East and West. But every Council and Lodge of Perfect Masons are hereby required to acknowledge them in quality of inspectors General, and to receive them with the high honors to which they are entitled.

The King on the first of May 5786, formed and established the 33:rd Degree to give some elucidations of the K.H.—The King was conscious, that agreably [sic] to the common course of human nature, he could not live many years & he conceived and executed the glorious design of investing the Sovereign Masonic power which he held, as Sovereign Grand Commander of the order of Prince of the Royal Secret —in a Council of Grand Inspectors General—

that they might, after his decease, regulate, agreably [sic] to the Constitution and Statutes which he then formed, the government of the Craft in every degree, from the 17:th or Knights of the East & West inclusive, leaving the control over the symbolic Lodge—the Grand, Ineffable and Sublime Lodge of Perfect Masons, and the Knights of the East or sword— to the Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem, whom he conceived to be justly entitled to that Honor and power.


Yaxchilan, Structure 33 - History

The Jewish Temple in the First Century A.D.

It is interesting that in the Middle East certain places have remained holy throughout the centuries, even if another religion may have taken possession of them. Today the Moslem Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is the prominent building where the Jewish temple once stood.

When Jesus came to Jerusalem, the Temple had just been marvelously rebuilt by Herod the Great. The Temple area had been enlarged to a size of about thirty-five acres. Around the Temple area were double colonnades.

The Jewish historian Josephus describes the colonnades:

"All the cloisters were double, and the pillars to them belonging were twenty-five cubits in height, and supported -the cloisters. These pillars were of one entire stone each of them, and that stone was white marble and the roofs were adorned with cedar, curiously graven. The natural magnificence, and excellent polish, and the harmony of the joints in these cloisters, afforded a prospect that was very remarkable nor was it on the outside adorned with any work of the painter or engraver. The cloisters -(of the outmost court) were in breadth thirty cubits, while the entire compass of it was by measure six furlongs, including the tower of Antonia those entire courts that were exposed to the air were laid with stones of all sorts" (Jewish War 5. 5. 2).

The eastern portico was named after King Solomon and the part to the south, which overlooked the Valley of Kidron, was called "Royal." On the east side the high corner was possibly the pinnacle of the temple, mentioned in the story of the temptation of Jesus (Matthew 4:5).

There were eight gates leading into the temple.

There were the two Huldah Gates or "mole" Gates from the south, which passed underneath the Royal Porch.

To the east was the Gate of Susa , still visible as the Golden Gate which was walled up by the Byzantines.

In the western wall was the main gate named the Gate of Coponius after the first procurator it was decorated with the golden eagle as a sign that the Temple had been placed under the protection of Rome.

Anyone was allowed to enter the outer area, which was therefore called the Court of the Gentiles. The actual Temple was enclosed by a balustrade, and at the entrances to it were warning notices, one of them is now in a museum in Istanbul. It says that foreigners have freedom of access provided they do not go beyond the balustrade which went all around the central edifice and which no uncircumcised could cross without incurring the death penalty.

Fourteen steps led through the Beautiful Gate to the Court of the women where the poor boxes were, into one of which the poor widow cast her two mites (Luke 21:1-4).

Another fifteen steps led up to the famous Gate of Nicanor , to which Mary had brought the child at the time of his presentation this led through the Court of the Men to that of the priests, which had in its center the altar for the burnt offerings and to the left of it a large basin called the Brazen Sea resting upon twelve bulls cast in bronze.

Further steps led up to the actual temple, a comparatively small building. A priceless curtain, embroidered with a map of the known world, concealed from view what lay beyond, and none except the priest on duty was allowed to go farther.

It contained the golden altar at which incense was offered and next to it the seven-branched candelabrum and the table with the twelve loaves of shewbread, which were replaced by fresh ones every sabbath. Beyond it, behind another large curtain, lay the Holy of Holies, which none except the high priest was allowed to enter, and he only on the Day of Atonement. A stone designated the place where once the Ark of the Covenant had stood.

Jesus came to the Temple at a very young age and in Solomon's Porch the boy argued with the rabbis, astonishing them with his questions and with his answers. He remained behind when his parents left, and when his worried mother at last found him he said to her enigmatically: "'Did you not know that I must be in my Father's house?"' (Luke 2:49).

It is one of the most original sayings of Jesus, in which he speaks of God for the first time as "avi" (My Father) which was an expression reserved for the Son of God.

Today the Western Wall, the so-called Wailing Wall, is all that remains of the ancient walls of Herod's Temple one can still see the pilaster and the beginning of Robinson?s Arch, which was part of a large viaduct leading to the upper city. Excavations in 1967, led by the well-known archaeologist Benjamin Mazar, revealed the cornerstone. Adjacent to it on the southern side remain traces of the road from which the pilgrims entered the gates.


Watch the video: Yaxchilán Turismo Cultural (June 2022).


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